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The University of the State of New York 



New York State Museum 



John M. Clarke, Director 



Memoir 16 



THE DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 



BY 



WINIFRED GOLDRING 



PAGE 

Historical preface 3 

Introduction 7 

Preliminary remarks 7 

Acknowledgments. • 7 

Preliminary discussion of crinoids 8 

1 Structure 8 

2 Ontogeny and phylogeny . . 37 

3 Habitat and distribution 49 

4 Classification 51 

Arrangement of species of New York 

Devonian crinoids according to the 

classification used by Springer 60 



PAGE 

Stratigraphic distribution of the New 

York Devonian crinoids 68 

Summary of terminology used 72 

Special bibliography 76 

Descriptions of species 83 

(See index of species and genera at end of volume) 

Bibliography 459 

List of species according to localities. 469 

Index of genera 475 

Index of species 479 

Explanations of plates 485 

General index 647 



ALBANY 

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 
I923 



THE UNIVERSITY OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK 

Regents of the University 

With years when terms expire 

1926 Pliny T. Sexton LL.B., LL.D., Chancellor Emeritus Palmyra 

1934 Chester S. Lord M.A., LL.D., Chancellor - - Brooklyn 
1936 Adelbert Moot LL.D., Vice Chancellor - - Buffalo 

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1 93 1 Thomas J. Mangan M.A. ----- Binghamton 

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President of the University and Commissioner of Education 

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Deputy Commissioner and Counsel 

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Assistant Commissioner for Secondary Education 

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Assistant Commissioner for Elementary Education 

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Director of State Library 

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Director of Science and State Museum 

John M. Clarke Ph.D., D.Sc, LL.D. 

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The University of the State of New York 



New York State Museum 

John M. Clarke, Director 
Memoir 16 

DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 

HISTORICAL PREFACE 

This monograph of the Devonian Crinoidea of New York is the result 
of long years of collecting and study. To students of paleontology the 
history of its development will not be without interest. 

In the original program for the ' Palaeontology of New York," the 
study of the Devonian crinoids was not provided for; they were not a part 
of the series of volumes as planned by the founder of the work, James 
Hall, and executed by him and his assistants. Organic remains of this 
kind proved of infrequent occurrence in the Devonian collections that 
were being made for other divisions of paleontological study, and all the 
crinoids which had been brought together during the early years of these 
investigations were haphazard occurrences. 

During Professor Hall's period of activity as State Geologist of Iowa, 
1 855-1 858, he had opportunity to study, describe and illustrate in his 
reports of that survey the beautiful Crinoidea of the Carboniferous 
Mississippian beds, his descriptions being based largely on the specimens 
which had been brought together by a number of active collectors who 
had preceded him in that field. Among these collectors was Charles 
Abiathar White, a young and impecunious doctor of medicine living at 
Burlington, who was for a while connected with that survey. At the 
suspension of the survey Doctor White was left without a position. Soon 
after returning to Albany, Professor Hall brought Doctor White to New 

3 



4 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

York and sent him out among the Devonian rocks of the State specially 
to collect these crinoids with whose mode of occurrence he was already 
so well acquainted. 

When a scientific collector goes out to get a certain class of objects 
he is or should be blind to all else. Doctor White could see naught but 
crinoids and his explorations had not continued long before he uncovered, 
on the land of a Mr Sisson in the northern part of the town of Bristol, 
Ontario county, on a ravine slope at the village of Muttonville (now more 
euphoniously denominated Vincent), a colony of crinoids in the Hamilton 
(Middle Devonian) shales which proved to be the most extraordinary 
assemblage of these ancient stone lilies which the rocks of New York or 
of the Devonian system have ever afforded. Doctor White had for his 
assistant in the actual work of uncovering this extraordinary bed, the late 
Christian Van Deloo, a very successful collector of invertebrate fossils. 
Together the two removed the hillside and left barely a trace behind. They 
had, however, located a distinct crinoidal horizon now well known through- 
out the Finger Lakes region of western New York as the " Crinoid Layer ' 
lying directly above the Tichenor limestone at about the middle of 
the Hamilton beds and recognized as the base of the Moscow shales. 
Doctor White continued his investigations and collections in this region 
during the season of i860, and with that very successful campaign among 
the crinoids the special collecting of them was for many years abandoned. 
A few years later Doctor White became the State Geologist of Iowa and 
eventually L T nited States Paleontologist. 

L T pon the results of the work of i860, Professor Hall based his single 
descriptive publication of these fossils which appeared in the Sixteenth 
Annual Report of the State Museum (1863). During the years which 
followed in the preparation of the monographs of the Devonian fauna, 
crinoid material was accumulated by way of desultory collecting, but not 
till the fauna of the Portage Group and its members and the early faunas 
of the Chemung Group were opened up to closer study were notable 
additions made in this field. With these investigations, inaugurated by 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 5 

the writer and his colleague, D. Dana Luther, about the year 1879, novel 
acquisitions were constantly made and the later years of these field explora- 
tions, carried on by Mr Luther alone, brought many very interesting and 
unexpected forms of crinoids to light. 

With the formal close of the series of volumes known as the " Palaeon- 
tology of New York " and published under the well-known quarto form 
with its black covers embellished by gilded insignia, it was the writer's 
desire and purpose to take up the descriptive account of these Devonian 
Crinoidea, a neglected division in New York paleontology. The material 
was assembled for this purpose ; much of it was carefully prepared per- 
sonally by the writer and drawings were made in preparation of the 
monograph. Duties of another kind, however, came in to embarrass the 
progress of the work and it seemed impracticable, among these counter- 
claims, to handle so large and intricate a problem alone. In search for 
assistance an arrangement was made with Edwin Kirk, a graduate student 
of Columbia University, who had been closely associated with the leading 
American authority on the Crinoidea, Mr Frank Springer, in accordance 
with which Mr Kirk was to spend a portion of his time on this study. For 
a number of summers Mr Kirk labored in this field diligently, intelligently 
and helpfully. It came about, however, that Mr Kirk became associated 
with the United States Geological Survey where he, too, found new duties 
growing urgently upon him. Much material had been assembled, much 
manuscript had been prepared and many drawings had been made, but 
again the book was unfinished and, in the state in which it was left, the 
work was, so far as availability was concerned, as though it had not 
been started. 

In the year 19 16 I asked my associate, Winifred Goldring, to undertake 
the revision and completion of the entire theme. It was not a tempting 
repast to offer to a paleontologist seeking opportunities for original investi- 
gation, and I feel that the work was taken over by Miss Goldring largely 
because of her recognition, with mine, that it was an important field to 
cover, which, if left unstudied, would leave a lamentable hiatus in oar 



6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

knowledge of the extinct life cf New York. The present book is Winifred 
Goldring's woik. She has revised and rewritten all previous manuscripts; 
she has compiled and cheeked up outstanding references; she has corrected 
the old drawings and supervised the making of many others; she has had 
the advantage of certain new materials which others who have touched 
the woik did not have, and I am very glad to be able to say that her work 
has been done not only conscientiously and with assiduity but with reason- 
able completeness and with credit to the Paleontolog}' of New York. 

John M. Clarke 

State Paleontologist- 
June 1919 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



BY 
WINIFRED GOLDRING 



INTRODUCTION 

Preliminary remarks. It is intended in this monograph to give a 
more or less popular treatment of the Devonian crinoids of New York 
State for the use of students of paleontology. With this purpose the 
introduction includes, for sake of reference, a brief discussion of the 
structure, ontogeny and habitat of crinoids. There is also given a grouping 
of the species here described, on the basis of Springer's classification (191 3) 
which we have adopted, and a table showing the stratigraphic range of the 
species of the New York Devonian. A summary of terminology and a 
special bibliography will be found at the end of the introductory chapters. 

Acknowledgments. In a work as comprehensive as this obligations 
have been incurred from many sides. The writer would wish to express 
in this place appreciation of all such favors received, but response to these 
courtesies of various kinds can be here made only to those from whom 
substantial assistance has been derived. My chief obligation is to Director 
Clarke, who has given me the privilege of undertaking the present work 
and has helped it forward to its completion, not only by smoothing out 
the obstacles in its way but by reading and reviewing the entire manuscript. 
For similar helpfulness I am under like obligation to Doctor Ruedemann, 
Assistant State Paleontologist. 

Dr Frank Springer of the National Museum has assisted in the work 
by his counsel and his generous loan of specimens from his private collection. 
His aid in connection with the study of the Crinoidea Flexibilia and 
Dolatocrinus and allied genera, upon which he has been recently 
engaged, proved to be most opportune and with his permission a number 
of original drawings prepared by him have been introduced in this 
work. From Dr E. O. Ulrich of the United States Geological Survey, 
Dr Ray S. Bassler of the National Museum, Ernest Brown and Professor 



8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

George H. Chadwick of Rochester, Dr E. 0. Hovey and Dr Chester A. 
Reeds of the American Museum of Natural History, Professor Charles 
Schuchert of Yale University, Dr Stuart Weller of Chicago University, 
and Professor Ernest J. Carman of Ohio State University, I have had 
material assistance either in the loan or location of important specimens. 
To this list should be added the names of Mr D. Dana Luther of 
Naples, N. Y.; Dr Elvira Wood of Waltham, Mass.; Dr Mignon 
Talbot of AJount Horyoke College; Dr Hervey W. Shimer of the Massa- 
chusetts Institute of Technology; Mr Charles W. Johnson of the Boston 
Society of Natural History; Dr Herrick E. Wilson of the National Museum; 
Dr Percy E. Raymond of Harvard University; Dr R. T. Jackson of 
Peterborough, N. H.; Dr Charles C. Mook of the American Museum of 
Natural History, and Dr Arthur W. Slocom of the Walker Museum, 
Chicago University. 

The quality of the draftsmanship employed in the making of the 
illustrations for the plates of this book should speak for itself. The draw- 
ings are the work of Mr George S. Barkentin of the State Museum staff, 
whose skillful brush has illuminated many of the paleontological publications 
of this institution; finally, I desire to record my obligation to the expert 
assistance of Air Jacob Van Deloo, secretary of the State Museum, in the 
preparation of the manuscript for publication and watchful attention to 
the proofs of the book as it has passed through the press. 

Preliminary Discussion of Crinoids 

i Structure 
A normal crinoid consists of three principal parts: the theca or calyx, 
the arms (brack i a) and the stem or stalk (columna) (figure i). The calyx 
and arms together form the crown (corona). The part of the calyx below 
the origins of the arms is known as the dorsal cup or simply the cup; the 
part above the origin of the free arms is called the tegmen (sometimes 
disc or vault). There is a radiate arrangement of the skeletal parts and 
many of the other systems, the dominant number being five. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



a Theca or Calyx 

The calyx contains the viscera of the 
(abactinal surface) is usually 
attached to a column, but 
sometimes the crinoid is at- 
tached directly by the base and 
more rarely it is free. The z 
upper (ventral or actinal) sur- > 
face, or tegmen, is homologous * 
to the under side of the starfish 
and bears the mouth and 
ambulacral grooves. 

( i ) Dorsal cup. Most fre- 
quently in fossil crinoids only 
the lower and lateral portions 
of the calyx are visible, because 
the arms conceal the upper por- 
tions. In the simplest form of 5 
crinoid the dorsal cup is com- h 
posed of two or three circlets of 
plates. Those supporting the 
arms and constituting the most 
important circlet of plates are 
known as the radiate; the other 
one or two circlets constitute 
the base. Where there is but § 
one circlet of plates in the base 
it is known as monocyclic; where 
there are two, as dicyclic (figure 
2). In a monocyclic base the 



crinoid. The dorsal cup 

Anal lube 

. -Pinnules 




Figure I A simple form of crinoid: Botryocri nju s 
decadactylus (Wenlock limestone) seen from the 
posterior interradius. (After Bather, 1900). 



plates alternate with the radials and are called basals; in a dicyclic base the 
plates of the lower ring are radial and are known as the infrabasals {under- 



IO NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

basals), the plates of the second ring are interradial and are the basals. The 
basals are the equivalent of the "parabasals" and " subradials " in older 
nomenclature. 

The primary number of basals and infrabasals is five. There is a 
tendency to fusion in the proximal circlet, infrabasal or basal, the number 
of basals in monocyclic forms being thereby reduced to four, three, two 
or even one; that of the infrabasals in the dicyclic usually to three or one 
(figure 3). In the forms having four basals (quadripartite base) the two 
plates fusing are usually the right and left anterior basals (see Orientation, 
p. 76), rarely the left posterolateral (Wilson, 191 6, p. 506). A quad- 
ripartite base is almost entirely restricted to monocyclic genera. Three 
@/—\s — \/ — \/ — \ /A /"S basals (tripartite base) are produced by 
VA^A^A^ O^O the fUSi ° n ° f tW ° pail " S ° f baSals ' giving 
\g; VJ w w w b A two l ar g e an( i one small; the small plate 

/ _ x ~_- -_~ / -^ ^— x <A n A * S usua ^y tne ^ e ^ an terior, rarely the left 
\R/\ j\ J\ J\J ^AS'o posterior, posterior or right anterior (ref. 

®^0^0^0^0^ &0&& cit., p. 507). Wilson (ref. cit.) also notes, 

® O O O O B-' AlB • v , • .-. r •• r 

m Zopnocrinus, the formation of 

Figure 2 Imaginary analyses of the dorsal . .. n .. . 

cups of crinoids with monocyclic and a tripartite base by the fusion of three 
dicyclic bases, r, radial; b, basal; ib, a( ij aC ent basals, the posterior, left postero- 

infrabasal. (After Bather, 1900). 

lateral and the left anterior (figure 3, no. 
3). The bipartite base is found only in a few monocyclic forms. The pen- 
tagonal bipartite base is formed by the fusion of three and two basals. The 
only combination of this kind known is found in Mycocrinus (ref. cit., 
p. 507) and is shown here in figure 3, no. 4. Only in the Inadunata and 
Flexibilia among the dicyclic forms have three infrabasals been observed. 
The small plate in the former is usually, but not always, the anterior infra- 
basal (figure 3, no. 11); in the latter always the right posterior infrabasal 
(figure 3, no. 10). In both the monocyclic and dicyclic forms all plates, 
finally, may fuse to form a solid ring (figure 3, nos. 5, 12). Pseudomono- 
cyclic types are produced by atrophy of the infrabasals or the infrabasals 
may fuse with the proximal columnal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



II 



The symmetry of the base in monocyclic Camerata (ref. cit., pp. 
665-682) may be modified by the interpolation at the posterior side of an 
additional plate, the anal (see discussion below, p. 14), which separates 
the posterior radials and truncates the posterior basal, forming a hex- 
agonal, pentapartite base (figure 3, no. 6). The posterior basal is enlarged, 
the widening being bilaterally symmetrical. The quadripartite hexagonal 
base (figure 3, no. 7) is derived from the pentapartite by the fusion of the 












11 





Figure 3 Bases and their modifications. 1-8, 12, 13, monocyclic; 9-11, dicyclic; 1-5, 
12, pentagonal, unaffected by anal; 6-n, 13, hexagonal, affected by anal, a, posterior 
basal; b, left posterolateral; c, left anterior; d, right anterior; e, right posterolateral 
{see Orientation, page 76); additional piece marked x, shaded. 1 = 5 basals; 2, 
20 = 4 basals; 3-3^=3 basals; 4 = 2 basals; 5=1 basal; 6 = 5 basals; 7 = 4 
basals; 8 = 2 basals; 9 = 5 infrabasals; 10 = 3 infrabasals as usual in Flexibilia; 
11 = 3 infrabasals as usual in Dicyclic Inadunata; 12= 1 infrabasal (Apiocrinidae, 
adult); 13 = 3 basals. (Adapted from Wachsmuth and Springer, 1897, and Wilson, 
1916). 

anterior pair of basals. The posterior suture in subequally tripartite and 
bipartite, hexagonal bases is the homologue of the right posterior suture 
in the pentapartite and quadripartite bases; its position has been shifted 
through atrophy of the right half of the posterior basal and compensating 
hypertrophy of the left half of the right posterolateral. An equally 
tripartite hexagonal base (figure 3, no. 13) may be derived from a penta- 
partite base by the interpolation of an anal plate, the shifting of the right 
posterior suture, and closure of the anterior and left posterior sutures, 



12 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

or from a quadripartite base by the shifting of the right posterior suture 
and closure of the left posterior suture. A bipartite hexagonal base is 
derived from a pentagonal, unequally tripartite base by interpolation of 
the anal plate, shifting of the right posterior suture and closure of the left 
anterior suture (figure 3, nos. 3c, 8). 

"With a few exceptions the infrabasals in dicyclic forms do not assume 
a hexagonal outline, for the anals do not reach down into the infrabasal 
circlet; the anal x truncates the posterior basal. For further and more 
detailed discussion of the modifications of the base see references to 
Beyrich, Wachsmuth and Springer, Bather and Wilson in the special 
bibliography. Bather (1917) gives a critical discussion of Wilson's paper, 
' Evolution of the Basal Plates in Monocyclic Crinoidea Camerata." 

Many of the crinoids which are non-pedunculate, such as Uinta- 
c r i n u s and Marsupites, have an additional plate, the centrale. This 
plate rests against the infrabasals and probably represents an undeveloped 
stalk. The basals are united with one another and with the radials above 
by an immovable union known as close suture which is brought about by 
numerous short fibres of connective tissue which may be calcified in a 
varying degree. The apposed surface of the plates may be smooth or 
striated. 

The radials receive their name from their position with reference to 
the rays. There are usually five radials, and these give rise directly to 
the arms. The arms may be free immediately above the radials, or may 
be incorporated for some distance into the cup by direct lateral union 
among themselves or by the introduction of supplementary plates between 
them. Some authors consider the arms to begin where they first become 
movable. Carpenter, Wachsmuth and Springer, Bather and others restrict 
the term " radial " to the first radially-situated circlet of plates, and the 
succeeding radially-situated plates are termed brachials. 

These brachials are known as fixed brachials if they take part in the 
calyx, free brachials or arm-plates if they do not. Whether they are free 
or fixed, the first brachials above the radials, up to and including the first 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



13 




axillary plate, are known as primibrachs or costals. When there is more 
than one plate in this order they are known as first, 
second, third, etc., primibrachs, the axillary plate being ^||l 
termed the primaxil. The brachials of the second order 
are secundibrachs or distichals, with the axillary plate 
known as the secundaxil; the brachials of the third order 
are tertibrachs or palmars. The succeeding orders, form- 
erly known as post-palmars are termed quartibrachs, quinti- 
brachs, and so on. 

As noted above, brachials are incorporated into the 
cup by lateral union of the brachials themselves, as illus- 
trated by Ichthyocrinus (figure 4) and C 1 i d o - 
c h i r u s (plate 38, figures 1,2) among the Flexibilia, or 
by the introduction of supplementary interradia] plates 
(figure 5). The interradial plates between the brachials 
are known as interbrachials. The interbrachials some- 
times, though rarely, descend between the radials as in the 
Rhodocrinidae (plates 2-4) . The first interbrachial is known as the 

primary interbrachial; the succeed- 
ing plates may be arranged irregu- 
larly or more or less regularly in 
.mBr ranks or rows. The interradial 
plates between the secundibrachs 
are inter secundibrachs , and so on. 
Sometimes pinnulars (pinnule ossi- 
cles) are incorporated as well as 
Figure 5 Forbesiocrinus wortheni, show- brachials, and in such cases inter - 

ing the incorporation of brachials into the dorsal pinnu l ars are developed (Uinta- 
cup by the introduction of supplementary plates. c ^ 

B, basals; R, radials; IBr, primibrachs; IIBr, secundi- crinUS, Sc y.p hocrinus); the 
brachs; IIIBr, tertibrachs; iBr, interbrachials; UIBr, _ . 

inte-secundibrachs; UIIBr, intertibrachs. (From nxed pinnulars are hard to dlStin- 
Grabau, 1910, after Meek and Worthen, 1873). g U i S h from Supplementary plates. 

The above terminology for the plates of the calyx has been generally 



Figure 4 Ichthyo- 
crinus laevis, 
showing the incor- 
poration of brachials 
into the dorsal cup 
by the lateral union 
of the brachials them- 
selves. (After Hall, 
1852). 




hbp 



..IBi 



14 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

accepted. Jaekel (191 8, p. 28) objects to the adoption of Bather's radial, 
primibrach, primaxil, etc., and brings forward a terminology which he 
believes is much simpler and more demonstrating. For the plates of the 
radial series (radial, primibrachs) he uses the term costal; the axillary costal 
is ecostal. Above this are dicostals with the axillary diecostal, tricostals 
with the axillary tri ecostal, etc. The plates between the costals are inter- 
costals; between the dicostals. inter dicostals; between the tricostals. intertri- 
costals; etc. 

There is a similarity of arrangement of the interbrachials in each 
interradius of the individual crinoid, except in primitive forms (R e t e o - 

fc r i n i d a e) , which is often used as a 
means of distinguishing genera and species. 
This regularity is disturbed in the posterior 
interradius by the introduction of special 
r plates, the anals. These plates enlarge the 
posterior interradius, making room for the 
a B anus, hence the name anals; and they are 

Figure 6 Giyptocrinus deca- continuous with the series of plates which 

dactvlus. A, posterior or anal inter- 111 m. 

radius, b, regular interradii, x 2,3. support the anal tube, when present. I he 
b, basais; r, radiais: iBr, interbrachials; pos t e rior interradius, frequentlv character- 

ar, anal ridge. (A, after Wachsmuth 

and Springer, 1897. b, after Meek and ized by the peculiar number, size and posi- 
en, 1 ,3). ^ on q £ ^ e ana i plates, is known as the anal 

interradius. The other interradii are termed regular interradii (figure 6). 

The anal plates are supplementary plates developed as occasion for 
them arose. In the Camerata they form a median line of plates, resembling 
a sixth ray, which splits the posterior interbrachials (figure 6; plate 2, 
figures 1, 3; plate 3, figures 4, 8; plate 26, figures 2, 3, 4, 7; plate 35, figures 
6, 7). In forms where the anus is central or small they are rarely developed. 
A special plate (usually designated x) may be present, located between the 
radiais and resting upon the truncated upper face of the posterior basal . 
In some forms (as Giyptocrinus and similar forms) a ridge extends 
up the median line of anals and passes up over the dorsal line of plates 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



15 



supporting the anal tube and continuous with the anals. The ridge is not 
present in later Camerata where the tegmen and interradii are less flexible ; 






2 Dendrocrimis longidactylus 3 Dendrocrinus casei 




6 Parisocrinus 



4 Scaphiocrinus elegans 5 Cyatkocrinus longimanus 

Figure 7 Diagrams of the anal areas in various Inadunate crinoids. 
B, basals; RA, radianal; r.p.R, right posterior radial; x, first or special 
anal plate; rt, mt, It right, middle and left tube plates; f, tube plate. 
(From Bather, 1899, 1900, after Wachsmuth and Springer, Hall and 
Angelin). 

it is connected with the ridges which join the posterior basal to the adjoining 
radials and its presence indicates the presence of an^axial cord (see p. 17) 
governing the motion of the anal tube. 








1 CUdochirus 
pyru m 



2 Lecanocrinus 
macropelalus 



3 Calpiocrinus 
fimbriatas 



4 Gnorimocrinus 

expansus 



5 Taxocrinus 
shumardianus 



Figure 8 Anal areas in various Flexibilia. x, special anal plate; radianal shaded in vertical 
lines; 4, anals in tubelike series; 5, anals in tubelike series bordered by integument of small 
plates. (After Springer, 1906). 



1 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

In the Inadunata and Flexibilia there may be one or two anal plates. 
The anal area in various Inadunate crinoids is shown in figure 7; in the 
Flexibilia in figure 8. When there are two plates present, one is the 
modified lower half of the right posterior radial (right posterior inferradial) 
which has taken on anal functions, and is known as the radianal. 1 The 
other plate is a special anal plate, the anal x. ~By the introduction of this 
plate into the posterior interradius, the right posterior superradial is 
pushed to the right so that the radianal is brought into contact with the 
anal x. The radianal helps in the widening of the anal area and the 
support of the anal tube. 

The theory that the anal tube is a modified arm was proposed and 
rejected by Wachsmuth and Springer. Bather (1900, pp. 119, 120) favors 
the less extreme view that the median dorsal line of ossicles supporting 
the tube represents the proximal left branch of the posterior arm. This 
view is not proved, but, according to Bather, the only argument against 
the view is the improbability of change of function in the ramus. Certainty 
in such forms as Isocrinus, Merocrinus and the new Portage 
and Chemung genera, such asGlossocrinus and Liparocrinus, 
the character of the anal area and anal tube would seem to favor this view 
(plate 52; plate 53. figures 7, 8, 9). 

There is a difference of opinion as to the origin of the anal x. Wachs- 
muth and Springer believe it to be a secondary element introduced as in 
the case of the anal of the Camerata ; Bather believes it to be the proximal 
median plate of the tube which has gradually sunk down into the cup. 
For a full discussion of these views reference should be made to the works 
of these authors listed in the special bibliography (p. 76) and to Wilson 
(1916, pp. 547-553)- 

(2) Tegmen. It proves convenient under this heading to give a brief 
account of some of the body systems and their extensions; not only 
because it will give a better understanding of the tegmen, but also 

1 A paper entitled " What is the Radianal?" is in course of preparation by Dr Herrick 
E. Wilson. (See Springer 1920. p. 56). 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 7 

because it will prove necessary to a clear understanding of the discussion 
of the arms. 

The tegmen may be in the form of a coriaceous skin with a large 
number of imbedded thin calcareous ossicles or it may be a plated disk 
(figure 9; plate 19, figure 4; plate 20, figure 8; plate 
33, figure 2). The mouth (peristome) is more or less 
central and leads into an oesophagus or gut which is 
at first directed downward to the bottom of the cup 
by a dextral curve ; then it rises along the side of the 
cup and discharges through a usually excentric inter- 
radial aperture, the anal opening or anus. Inmost Figure 9 isocrinus 
all of the recent crinoids the arms and the pinnules a s * e r * a ' Te e me n 

^ snowing very thin per- 

borne by them are each provided on the ventral sur- isomic plates, central 

r •.-, ci mouth, 0, and excen- 

lace with an open groove or iurrow known as the tric anuSj As _ (After 
ambulacral furrow. These ambulacral furrows unite Springer, 1913). 
at the base of the arms, forming five larger furrows which traverse the teg- 
men to the mouth. Below the floor of the ambulacral furrow in each arm is 
an epithelial nerve band and under this occur, in the order mentioned, the 
canals of the blood and water vascular systems, paired subtentacular 

nerves (one each side of the water vessel), paired 
subtentacular canals, the canal containing the geni- 
1 2- 3 4 tal rachis and the dorsal coeliac canal. A large 

Figure 10 stages m the sepa- nerve cord of the dorsal system, the axial cord, 

ration of an axial canal, 

exemplified by brachials of lies below all the other canals and is deeply buried 
G i s s o c r i n u s g o n i o - within the ca i care0 us substance of the plates. By 

dactylus. i, youngest ; ^ J 

4, oldest, x 6 diam. (After the outgrowth of stereom the groove in which this 

dorsal nerve or axial cord lies is often separated 
from the brachial groove during the development of the individual. This 
groove is termed the dorsal or axial canal (figure 10). 

The epithelial nerve, paired subtentacular nerves, and the water and 
blood vascular canals run to ringlike structures around the oesophagus. 
In each arm distensible tentacles are given off from the ambulacral water 







i8 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



vessels from alternate sides. The circumoesophageal water-vascular ring 
communicates with the body cavity which in turn communicates with the 
exterior by perforations or pores. Within the body cavity a division of 
the coelom, known as the axial sinus, passes down the vertical axis through 
the coil of the gut. Into this sinus the subtentacular canals enter. Sur- 
rounding the axial sinus and the gut is the division of the coelom known 
as the peri-intestinal cavity into which the dorsal coeliac canal passes. 
The remainder of the coelom surrounding the peri-intestinal cavity is 
known as the subtegumentary cavity. The genital rachis in each arm is 
connected with the axial organ, a complex of twisted, fine canals passing 
down the axial sinus. The axial organ widens in the middle, but becomes 

a thin strand where it passes 
...rax ... 

-i Br between the five divisions of 

~R the chambered organ (see dis- 
g cussion of dorsal nervous sys- 
tem below). 

Unlike the other organs of 

Figure u Course of axial nerve cords in Dicyclic (D), fag, arm the dorsal nerve COrd 
Pseudomono cyclic (P) and Monocyclic (M) Crinoids. 

R, radial; B, basal: IB, infrabasal; IBr, primibrach; lax, does llOt lead to the Oral Center, 
primaxil; St, column; r.c, ring commissure in radials; % . , -, * _ i 

, , r r. i j »i_ a- out enters tne cai\ x o\ er tne 

c.o., lobes of chambered organ, the connecting nervous 

sheath omitted for greater clearness. (After Bather, 1898, radial, passing tO the lierVOUS 

tissue which forms the outer 
wall of the five-lobed chambered organ situated in the dorsal apex of 
the calyx. All the divisions of the body cavity are separated from each 
other by connective tissue; and in this way are cut oft at the aboral 
end of the peri-intestinal cavity five chambers which surround the axial 
sinus and which are covered on all sides by epithelium containing ganglion 
cells and nerve fibres. The term chambered organ is applied to the whole 
structure. 

The passage of the dorsal nerve cords in a simple monocyclic or 
dicyclic crinoid is illustrated in figure n. The nerve cords become 
bordered by stereom and are enclosed within the cup-wall. If the nerve 




l-.-St 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 9 

cord is in a separate axial canal it passes into the calyx plates through the 
radial facet. Each nerve cord has a double structure; it separates when 
it enters the radial into two branches, sending one to the basal on the 
right and the other to the basal on the left. If the crinoid is monocyclic 
the cords which pass to the basals join in a ring which surrounds the 
chambered organ. Here the lobes of the chambered organ correspond 
with the basals and are interradial. The branches of each nerve are con- 
nected with each other and with the nerves of the other radii by a series 
of commissures which form a ring at the level of the radials. If the crinoid 
is dicyclic another such ring is formed at the level of the centers of the 
basals, from which paired branches are 
sent to the infrabasals. The arrange- 
ment in a pseudomonocyclic base is the 

same; and in both cases the lobes of X^-/ ° " _ ^^^j[^^^-- Br 

the chambered organ are radial. The /v 
nervous system just described is a 
senso-motor nervous system; it is con- 

Figure 12 A, one of the larval stages of 
neCted by branches with the Other Antedon, with the arms cut away to 

nervous systems. show the ° r J s ™ ndin s the mouth -. 1 B - 

J tegmen of Haplocrinus mespili- 

In the larval Antedon (figure f o r m i s . 0, oral; R, radial; B, basal; Br, 

AN .., ,1 • 11 r brachial; As, combined pore and anus in 

I2A), the mOUth IS Covered by five p 0steri or oral. (A, after W. B. Carpenter, 

triangular oral plates which rest upon l866 > x l ^- B - after Wachsmuth and 

^ Springer, 1888). 

the shoulders of the radials and are 

interradial in position. In the more primitive genera of crinoids, such 
as Haplocrinus (figure 12B; plate 40, figures 10-14), Hybocrinus 
and Carabocrinus are found five interradial plates which correspond 
in shape and position with the orals of the larval Antedon. The 
presence of a pore or pores in the posterior plate, as in the larval Antedon 
and the adult Hyocrinus, and the position of the anus (combined 
with pore in Haplocrinus) between this plate and the adjoining 
radials confirm the generally accepted view that these five interradial 
plates are orals. 





20 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 




Three stages in the evolution of the tegmen, according to Bather 
( 1900), are shown in figure 13. The tegmen in its simplest form has the 
five orals; but usually more or less rounded covering- plates or ambulacrals 

P are present. These plates cover 
the grooves which extend over or 
between the apposed edges of the 
orals to the arms. On the arms 
the covering plates are separated 
from the brachials and pinnulars 
"L 3 by oblong or squarish plates 

Figure 13 Three stages in the evolution of the tegmen known as Side plate S Or adam- 

(according to Bather). I, orals only, O; 2, orals and , . . 

ambulacrals, Amb; 3, orals (interradial plates of OlUacrals. 1 hese Side plates OCCUT 

Springer), ambulacrals and enlarged peristomial [ n most Q f t fr e I m dunata and 
ambulacrals, P, (orals of Wachsmuth and Springer). 

R, radial; As, anus; x, anal plate; M, madreporite. Flexibilia, but are rarely repre- 

(After Bather, 1900). sented ^ the Camerata Ambu . 

lacrals (and accompanying plates, if present) become irregular and ill-defined 
on the tegmen. 

Modifications of the tegmen accompany modifications of the dorsal 




_ iAmb 
-Amb 



Figure 14 Marsipocrinus de- 
press u s . Tegmen showing the 
incorporated ambulacrals, Amb, and 
the interambulacrals, iAmb, between 
them. The orals are quite small 
and asymmetrically arranged. (After 
Wachsmuth and Springer, 1897). 




Figure 15 Taxocrinus 
intermedius. Teg- 
men showing the exposed 
mouth surrounded by five 
oral plates. (After Wachs- 
muth and Springer, il 
1897). 



cup. Where brachials are incorporated in the cup, ambulacrals of the 
ventral side of the arms are incorporated in the tegmen, lengthening the 



DEVONIAN CR1NOIDS OF NEW YORK 



21 




food grooves over its surface. Interambulacrals in the tegmen correspond 
to the interbrachials (figure 14) of the cup. The mouth may be exposed 
or closed. In the first case it is surrounded by the five orals (figure 15); 
in the second case, the posterior oral may be pushed in between the four 
others so as to conceal the mouth. The mouth then is 
said to be subtegminal (figure 16). 

Changes from the primitive type of tegmen may 
take place along three different lines: (1) The ambu- Figure l6 
lacrals pass over the apposed edges of the orals. Grad- 
ually the ambulacrals and sometimes the interambula- 
crals cover up the orals which, with the exception of the 
posterior, seem to diminish in size and sink beneath the 
surface. The posterior oral usually remains large, taking 
on the character of a madreporite, and is pushed by the increased size of 
the anal tube nearer the oral center. In accordance with the views of Bather 
(1900) the proximal (peristomial) ambulacrals become enlarged and assume 
A B 



c r 1 n u s 
metricus. Teg- 
men showing sub- 
tegminal mouth. 0, 
orals ; A mb, ambula- 
crals. (After Wachs- 
muth and Springer 
1888, 1897). 




Figure 17 Cyathocrinus m a 1 - 
v a c e u s . A, tegmen showing super- 
ficial plating. B, tegmen with the 
same removed. R, radial; 0, orals 
of Bather, interradial plates of Wachs- 
muth and Springer; P, enlarged peri- 
stomial plates of Bather, orals of Wachs- 
muth and Springer; Amb, ambulacrals; 
a, anal interradial of Wachsmuth and 
Springer, posterior oral (madreporite) 
of Bather. (From Springer in Zittel, 
1913, after Meek and Worthen). 




Figure 18 Megisto- 
crinus nodosus. 
Tegmen showing the no- 
dose radial dome plates. 
x 2/3. (After Wachs- 
muth and Springer, 
1897). 



a pentagonal arrangement like that of primitive orals (figure 13, no. 3). 
Wachsmuth and Springer (1897; Springer 1913) regard these plates as the 
orals. This line of modification of the tegmen is exemplified by such forms 



22 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

as Cyathocrinus. Euspirocrinus. Gissocrinus, G a s - 
terocoma, etc. 'figure 17. (2) The second line of modification is shown 
by such forms as Taxocrinus (figuie"i5). Here the ambulacrals pass 
between the orals, leaving the mouth open. The orals gradually atrophy. 
3 The third line of modification is seen in the Camerata (plate 19, figure 4: 
plate 20. figure S: plate 2>o- figure 2: figure 16). The modification here is 
very remarkable. The ambulacrals pass beneath the orals 1 figure 16 i and 
gradually beneath the other tegminal plates which are developed at the 
same time that the brachials are incorporated in the cup and which separate 
the orals from the periphery of the tegmen. The tegmen plates in the 
Camerata are usually very numerous. They attain considerable thickness 
and fit into one another in such a way as to form a more or less convex, 
extremely rigid vault. Very often at the apex of this dome or vault may 
be distinguished five large plates, the one in the anal interradius commonly 
differing from the others in size and shape and wedged in among them 
Wachsmuth and Springer 1S97: Springer 1913 1 regard these plates as 
orals; Bather (1900, p. 127 suggests that they may after all be modified 
ambulacrals. According to their position in the tegmen. the other plates 
are distinguished as ambulacrals or interambulacrals. In some groups, as 
the Platycrinidae, the ambulacrals are generally arranged in two 
rows of rather large plates which, however, have to a certain extent lost 
their original character. In other groups, such as the Batocrinidae. 
the ambulacrals are not in alternate rows. Here the ambulacrals are 
represented by large single plates of one or more orders, separated from 
each other by supplementary plates. These large plates represent covering 
plates, particularly axillary pieces, which could not be so easily covered by 
other plates. They are known as radial dome plates (figure 18), and are 
frequently nodose or spinose. 

A form highly developed along these lines of modification is shown 
in the illustrations of Catactocrinus proboscidialis (figure 
191. In such forms, the food grooves, water vessels and blood vessels are 
completely sunk beneath the tegmen and are enclosed in a system of 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



23 





ramifying tubes which follow the inner floor of the tegmen. These tubes 
are composed of the alternating ambulacrals above and of the side plates 
or adambulacrals below. There 

arc curious extensions from the y^filb^ ^ 

interambulacral plates into the 
interior of the calyx which spread 
out and form what used to be 
regarded as a disk. The exten- 
sions have been regarded as due 
to the perforation of the plates A "^ 

Figure 19 Catactocrinus proboscidialis. 
A, plates of tegmen partially removed showing 
covered ambulacral passages, Amb, leading from the 
arms to the mouth. B, plated upper surface of 
ambulacral galleries. C, natural cast of ventral disk 
with impressions of calyx ambulacra, Amb, leading 
to the mouth, 0; As, anus. (From Springer in Zittel, 
1913, after Meek and Worthen, 1873). 

for water canals by some; by others, as processes 
developed for strengthening purposes. 

The anus in most Paleozoic crinoids is the only 
opening, and, as stated above, is usually excentric and 
B ^f^^^lW interradial. Sometimes the anus is central and again 

Figure 20 A, Gastero-it may open through the dorsal cup (figure 20) . In 
coma antiqua. Speci most Q £ t ke Paleozoic Camerata, and in all recent spe- 

men showing anus through 

the dorsal cup, below the cies, the anus is situated at the upper end of a plated 

level of the arm-bases. B, .. , ... 7,7 , 7 • / 1 

Dorycrinus quin- t UDe known as the anal tube or proboscis (plate 24, 
que lob us . Specimen hg ure s 2, 3, 4). This anal tube is rigid as is the 

showing plates of the . . 

tegmen and excentric anus, vault which it SUrniOUntS. VailOUS anal tubes OV VetL- 

(A, from Springer in zittel, t j mcs of the Fistulata are illustrated in figure 7 and 

1 913, after L. Schultze. ° 

b, after Meek and Wor- on plates 42, 43, 47, 49, 54. In the Fistulata the anal 

opening is along the anterior side of the ventral sac, 
or between the ventral sac and the mouth. 

Pores for the admission of water into the body cavity occur in the 



24 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



crinoids. A greater or smaller number of the interambulacral plates are 
perforated by such pores, and in some genera these are confined entirely 

to the vicinity of the mouth. 
Pores occur in some of the Fis- 
tulata, and here, instead of 
piercing the body of the plates, 
they enter their outer angles; 
in other Fistulata a madrepo- 
rite is found. Pores have also 





B 



tral sac in Fistulate crinoids 



Figure 21 a, Marsipo crinus striatals (?). been found piercing the ven- 

Diagram of one ray of a specimen showing position of 

pinnule openings and ambulacra leading to them, x 3/2. 

B, Scyphocr inus gorbyi. An interradius with / gprixicer 1 QOO) . 

adjacent arm-bases showing pores in plates corresponding 

in position to pinnule ossicles, x 5/2. (After Springer, 

191-)- 



In the Camerata so-called 
respiratory pores" have been 



observed near the arm-bases (figure 21). 
They occur in the interradii or between 
the arms and their branches. In the 
genus Dolatocrinus 1 there are four 
to six in each interradius and two to f our 
between each series of fixed secundibrachs ; 
some genera have only ten pores. It has 
now been demonstrated (^Springer, 191 7, 
pp. 40-46) that these pores connect with 
the food canals. The pores originated 
from pinnules which with progressive 
growth were incorporated into the body. 
These pinnules may have possessed a res- 
piratory function, since the proximal pin- 
nules in manv recent crinoids are shown to 




Figure 22 A, simple unbranched arm 
(Hybocrinus). B, ventral view of two 
brachials of Gissocrinus squami- 
f e r ; covering plates, or ambulacrals, 
closed above, removed below. C, side 
view of brachials of Antedon basi- 
c u r v a with covering plates open show- 
ing tentacles. R, radial; Br, brachial; 
c.p., covering plates or ambulacrals; s.p., 
side plates or adambulacrals ; t, tentacles; 
a.c, axial canal. (After Bather, 1900). 



be lacking the usual functions of pinnules. 
Extreme aberrant growth of pore or pinnule is seen in Gilbertso 
1 See discussion of genus Comanthoerinus, page 192. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



25 



crinus (plate 3, figures 1, 6) where the pore is situated at the end of a 
tubular interradial appendage (ref. cit., pp. 45, 46). 



b Arms 

The arms of a crinoid are the immediate prolongations of the radials. 
The simplest type of a crinoid arm (figure 22) is made up of a series of 
ossicles, the brachials, the proximal one of which is attached to the radial 
by a surface known as the radial facet or arm facet. The dorsal side of 
the arm is rounded and the inner or ventral side is provided with a groove 
which contains the soft parts. Beneath this ventral groove the brachials 




Figure 23 Specialization of arm-branching. 1 , a nonpinnulate, regularly 
dichotomous arm (isotomous) ; 2, a less regularly dichotomous arm, 
a type common in the Cyathocrinoidea; 3, 4, two stages in the evolution 
of unilateral heterotomy; 5, 6, 7, three stages in the evolution of bilateral 
heterotomy. (After Bather, 1900). 

are perforated by the single (sometimes duplicate) axial canal which con- 
tains the double-structured dorsal nerve cord. The ventral groove is 
roofed over by covering plates, the ambulacrals. In less simple arms these 
covering-plates may be separated from the brachials by the adambulacrals 
or side plates. As described under Tegmen, the ventral grooves with the 
soft parts contained within them and the covering plates are continued 
across the tegmen to the mouth. The covering-plates are movable on 
the arms and pinnules, but on the disk only in those forms in which the 
mouth is exposed. 

As discussed under the description of the dorsal cup, the brachials 
may be free immediately above the radials or a variable number of the 



26 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

proximal brachials may be incorporated in the cup. Just as the dorsal 
cup and tegmen undergo modifications, so there are modifications of the 
simple, unbranched type of arm. The first step is the occurrence of 
bifurcations (figure 23). If the bifurcations occur constantly at regular 
intervals the type of branching is termed regular dichotomy or isotomy. 
Irregular dichotomy or heterotomy is produced by the suppression of bifurca- 
tions at definite points. The resultant members of the bifurcation may be 
unequal, the smaller member occurring alternately at the right or left in 
each half arm. This gives a main trunk with smaller branches occurring 
alternately at the right and left, a type of branching called bilateral 
heterotomy (plate 41, figure 10; plate 42, figures 4, 8; plate 43, figures 
1, 4, 6). The occurrence of the smaller branches only on one side of the 
main trunk is known as unilateral heterotomy (plate 26, figures 9, 10; plate 
49, figure 4; plate 50, figure 1; plate 51). The smaller branches given off 
from the main arm-branch or ramus are termed armlets or ramules. 

In the Camerata, the more highly organized Inadunata and all of the 
recent crinoids, the arms are furnished with jointed appendages, the 
pinnules (figure 1). The pinnules are usually regularly placed on alternate 
sides of successive brachials, but sometimes they alternate from every 
second or third brachial (plate 53, figure 3; plate 57, figures 4-6, 8). They 
may be missing from the proximal parts of the arms. Pinnules are the 
repetition of arms on a small scale; the ossicles composing the pinnules 
are termed pinnulars. The fertile portions of the genital organs are 
restricted to the pinnules. 

There is a difference of opinion as to the origin of pinnules. Bather 
(1890, 1900) considers that they are ramules which have ceased to branch 
and have assumed the regular, alternating arrangement on successive 
brachials; they are the culmination of bilateral heterotomy. Jaekel (1894, 
191 8) accepts Bather's theory for most of the Inadunata and Neozoic 
crinoids, but calls the appendages ramules. The term pinnules he applies 
to similar appendages in the Paleozoic Camerata which he believes were 
formed through the transformation of the primary border plates. Wachs- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 2J 

muth and Springer (1897) appear to regard pinnules as of independent 

origin and the pinnule-bearing armlets of forms like Melocrinus 

(plates 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16) with compound main arms, as developed from 

pinnules. Kirk (191 1) believes it more probable that the process opposite 

to that upheld by Bather has obtained. He states: ' At times, no doubt, 

arm branches have become reduced in size forming ramules and even 

ultimately what might be styled pinnules. However, I do not think that 

this has been the normal process " (ref. cit, p. 113). In his recent 

" Monograph on the Existing Crinoids," A. H. Clark (1915) makes the 

following statement: 

It is probable that the pinnules represent the original type of crinoidal 
appendages, and that these appendages were arranged in five pairs, the 
two components of each pair being, so to speak, back to back; but the 
pinnules have become enormously reduplicated, while in addition (they) 
have come to lie along either side of long body processes (arms) of subsequent 
development (ref. cit., p. 274, omitting references to cirri). 

The terminology of the arm parts has already been partially discussed 
under the treatment of the extension of the dorsal cup. In a dichotomous 
arm without pinnules all the brachials up to and including the first axillary 
are primibrachs , the axillary being termed the primaxil; the brachials 
above the primaxil up to and including the axillary (secundaxil) are 
secundibrachs ; above this the successive series are known as tertibrachs, 
quartibrachs, and so on. Wachsmuth and Springer (1897) use the same 
terminology for pinnulate arms. In accordance with Bather's interpre- 
tation of the origin of a pinnule, in pinnulate arms the primibrachs, 
which as a rule do not bear pinnules, are homologous with the primibrachs 
of nonpinnulate arms; in the next series the proximal brachial is a 
secundibrach, the pinnule borne by it and the following brachial repre- 
senting the tertibrach of a simple arm. A special terminology for pinnu- 
late arms has been brought out by Bather (1892), but it has not received 
general acceptance. 

The upper sloping faces or shoulders of an axillary brachial may be 
equal or unequal. Even where the shoulders of the axillaries are unequal, 



28 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the axillary on which the main arm-branches fork has equal shoulders and 
the axillary is distinguished as the main-axil. The ambulacral areas branch 
with the arms, and the series of ambulacrals formed are known as ambula- 
crals of the first order, second order, third order, etc., or as primary 
ambulacrals, secondary ambulacrals, and so on. For descriptive purposes 
an arm is viewed from the dorsal side and the right and left of the arm 
are the right and left of the observer. 

Arms may be uniserial or biserial. In a uniserial arm the brachials 
are arranged in a single series. Simple arms are always uniserial, and 
here the brachials are more or less rectangular. In pinnulate arms the 
brachials tend to slope alternately to the right and the left. This tendency 
is increased, and either in the development of the individual or the race, 
the brachials become completely wedge-shaped. The next step is the 
arrangement of the brachials in two alternating rows with the smaller ends 

of the plates meeting midway, so as to form 
^^f^^K^t ^<^S i-zQt a z ig za § suture line. This produces a biserial 

arm (figure 24). Pinnulars likewise may 
assume a zigzag biserial arrangement. The 
. . , change from a uniserial to a biserial arm 

Figure 24 Evolution from uniserial 

through zigzag to compactly biserial starts at the tips of the arms and proceeds 

arms. (After Bather, 1900) . -i rrvi ■ • , ^ *t • j_ 

proximad. I his is true both m ontogeny 
and phylogeny. The development of biserial arms doubles the number 
of pinnules in a given length of arm, thereby aiding in the collection of 
food. 

The above conception of the origin of biserial arms is the one commonly 
accepted. According to A. H. Clark (1915, pp. 184, 189, 350, 352, 354) 
the biserial arrangement is more primitive in crinoids; the biserial arrange- 
ment is the Paleozoic type, while the uniserial arrangement arose chiefly 
in Post-Paleozoic times. His theory is very different from the commonly 
accepted one. He believes that crinoid arms were originally paired interra- 
dial structures and that in times previous to that of the actually known 
Paleozoic crinoids adjacent uniserial arms were united laterally in pairs 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 29 

in such a way as to give rise first to biserial arms, and, later, by ossicles 
slipping in between each other, to elongate pseudo-uniserial appendages 
(ref. cit., p. 350; see Foeste 191 6). 

Jaekel (19 18) likewise believes that the biserial arrangement in crinoid 
arms is more primitive. He divides the arm structures into three types 
(ref. cit., pp. 22, 23). (1) As the oldest he places the biserial, unbranched, 
pinnuleless appendages, " brachioles" which are characteristic of the 
Cystoidea, Blastoidea and his new subclass Eocrinoidea. As a rule these 
appendages are in five groups of several each. (2) This type becomes 
more highly developed among the Cladocrinoidea through the transforma- 
tion of the primary small side plates into pinnules which are borne by 
each one of the alternating " finger ' ossicles. Jaekel applies the term 
" finger " to this type of arm form because it bears the same relation to 
the arm trunks as a finger to the hand. These " fingers " are primarily 
undivided and biserial; later they fork but not with pronounced axillary 
pieces. This biserial {distichal) structure can be changed through wedging 
{sphenostichal) or through fusion as in Carpocrinus and Melo- 
crinus {synstichal) . (3) To the third type belong the typical arms or 
brachia of the Pentacrinoidea. They are placed singly in each radius, 
are primarily and almost always uniserial. In the beginning, or through 
degeneration, they are undivided, but mostly they are divided. The 
axillary forking is carried so far that finally every ossicle is axillary. 
Through lateral pressure of these small side branches, which Jaekel terms 
ramules instead of pinnules, the ossicles of the trunk or main branch may 
become wedged within one another (dichostichal) or develop biserial arrange- 
ment (parastichal) . 

Fusion is found to occur among the brachials. This fusion may be 
either lateral or in a vertical line, or both may occur. From such fusions 
we may get forms like some of the Gissocrini where the secundi- 
brachs and sometimes the tertibrachs are joined laterally; like Petalo- 
c r i n u s where all the brachials, with the exception of the primibrachs, 
are united to form a single petaloid plate ; like Crotalocrinus 



30 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 




3 




(figure 25) where the arm branches are united by lateral processes to form 
a flexible network which may be divided into five broad, reticulate, 
fanlike fronds or may be continuous all around the crown ; like M e 1 o - 
crinus in which the two main uniserial rami in each ray are fused for 
some distance or to their full extent by their inner margins, giving to the 
crown five compound main arms or radial appendages bearing pinnulate 
armlets or ramules at intervals from opposite plates in the ray and from 
one side only of each half (plates 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, 16). 

When an immovable sutural union 
occurs between two brachials of a pinnu- 
late arm, of which only the upper one is 
pinnule-bearing, the union is known as 
a syzygy. The lower brachial without 
apinnule is termed a hypozygal, the 
Figure 25 Crotaiocrinus puicher. upper pinnule-bearing brachial is the 

A, calyx and arms cut across to show how 

the arms are rolled up. x 2/3. B, cross ^P'l^ygdL. 

section of four contiguous arm-ossicles of the By the f us i on Q f t he right and left 

net-work. C, dorsal aspect of arm-plates, 

showing their intimate union; those above Ossicles of a biserial arm a Compound 

the two rows figured have been broken away -u 1 ■ 1 ■ r j-u • x. ■ 1 

,, . ;, , . • brachial is formed bearing two pinnules, 

so as to expose the side pieces and covering & ^ 

plates of the ambuiacrai furrows. (After one on each side. This process may be 

Springer in Zittel, 1913) . . 

carried still farther, and by the fusion 

of two or three two-pinnulid brachials a compound brachial may be formed 

with two or three pinnules on each side. Certain genera, as Cordylo- 

crinus (p. 275), Clarkeocrinus (p. 180) and Liparocrinus 

(p. 397), have been studied in which are found two-pinnulid brachials (or 

fusions of two-pinnulid brachials) throughout the arms with no indication of 

previous biseriality. 

c Column 

The entire column or stalk of the crinoid has probably been produced 
through the reduplication of a single dorsal apical plate by a curious 
serial repetition which is common among the echinoderms. The length 
of the column is quite variable. The length of stems in Mesozoic crinoids 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



31 



was enormous ; in one of the Jurassic Pentacrini a column has been 
observed measuring 70 feet in length. Some of the largest Palaeozoic 
crinoids, such as Megistocrinus and Strotocrinus have been 
found with stems 3 feet long, but the majority have a stem of about a 
foot. There are all gradations from this through forms with much abbre- 
viated stems (Millericrinus) to those in which the column is 
atrophied and which are either attached directly by the base (H o 1 o p u s) 
or are entirely free from attachment (Uintacrinus, Agassizo- 
crinus, Comatulids). Some of the columns are wider in the proximal 
1. £ 3 4 5 b 7 




Figure 26 Various types of columnals showing articulating surfaces. 1, Periecho- 
crinus; 10, Pentacrinus; 12, Catactocrinus; 16-18, Platy- 
crinus; 19, Rhizocrinus; 20, Antedon sarsi; 2-9, 11, 13-15, unde- 
termined genera. (After Wachsmuth and Springer, 1897; 9, 19, 20, after Bather, 
1900) 

portion and taper distad; others are larger at the distal end; still others 
are widest in the middle. The simplest form of column is round with a 
tendency to pentagonal outline. The column may also be elliptic, pentangu- 
lar, stellate, semilunate or quadrangular (figures 26, 2jB). Toward the 
distal part of the column the angularity becomes less pronounced and the 
column becomes rounded (plate 4, figures 1,4; plate 53, figures 1, 4). 

The column ossicles, the columnals, are distinguished as nodals and 
internodals. The nodals include the larger columnals and all the cirrus- 
bearing columnals (figure 27^4). The diameter of the nodals is greatest in 
the upper part of the stem where they are often twice, and sometimes three 



32 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



times the diameter of the internodal columnals. The edges of the nodals 
may be crenulated, nodose, spinose, and sometimes the edge is very thin 
and knifelike. New columnals which become the nodals are introduced 
directly beneath the calyx or some distance from it. The youngest columnal 



therefore is usually the uppermost one. 





B 



D 



In some Mesozoic and recent 
forms and in fossil crinoids 
such as Onychocrinus 
and Apiocrinus (figure 
27 C, D) the top columnal 
remains permanently attached 
to the calyx, and the new 
nodal joints are formed 
beneath. The name proximate 
has been given to this fixed 
columnal (Bather, 1900, p. 



Figure 27 Some types of columns. A, diagram of column 
of Gastrocrinus patulus, the latest formed 
columnals numbered 1, the oldest 6; 5 and 6 bear cirri. 
B, quinquepartite column of Pentacrinus basalti- 
f or mis. C, proximal end of column of Onycho- Io8 )- 1 he UltemodeS lengthen 
crinus, showing enlargement of column and infrabasals, ryrOCeedinQ' distad ' that is the 
IB, fused to the top columnal, the proximale, P. D, cup 

and part of the column of Apiocrinus elegans, Column matured from the TOOt 
showing proximale, P, and other enlarged columnals. ,-, • 1 . • 1 • 

B, basals; R, radials. (A, D, after Bather, 1900; B, after U P' the Primal portion being 
Springer in Zittel, 1913; C, after Wachsmuth and permanently in a State of 
Springer, 1897) . . 

immaturity. borne columns 
(Platycrinus) show no internodals ; in others, the internodes begin 
at quite a distance from the calyx (figure 27C; plates 38, 39). 

Just as in the case of the arms, the column is pierced by a longitudinal, 
usually central, canal, the axial canal, which is circular, oval or pentagonal 
in cross section. There is a remarkable variation in the size of the axial 

1 Springer (1920, p. 29) believes that the view (expressed by Wachsmuth and Springer, 
1897, pp. 39. 40) that in the Flexibilia the topmost columnal was persistently fused with 
the infrabasals is more theoretical than practical. It is doubtless true that such a fusion 
often occurred in adult specimens in which stem growth was completed, but the often 
persistent attachment of the proximal ossicles to the infrabasals can readily be accounted 
for by close suture. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



33 



canal in Paleozoic crinoids. It may be no larger than the point of a 
needle or it may be one-half to three-quarters the width of the columnals. 
There is an extension into the axial canal 
of a vessel from each of the five lobes of 
the chambered organ with its nerve sheath 
(the axial cord). The five cords compris- 
ing the axial cord surround a prolongation 
of the axial organ. In dicyclic crinoids 
the cords would be radial; in monocyclic, 
interradial. 

Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, p. 60) 
framed a " law " to the effect that when 
infrabasals are, or have been, present, the 




DicLjcltc Monocyclic 

Figure 28 Diagrams of Dicyclic and Mono- 
cyclic bases showing the position of the 
cirri with reference to the plates of the 
dorsal cup. IB, infrabasal; B, basal; R, 
radial; ci, cirri; co, pentameres of column; 
n, nerves going to cirri from extensions of 
capsule; s, suture between pentameres of 
column. (After Bather 1898, 1900) 




exterior angles of the stem are interradial ; 
but the longitudinal sutures, the sides, the lobes of the axial canal and the 
cirri of the stem are radial; in crinoids with a true monocyclic base the 
conditions are reversed. This is true only of species with a pentangular or 
pentapartite stem or canal. Bather points out (1898, p. 423; 1900, p. 106) 

that this law is liable to excep- 
tions; and he believes that a 
surer guide for discriminating 
between monocyclic and dicy- 
clic forms is obtained by 
attending chiefly to the rela- 
r tion of the axial cords. 

Figure 29 Relation of cirri to axial cords. A, part of stem The appendages of the 

of Isocrinus decorus, with cirri in whorls of five. 1 n A ' ' A +V, 

B, section across stem of Isocrinus wyville- COiumn are Called CIYYI and the 

thomsoni at level of cirrus-whorl, the central portions ossicles Composing them are 

disproportionally enlarged for greater clearness. C, section _ . 

across stem of a fossil crinoid showing branch from axial ClTTdLS. I he C1IT1 are Dome by 

canal to cirrus. (After Bather, 1900) the nodals and thrQUgh the 

nodal communicate with the axial canal; they therefore correspond in 

position with the five axial cords (figures 28, 29). Cirri may be given off 
3 





34 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

through the whole length of the column or may be restricted to the 
distal portions. In the majority of Paleozoic crinoids they are restricted 
to the distal parts. The cirri may be arranged singly, with two or three 
at a nodal or in whorls of five (plates 21, 22, 24; plate 23, figures 1,2; plate 
25; plate 52, figures 1, 2, 3). The cirri are variable in length and in 
flexibility. In most of the Camerata the cirri are capable of very little 
motion, and in many cases are restricted to the root; the cirri of the 
Inadunata are more flexible and slender and more frequently continue up 
the proximal part of the stem. InClarkeocrinus troosti (plates 
21-25) the cirri are very beautifully developed and are circulate; in 
Brachiocrinus nodosarius (plate 41 , figures 1-4) the cirri are 
very heavy and the cirrals beadlike. Very strikingly developed cirri are 
also seen in the Carboniferous Camptocrinus myelodactylus. 
Here the stem is coiled around the crown, the columnals become concave 
and from the horns of the column thus formed extremely long cirri are 
given off from alternate sides. There is a similar development in Her- 
petocrinus. Cirri, particularly where they are very flexible, are used 
as hooks to catch neighboring objects to retain a hold. 

In the study of Gennaeocrinus eucharis (plate 27 ; plate 
28, figure 3) peculiar leaflike appendages were discovered attached to the 
nodals and arranged in three vertical rows. The purpose of these 
appendages is not known {see p. 214), but since they are immovable and 
often meet or overlap, it seems that they would lessen the flexibility of 
the column to a considerable extent. 

The distal ends of the cirri sometimes appear to have been open so 
that there is communication with the sea water. Pores are left on columns 
and roots by the atrophying of cirri and cirri attachments. The under 
surfaces of encrusting roots are sometimes ridged as though grooves put 
the axial canal into connection with the exterior. These passages are 
supposed to be for purposes of nutrition and aeration (Bather, 1900, 

P- 133)- 

As stated above, crinoids may be free or attached. Some of the species 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 35 

of Pentacrinus and Metacrinus are loosely rooted in soft mud, 
and they can change their position by swimming with their pinnulate arms. 
This is a state intermediate between the fixed crinoids and the free genus 
A n t e d o n . The crinoid may be fixed by a branching root which may 
be encrusting on some firm object or loosely rooted in the mud. Some 
crinoids end in a disk such as seen inAspidocrinus (plate 59, figures 
6-13) or in a bulbous base (plate 59, figure 17), such as seen inCamaro- 
c r i n u s (name given by Hall to the bulbous base ofScyphocrinus) 
or in a four or five-fluked grapnel such as Ancyrocrinus (plate 59, 
figures 14-16). Crinoids show a frequent tendency to become detached 
from the root. In such cases they may become attached to other objects 
by coiling around them or by the remaining cirri. Often, as seen in Lasio- 
crinus scoparius (p. 343) and Melocrinus paucidactylus 
(plate 9, figure 9; plate 11) the distal end of the free stem shows a tendency 
to coil. In Brachiocrinus nodosarius (plate 41 , figures 3, 4) 
the column ends in a bulb. The tendency to detachment brought about 
a gradual shortening of the stem, and a continuance of this process has 
led to the evolution of the so-called unstalked crinoids, represented by such 
forms as Antedon, Agassizocrinus, Edriocrinus (plate 58), 
Saccoma, Marsupites and Uintacrinus. 

d Articulation 

The plates of crinoids are united by different types of suture or by 
articulations. In the primitive type of suture fibres of connective tissue 
are developed between the plates of crinoids which bind them together. 
Such sutures are those between the calyx plates, intercolumnar articulations 
in many of the older types, syzygies between brachials or just below the 
cirrus-bearing columnals; here the fibres are of uniform length and are 
uniformly distributed. Sutural unions have received modifications to 
which special names are applied. Crinoid plates may be very closely and 
immovably united by short fibres the ends of which have been surrounded 
by a deposit of stereom on the apposed faces of the ossicles. This produces 



36 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

a type of suture known as close suture. Syzygies are a special case of close 
suture. Plates may be cemented together by a deposition of stereom 
which causes a fusion of the plates, anchylosis. The above two types tend 
toward rigidity in crinoid parts ; the following types tend toward flexibility : 
(i) loose suture, (2) imperforate articulation, (3) perforate articulation. In 
the type of loose suture, there are several possibilities: (a) the fibres lie 
at right angles to the suture and the stereom is thrown into corresponding 
folds; (b) there may be a slight facet which is either smooth or striated; 
or (c) there are interlocking crenulations (plate 15, figure 9; plate 36, 
figure 2). In imperforate and perforate articulation the fibres become 
differentiated into comparatively dense masses which form the elastic 
ligaments; true muscles are also developed. In imperforate articulation 
there may be a slight facet or a toothed articular surface; in perforate 
articulation there is a highly developed facet with a fulcral ridge and 
depressions for the ligaments and muscles. The muscle is innervated from 
the axial cord which perforates the fulcral ridge. 

The plates of the dorsal cup may be united by close suture, anchylosis 
or loose suture; close suture and anchylosis are the more common. The 
tegminals may be united by primitive (or loose) suture (simpler crinoids) 
or by close suture. In the arms the brachials primitively and the pinnulars 
nearly always are united by loose suture; the final stage, seen in the more 
flexible arms, is perforate articulation. Close suture is seen in the syzygies 
between brachials. In the simplest form, the columnal is round and its 
surface is radiately striated (loose suture). Assumption of pentagonal 
form causes the restriction of the striation to the margin and the grouping 
of the ligament fibres into five bands. The type of loose suture in which 
crinoid ossicles show crenulated margins is quite common in columns. 
Perforate articulation is found in columns of greater flexibility; close suture 
is seen in syzygies between columnals. 



DEVONIAN CR1NOIDS OF NEW YORK 



37 



2 Ontogeny and Phytogeny 

Careful studies have been made of the life history of three recent 
species which all belong to the genus Antedon. 1 These life histories 
show phenomena of development, a knowledge of which is valuable to the 
student of fossil crinoids. Detailed discussion of the subject may be 
obtained in the references to Wyville Thomson, P. H., and W. B. Carpenter 
and Bury in the special bibliography appended; a brief summary will be 
given here. 

The ripe eggs of the Antedon are extruded 
from the ovaries and hang from the genital pin- 
nules in clusters like bunches of grapes. The eggs are 
fertilized externally and the early metamorphosis 
of the larva takes place within the egg. At about 
the seventh day the larva (gastrula) escapes from 
the egg. At this period in its development it is 
barrel-shaped, bilaterally symmetrical and provided 
with an anterior tuft of greatly elongated cilia and 
five encircling ciliated bands (figure 30), characters 
which give it something of a resemblance to the larvae 
of worms. Within the larva are the rudiments of the 

Figure 30 Ciliated larva of 

skeletal structures of the crinoid; five orals, five basals, Antedon rosaceus, 
three or five infrabasals (depending upon the species) , ^ ^e^a^ it^o^iarvai 
which are arranged in horseshoe-shaped bands open mouth; m, water pore. 

-. « , r -. 1 , , 1 ( After Burv ' l888 )- 

toward the ventral surface, and about eleven colum- 

nars which likewise have not as yet formed complete rings. 

The larva swims about for a few hours and then attaches itself by a 
slight depression on the antero ventral face, the so-called preoral pit. A 
few hours after attachment the cilia disappear; the larval mouth becomes 
very shallow, gradually narrows and then disappears; and there is a 

1 Studies have recently been made of larval forms of Comacti nia (A c t i n o - 
metra) meridionalis by Doctor Springer, and of larval forms of Promach o - 
crinus kerguelensis by A. H. Clark (see Springer 1920, pp. 79-87). 




38 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



rearrangement of the internal organs. The fixed larva is termed a penta- 
crinoid (figure 31). After fixation the orals become arranged in a pyramid 
over the superior or ventral portion of the animal, the basals form a similar, 
but inverted, pyramid in the proximal or dorsal portion of the calyx, the 
infrabasals occur between the apex of the basal pyramid and the top of 

the column. At this time the column is composed of 
about eleven cylindrical columnals and is terminated 
distally by a lobate terminal stem plate, the dorso- 
central. Each columnal consists of the original central 
ring and numerous longitudinal, parallel calcareous rods 
which have been developed from it. The larva is now 
in what is termed the cystid stage of development. For 
convenience, the development of the larva in the fixed 
state has been divided into two stages: (1) the cystid 
stage, stalked forms without arms; (2) the phytocrinoid 
stage, still stalked but provided with arms and cirri. 

Within a short time after fixation there appears 
in the diamond-shaped spaces between the divisions of 
the orals and the basals another series of five plates, the 
radials, which increase rapidly in size and encroach upon 
the orals. In one of the interradial spaces, in the zone 
of the radials, a sixth plate, the so-called anal, appears; 
larva of Antedon but it gradually moves up into the tegmen with the 
i^aoiis; b, biSS orals and is resorbed. This so-called anal has been 
centro-dorsai. (After s i lown bv A. H. Clark (1912), from a study of penta- 

Wvville Thomson, . ' 

!86 5 ). crinoid larvae, to be in reality the radianal ot the tossil 

forms. The true anal x has been found by him in the pentacrinoid larvae 
of other species of comatulids (see also, Springer's studies, 1920, pp. 79~&7, 
of larval forms of Comactinia meridionalis). From each radial 
is given off a series of elongate cylindrical segments which bifurcate on 
the second. This is the beginning of the arms which grow rapidly by the 
addition of new plates at the distal extremity. The column ceases to add 




Figure 31 



Pentacrinoid 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 39 

new columnals, and the infrabasals fuse with the last one formed, the most 
proximal one, forming the rudiment of the centro-dorsal found in the adult 
(figure 31). The larva is now in the phytocrinoid stage. 

At the same time that the arms and column are being developed the 
orals and anal are undergoing resorption. The basals are metamorphosed 
into a delicate calcareous plate called the rosette, wholly internal, lying 
just above the chambered organ and possessing five radial and five inter- 
radial processes. Cirri are developed on the centro-dorsal which finally 
detaches itself from the rest of the column thus freeing the young crinoid. 
The centro-dorsal in free-swimming forms, such as Antedon, is the 
homologue of the whole column in stalked forms. 

The study of the life history of Antedon shows that the most 
primitive skeletal structure of crinoids consists of the orals, basals, infra- 
basals and column and that the radials and brachials are a later development. 
The radials, according to A. H. Clark, are not properly calyx plates at all, 
but belong morphologically with the series of brachials (191 5, p. 364). 
There are numerous fossil crinoids in which the basals and stem are strongly 
developed, the radials of small size and the arms rudimentary or absent. 
Springer has noted that " some of the Palaeozoic Flexibilia are almost 
identical, in fact, with the pedunculate stages of Antedon" 1 (1913, p. 182; 
Wachsmuth and Springer, p. 152; see remarks on young forms cf 
Eutaxocrinus alpha, p. 312). 

Material has not been sufficiently abundant to allow of any con- 
siderable ontogenetic studies among the species of Devonian crinoids here 
described; but where material has permitted observations on the develop- 
ment and variation of the species, such observations have been noted under 
the heading Ontogeny or Ornamentation in the description of the species. 

A very complete series ofMelocrinus paucidactylus has 
been obtained, a full discussion of which will be found on page 123 under 

1 Springer (1920, pp. 80, 81) points out the close resemblance between an early- 
stage of the Comactinia larvae, his "Actinometra" stage, and the earliest 
genera of the Flexibilia. 



40 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the description of the species. The chief differences here between young 
and adult forms is in the character of the arms, strength of ornamentation 
and relative size of the basals. The basals are fairly large and conspicuous 
in the young forms; in the mature forms they are small compared to the 
other plates. The ornamentation changes from incipient ridges to well- 
defined radiating ridges or carinae. The most striking difference is shown 
by the arms. In the youngest forms they are simple and two to the ray. 
Intermediate stages lead from this condition to the complete lateral union 
of the two main arms of each ray, producing the typical compound radial 
appendage characteristic of Melocrinus. 

It has been found here in the study of young forms that, outside of 
changes in ornamentation, there are two particular regards in which 
immature and mature forms differ: the incorporation of the brachials and 
the character of the arms. The proximal brachials are not incorporated 
to the same extent, the arms have fewer bifurcations and, in species with 
biserial arms, show uniserial arms throughout or biseriality onfy at the tips. 
It has been frequently observed that immature forms tend to have propor- 
tionately heavier arms and pinnules. Such observations as the above have 
been made here on the immature forms of Megistocrinus depres- 
sus (p. 231), Megistocrinus Ontario (p. 237), Aorocrinus 
cauli cuius (p. 251) and Hallocrinus ornatissimus (p. 380). 

Variation within the species is common. This is particularly well 
shown in Megistocrinus depressus (p. 227). A study of a large 
number of individuals has shown this to be an extremely variable form 
as regards shape of theca, spinosity of vault and surface ornamentation. 
It would be impossible to give specific names to the many variations; and 
if the species were split up into a number of distinct species there would 
still be considerable variation in any given set of characters even within 
the narrow limits of these greatly restricted species. 

A very interesting series of Dolatocrinus liratus shows 
particularly well the changes in ornamentation of the dorsal cup which 
accompany the growth of the individual (p. 161). In very young specimens 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 4 1 

the basal region is deeply excavated and the basals are deeply sunk in the 
basal pit. With the growth of the crinoid this pit gradually becomes 
filled by a thickening of the basals and the lower portion of the radials. 
The ridges or carinae in the younger forms are much fewer and coarser 
and the radial keel is quite strong. There are various stages from this 
condition to the midtilira type. Here the ornamentation is very complex, 
the carinae being numerous, finer and sharper; the radial keel is an 
insignificant part of the ornamentation and in some cases is practically 
obsolete. Still older specimens show the breaking up of the carinae until 
they are represented by scattered tubercles. 

Study of other forms, such as Rhodocrinus nodulosus 
(p. 91!). Dolatocrinus glyptus ip. 156), Gennaeocrinus 
eucharis (p. 21 5). Gennaeocrinus nyssa (p. 218), Gennaeo- 
crinus c a r i n a t u s (p. 221). D e c a d o c r i n u s multinodosus 
(p. 429), seem to indicate a general tendency for the ornamentation to reach 
its greatest development in mature forms and to break up or become less 
pronounced in old forms. In general, nodes or tubercles become blunter, 
carinae break up, radial keels are less pronounced or break up and radiating 
lines or ridges become fainter or disappear. 

In discussing the relationships of the crinoids, both within and without 
the phylum, it is not intended to go into any great detail, but merely to 
give some idea of the views that have been generally held on this subject. 
The relations of the Phylum Echinoderma to the other groups of the 
animal kingdom has long remained obscure. It was formerly thought that 
there was a near relationship to the Coelenterata because of the presence 
of radial symmetry. This led to the grouping of the Echinoderma with 
the Coelenterata under the class-designation Radiata. The stud}' of the 
anatomy of the various organs of the echinoderms, without taking into 
account the bilateral symmetry underlying the radial symmetry, led to 
the conclusion that the echinoderms were not closely or directly related 
to the coelenterates ; furthermore, that the echinoderms were no more 
nearly related to the coelenterates than to some of the groups of worms 



42 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

(Parker & Haswell, 1910, p. 436). The similarity of the bilateral larva 

to'some of the lower forms of the worms was early recognized. In general, 

attempts to make comparisons between the echinoderms and the other 

groups have been avoided. Bather in his discussion of the group as a 

whole makes this statement: ' Between adult echinoderms and other 

groups of the animal kingdom no comparisons are possible '' (1900, p. 8). 

Parker and Haswell in discussing the relationships of the group conclude: 

They are, in fact, a singularly isolated group, and we look in vain 
among the known members, living and fossil, of the other phyla for any 

really close allies Whatever may have been the group of animals 

from which the Echinodermata were developed, there is every probability 
that it was a group with bilateral and not radial symmetry (1910, p. 436). 

A. H. Clark (1915) and Professor William Patten (1912), working 
independently, have made investigations which support the theory of the 
derivation of the echinoderms from a group with bilateral symmetry. In 
the words of A. H. Clark: ' the echinoderms are not by any means the 
highly anomalous creatures that they have hitherto always been con- 
sidered, but are in reality a very aberrant offshoot from the 

acraniate crustacean stock, finding their logical systematic position beyond 
the barnacles ' (1915, pp. 125, 200). Professor Patten arrived at this 
conclusion through a critical comparative study of the development of the 
echinoderms and of the primitive crustaceans and a study of the abnormal 
young of the latter (191 2, pp. 421-430). He doubted whether it would 
ever be possible to make precise or detailed comparisons of any value 
between the echinoderms and relatively modern types of arthropods, such 
as the decapods and the insects. Clark was led to a comparative study of 
the adults of the two groups " because of the high degree of specialization 
of the echinoderm larvae and the difficulty of bringing into satisfactory 
correlation the data offered by the very diverse young of the different 
echinoderm classes " (ref. cit., p. 128). He was led to his conclusion 
regarding the relationships of the echinoderms and crustaceans " through 
a careful study of the adult crinoidal nervous system which, though highly 
complicated and very anomalous, is seen when analyzed to belong to the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 43 

type especially characteristic of primitive crustaceans" (ref. cit., p. 125). 
The relationships of the crinoids with other organisms both within and 
without the phylum are discussed in detail in volume 1 of his " Monograph 
of the Existing Crinoids " (ref. cit., pp. 125-194, 200). x 

It has been generally accepted that stalked echinoderms were preceded 
by primitive free forms with pronounced bilateral symmetry. By selecting 
characters which are common to all the early stages of the echinoderms and 
setting aside those due to individual development, zoologists have imagined 
an ancestral type, the Dipleurula, a phylogenetic stage more or less repeated 
in the Dipleurula larvae of recent echinoderms. The cystids are recognized 
as more nearly approximating the eleutherozoic archetype of all the 
echinoderms, and the earlier and more primitive of these represent the 
pelmatozoic stage through which the echinoderm race passed from the 
Dipleurula ancestor to the various classes. 

Bather (1900, pp. 39, 40, 43, 78, 95, 96) supports the commonly con- 
ceded view of the derivation of the crinoids from the blastoids, the most 
primitive of which can hardly be distinguished from their immediate 
ancestors among the cystids. Kirk (1914, p. 481) grants that the crinoids 
may have been derived from the cystids through the mediation of the 
blastoids, but he believes that we must look elsewhere than among the 
known cystids for the ancestors of the crinoids. The ancestors no doubt 
had much the same structure as the cystids, and might in a broad sense 
be termed " Cystidea," but they probably were minute Cystidea like the 
minute Crinoidea which we know to exist. Such minute ' Cystidea," 
Kirk believes, might well have preceded and given rise to the known 
Cystidea as well as to the other classes of Pelmatozoa. The forms, according 
to Bather, suggestive of the connection between the crinoids and blastoids 

1 Since the completion of this monograph, a recent paper (192 1) by Clark has appeared 
in the Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, treating more fully ' ' The Echinoderms as 
Aberrant Arthropods." His conclusion, as in the earlier paper, is that " the crinoids 
represent a derivative from a branch of the same arthropod stock that gave rise to the 
barnacles, but they have gone much further" (p. 11). 



44 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



are Carabocrinus, Hybocrinus and Stephanocrinus, 
Stephanocrinus has been at various times regarded as a cystid. 
blastoid or crinoid, and when it was unquestionably proven to be a crinoid 
its agreements with the cystids on the one hand and the blastoids on the 
other were recognized (Wachsmuth and Springer 1886, pp. 206-214). The 
mutual relationships, according to this view, of the different classes of 
echinoderms is shown in the following table taken from Bather (1900, p. 35) : 

Cystidea Edrioasteroidea 



Pelmatozoa < Blastoidea ! — Holothurioidea ' 



{ Crinoidea 



-Echinoidea }■ (Eleutherozoa) 



-Stelleroidea 
Parker and Haswell (19 10, p. 437) derive the classes of echinoderms 



Holothuroidea 



Echinoidea 



Crinoidea 




. . Ophiuroidea 
idea 1 y 



Blastoidea 

Custoidea 



through a primitive cystid in 
the manner shown in figure 

32. 

There is another view (ref. 
cit., p. 438) according to which 
the most primitive echinoderms 
are S y n a p t a and its allies 
(Holothuroidea a p o d a). 
The other holothurians are 
supposed to be derived from a 
S y n a p t a-like ancestor. The 
stalked classes were derived 
from the primitive stock of the 
holothurians; and the remain- 
der of the free classes were 
derived from the ancestral 

stalked echinoderm {see Bell, 1891, for a view along these lines). 

A very interesting view involving a holothurian-like ancestor is set 



Primitive Cusroid 
Dipleurula 



Figure 32 Diagram to illustrate one of the interpretations 
of the relationships of the classes of the Echinodermata. 
(After Parker and Haswell, 19 10) 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 45 

forth by A. H. Clark (191 5, p. 125) in his recent " Monograph of the 
Existing Crinoids." According to Clark, the echinoids and crinoids were 
derived from a common, holothurian-like ancestor (ref. cit., pp. 158-161, 
164, 168). The echinoid, speaking broadly, is a holothurian encased in a 
solid calcareous covering, and the crinoid is a stalked echinoid (ref. cit., 
p. 168). The crinoids though most nearly related to the echinoids possess 
certain features both of the asteroids and of the ophiuroids, and so hold 
a position intermediate between the echinoids and the latter. The characters 
showing this relationship are most evident in older forms, and here the 
characters connecting crinoids and echinoids are more pronounced. In 
later forms and in all recent forms the connections with the echinoids have 
become largely obliterated, but the connections with the asteroids and 
ophiuroids have not been subjected to the same degree of suppression 
(ref. cit., p. 170). The most primitive type of crinoid very possibly existed 
in the Paleozoic rocks along with the other types that have come down to 
us as fossils; but they were undoubtedly small and delicate creatures with 
little chance for preservation (ref. cit., p. 185). Blastoids are regarded 
by Clark as " essentially imperfect, or more properly speaking, too perfect 
crinoids, and in a sense they are remotely intermediate between the 
crinoids and echinoids " (ref. cit., p. 186). Just what is the exact position 
of the cystids according to this view is not clear, but they appear to be 
placed with the more primitive holothurians near the ancestral type (ref. 
cit., pp. 137-140) - 1 

1 In a recent paper (192 1) on " The Echinoderms as Aberrant Arthropods," published 
since the completion of this monograph, Clark points out that " the only nervous system 
in the echinoderms which in its details is at all comparable to the central nervous system 

of the other higher invertebrates is the so-called apical nervous system of the crinoids 

This nervous system of the crinoids, which is possibly (though not by any means probably) 
represented by the so-called mesodermal nerve plexus in the starfishes, but which is quite 
unrepresented in the other echinoderms, affords the best indication of the probable 
affinities of these animals, and at the same time its high state of development suggests 
that the crinoids have departed less widely from the ancestral type than have the other 
classes " (p. 4). 



46 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



A quite different view of the relationships of the different classes of 
echinoderms has been brought forward by Jaekel (191 8) in his paper on 
the ' Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen," which, on account of 
the war, has only recently come into our hands. According to Jaekel the 
Phylum Echinoderma falls - not into two but into three great natural groups : 
the Pelmatozoa (four classes: Crinoidea; Cystoidea, including the Blastoidea; 
Thecoidea; Carpoidea) ; the Asterozoa (two classes: Stelleroidea, Ophiu- 
roidea); Echinozoa (two classes: Holothurioidea, Echinoidea). The Pel- 
matozoa are the starting point of the Echinoderma. In his earlier work 
(1899, p. 174) Jaekel derived the Crinoidea (Cladocrinoidea) from the 
Cystoidea by way of the Dichoporita through the Macrocystellidae 
and a subsection of the Cladocrinoidea which he then called the 
Eocrinites. In this last paper all the classes of the echinoderms are derived 
from the Crinoidea as follows {see also discussion of his classification of the 
Crinoidea, pages 54-60): 



Blastoidea 



Cystoidea 



Crinoidea. 



Echinoidea 

Holothuria 



'Carpoidea Thecoidea'' 



'Asterozoa 



Jaekel further states that the homologies between the plates or parts of 
the Pelmatozoa and such of the Eleutherozoa (Asterozoa, Echinozoa) do 
not exist (ref. cit., pp. 6-12). 

The study of the phylogeny of Paleozoic crinoids is hampered by the 
fragmentary records, particularly as regards the earlier ontogenetic stages. 
The composition of very young forms is not favorable to preservation, 
and by the time the calyx has reached the stage where its preservation is 
possible, there is no high degree of difference from the adult form. Doctor 
Wood (1914) made a very interesting phylogenetic study of the arms of 
a number of species ofCactocrinus. She found that there are series 



.DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 47 

of changes which succeed one another in a definite order in proceeding 
from the proximal to the distal portion of the arm; and reaches the con- 
clusion that " these changes may be interpreted as stages in development, 
each individual repeating the stages present in its immediate ancestor 
and adding in the distal portion, new characters of its own until the number 
of characters becomes too great for representation in the life history of a 
single organism, and certain characters, usually the earlier ones, are greatly 
abbreviated or are omitted from the ontogeny of highly modified descend- 
ants. When thus interpreted, the arms of crinoids furnish evidence from 
which the phylogenetic relations of different species and genera can be 
inferred" (ref. cit., p. 17). It will probably be found that this method of 
studying crinoid phylogeny may be applied with satisfactory results to 
other genera. 

A study of the phylogenetic relations of the Flexibilia has recently 
(1920) been made by Springer in his monograph on ' The Crinoidea 
Flexibilia." Much valuable data has been added to what was already 
known. The order is an offshoot from the dicyclic Inadunata through 
the nonpinnulate Dendrocrinidae. This differentiation took place in the 
middle of the Ordovician, the time, in fact, at which most of the ordinal 
differentiation of the crinoids occurred. He states: 

It seems that at this very early stage in the geological scale we have 
several forms exhibiting variously intermingled characters of the larger 
divisions of the crinoids, with some of the essential cystid structure more 
or less impressed upon one of them; and that these represent relatively 
recent departures from the common ancestral type, tending in different 
degrees toward the lines of evolution which produced the several orders 
of the crinoids. In Protaxocrinus the Flexible characters were 
already well established ; in Cupulocrinus and Reteocrinus 
the tendency was toward the Inadunata and Camerata respectively, 
while still complicated by other characters ; while in Cleiocrinus 
the strong survival of cystid characters prevented the establishment of 
a distinct evolutionary line in either of the crinoidal orders. (Springer, 
1920, p. 91). 

Attention has been called above (page 39) to the very full series of 

ontogenetic stages of Melocrinus paucidactylus which show 



48 - NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the development of the arms from simple, uniserial appendages to the 
characteristic compound appendage of Melocrinus (see plate 8, 
figure 5; plates 9, io). The species here, in its individual development 
repeats the evolutionary development from the genus Mariacrinu s 
to Melocrinus, which development is carried still further in M e 1 o - 
crinus (Trichotocrinus). Olsson (1912, pp. 2, 3) discusses this 
evolution under his diagnosis of his new subgenus Trichotocrinus ; 
but attention is called to it here because of the added emphasis given 
by the above-mentioned ontogenetic series. 

Mariacrinus and Melocrinus differ from each other mainly 
in their arm characters. In Mariacrinus the arms are typically 
uniserial and they may branch a few times. " The next step is the fusion 
of its uniserial arms in the production of biserial ones, which commences 
proximally, finally extending throughout the entire length of the arms. 
Species occur in which this fusion has been but partially completed 
(M ariacrinus beecheri, plate 5, figure 5). The complete fusion 
of the arms, gives rise to the genus Melocrinus (plates 6-16) with 
armlets arranged on opposite sides and which are usually biserial. The 
last step in this evolution would necessarily be in the development of its 
armlets and which becoming concentrated in a pair of them resulted in 
the Trichotocrinus type of arm (plate 16, figures 10-12). This 
development has been attended by the formation of secondary armlets 
along these two lateral branches and which bear pinnules. We see in this 
genus a case where some of the pinnules have developed into pinnule- 
bearing armlets. . . . This evolution as traced above is also brought out 
when these forms are considered in their relation to geologic time. 

Trichotocrinus Upper Devonian (Portage formation) 

Melocrinus Silurian and Devonian 

Mariacrinus Silurian and Lower Devonian" (ref. cit., 

PP- 2, 3). 
Undoubtedly, if an ontogenetic series of either M. (Trichotocrinus) 
lutheri or harrisi could be obtained all stages from the Maria- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 49 

crinus type to the Trichotocrinus type would be shown. We 
have one rather young specimen ofM. (Trichotocrinus) lutheri 
(plate 1 6, figure 9) which, so far as preserved, shows only the Melocrinus 
type of arm, but with the other characteristics of the arm of M. (Trich- 
otocrinus) lutheri. If the trichotomous type of branching is 
present it must occur rather high up in the arm. 

At present a large part of the phylogenetic questions concerning 
crinoids are still to be answered. 

3 Habitat and Distribution 

The geographic distribution of existing crinoids is fully as extensive 
as that of the other echinoderms. The free forms range between the 
parallels of 8i° _|/ N and 52 5' S, while the stalked forms have a range 
of 68° N to 46 S. Crinoids are found existing in depths of water ranging 
from between tide marks to 2900 fathoms; stalked forms have been found 
ranging only from 5 to 2325 fathoms. A n t e d o n has been dredged at 
2900 fathoms in the Pacific and 2600 fathoms in the Southern sea; the 
ten-armed species of Antedon have a wider range both in depth and 
in space than any other species of the genus. The great majority of 
existing types of crinoids are littoral or sublittoral. As a general rule, the 
individual species of crinoids are much limited in their range though there 
are a few well-marked exceptional cases. The East Indian region is 
assumed to be the center of distribution, and the generation center, of the 
recent crinoid fauna. 

Though a few forms are of a more solitary habit, crinoids, in general, 
like the other echinoderms are gregarious in their habits. This is especially 
the case with those living near the shore and in depths down to 150 
fathoms. Masses of crinoids in the East Indian region have been found 
to contain twenty or more different species. As a rule recent crinoids are 
very local and very unevenly distributed over the sea-floor. 

Fossil crinoids apparently were also gregarious in their habits. Their 
remains are found in Paleozoic rocks together with those of reef-building 



50 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

corals. Sometimes stems, detached joints of stems, roots and arms of 
crinoids are so abundant as to form crinoidal limestone beds of considerable 
thickness, which occur in numerous formations from the Ordovician to 
the Jurassic, being particularly characteristic in the Carboniferous and the 
Muschelkalk (Triassic of Germany). Fossil crinoids are usually found in 
a fragmentary condition because of the looseness with which the plates and 
segments are bound together and the delicacy of some of the skeletal parts. 
Calyces or dorsal cups are found much more frequently than perfect 
crowns, which, indeed, are of rather rare occurrence. 

A fragment from one of the largest and finest colonies of Devonian 
crinoids ever found is shown in photographic reproduction, about one-half 
natural size, on plate 25. On this slab from Vincent, N. Y., are shown 
a number of specimens of Clarkeocrinus troosti (Hall) , and 
also Acanthocrinus spinosus (Hall) , Gilbertsocrinus 
spinigerus (Hall) , and Eleutherocrinus whitfieldi 
Hall. 

Recent crinoids have hitherto been considered as the impoverished 
and decadent remains of a once numerous and powerful class. A. H. Clark 
in 19 1 5 made a study of existing crinoids. From his observations at sea 
he has reached the conclusion that ' ' recent crinoids are in every way as 
much a factor in present day marine biology, and play fully as important 
a part, as the echinoids, the holothurians, or the asteroids ' (ref. cit., 
p. 5). The small importance attached to the crinoids as recent animals in 
comparison with other echinoderms he believes has arisen from three causes 
(ref. cit., p. 5): (1) The paleontological record is remarkably complete. 
Because of the large percentage of lime and other inorganic materials in 
the organization of the crinoids they are more adapted to fossilization, 
and their fossils include a far greater variety of diverse types than the 
fossil representatives of other echinoderm classes. This makes the crinoids 
appear to have exceeded the other classes in the past in numbers, variety 
and general importance; and likewise blinds one to the true importance 
of recent representatives by causing them to appear relatively insignificant 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 5 1 

in comparison with the recent representatives of the other classes. (2) 

The number of species (living) hitherto known is small. The fact that 

the majority of specimens collected have slipped unheralded into museums 

and their study has presented many difficulties to investigators has allowed 

the proportionate number of known forms in the group to slip far behind 

those known in the other groups. (3) There is a paucity or absence of 

accessible species along the shores of the countries where there is the 

greatest interest and enthusiasm in zoology. 

Springer, in discussing the distribution of the crinoids in his recent 

monograph, states: 

Instead of only 12 genera and 212 species of stalked crinoids and 
comatulids known at the date of P. H. Carpenter's monographs upon the 
collections of the " Challenger ' expedition, there are now known 142 
genera and 576 species, of which 123 genera and 343 species have been 
described by Clark alone; these are distributed among 20 families and 
8 sub-families. The crinoids, therefore, constitute one of the richest and 
most varied faunas of the present seas, the extent and importance of which 
will continue to increase; for, notwithstanding the great acquisitions of the 
past dozen years due to the activities of numerous dredging expeditions 
maintained by different governments, the fact still remains that all these 
dredgings represent only the imperfect gleanings of a few out of the 
140,000,000 square miles which the oceans cover. The number of crinoids 
existing in certain localities is amazing; as many as 10,000 have frequently 
been brought up by a single haul of the dredge. A. Agassiz speaks of 
" a field of Rhizocrinus" growing on the sea bottom in the West 
Indies. At Singapore 24 species of crinoids have been taken within a 
radius of a few miles, a variety which is surpassed by but few localities 
of Paleozoic crinoids. (Springer, 1920, pp. 97, 98). 

4 Classification 
No attempt will be made here to give a history of the classification 
of the crinoids. An account of the earlier literature on this subject will 
be found in Koninck and Le Hon (1854) and W. B. Carpenter (1866). 
Accounts of later growth of knowledge are found in Zittel (1 876-1 880, 
1895), P. H. Carpenter (1884) and Wachsmuth and Springer (1897). A 
very good summary of the main stages is given in Bather (1900). 



52 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The classification followed here is that used by Springer (1913). 1 The 
divisions established by Wachsmuth and Springer are used as a basis. 
The name F 1 e x i b i 1 i a proposed by Zittel in 1 895 is adopted instead 
of their Articulata ; and the name Articulata in the sense of 
Miller and Muller is retained for a fourth division which includes the 
recent and most of the Mesozoic crinoids. The definition of the primary 
divisions of the Crinoidea as given by Springer are repeated here: 

Primary Divisions of the Crinoidea (Springer, 1913, p. 185; 1920, p. 105) 

I 
Crinoids with a rigid calyx in which the lower brachials are to a varying extent 
firmly incorporated into the dorsal cup, being rendered fixed and immovable by union 
either with dorsal or ventral structures. Plates of the calyx united by close suture. Mouth 
and calyx food-grooves chiefly subtegminal. Subject to modification as to either character 
in transition forms. Arms pinnulate. Order Camerata. 

II 
Crinoids with a flexible calyx in which the lower brachials are loosely incorporated 
into the dorsal cup either by lateral union with each other, by means of interbrachials. 
or of a skin studded with calcareous particles. All plates beyond the radials united by 
loose suture, and more or less movable. Mouth and tegminal food-grooves exposed. 
Arms" nonpinnulate. Order Flexibilia. 

Ill 
Crinoids with rigid calyx in which the brachials are free (or sometimes loosely con- 
nected) above the radials. Plates of the calyx united by close suture. Mouth sub- 
tegminal; food grooves suprategminal, but may be closed by fixed ambulacral plates. 
Arms pinnulate or nonpinnulate. Order Inadunata. 

IV 

Crinoids in which the mode of union of the radials with the plates they bear is by 
complete muscular articulation, and in which are combined the following additional 
characters: open mouth and food-grooves; dorsal canals perforating radial and arm 

1 The definitions of the primary divisions following are taken mainly from his more 
recent paper (1920, p. 105). 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 53 

plates; uniserial arms only; pinnules; the general presence of a modified columnal, or 
proximale; the general absence of bilateral, and presence of pentamerous, symmetry, 
modified only by loss or addition of rays and not by anal structures. Brachials either 
free, or more or less incorporated. Order Articulata. 

The first three of these divisions are represented in the Ordovician. The Camerata 
were the most specialized, and the first to disappear, being confined to the Paleozoic, and 
becoming extinct in the Lower Coal Measures. The Flexibilia were similarly 
limited. The Articulata range from the Mesozoic to the present time. The 
Inadunate type, representing the most generalized structure of the crinoids, is in its 
most essential features, though variously modified, carried forward with the Articulata, 
and thus has an unbroken range from the earliest Ordovician to the present. 

The Inadunata are further divided in the above classification 
into two suborders: (i) Larviformia, (2) Fistulata. The 
Larviformia are monocyclic, with a very simple form of dorsal cup 
and tegmen, with no anal plates; the arms are nonpinnulate, simple and 
uniserial (with one exception) . In the Fistulata the tegmen is com- 
posed of numerous plates; a strongly plated anal tube or ventral sac is 
present; the arms are pinnulate or nonpinnulate, usually uniserial, but 
biserial in some later genera; the base is monocyclic or dicyclic. 

The grouping of all the species here described according to the classi- 
fication used by Springer will be found below. 

Bather (1899, 1900) in an endeavor to work out a classification more 
along phylogenetic lines has adopted a classification in which the dis- 
tribution of the groups is quite different from that previously accepted. 
The classification is as follows (1900, p. 94): 

Subclass 1 MONOCYCLICA 
Order 1 Inadunata 
Order 2 Adunata 
Order 3 Camerata 

Suborder 1 Melocrinoidea 

Suborder 2 Batocrinoidea 

Suborder 3 Actinocrinoidea 



54 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Subclass 2 DICYCLICA 
Order i Inadunata 

Suborder i Cyathocrinoidea 
Suborder 2 Dendrocrinoidea 
Order 2 Flexibilia 

Grade 1 Impinnata 
Grade 2 Pinnata 
Order 3 Camerata 

Bather uses suborders and families where Springer uses families and 
sub-families. The A d u n a t a of Bather includes the two families 
Platycrinidae and Hexacrinidae which are regarded as 
atypical Camerata by Springer; and Springer's Articulata are 
divided between Bather's Articulate Grade of the Dendrocrinoidea 
and Grade Pinnata of the Flexibilia. 

The crinoids are first of all divided according to the presence or absence 
of infrabasals into Monocyclica and Dicyclica, and Bather traces in each 
of these sub-classes a gradual and to some extent parallel modification. 
The simplest forms in each division are the Inadunata, which pass 
through the Larviform stage with simple tegmen to a Fistulate stage with 
more complex anal tube and tegmen. The Monocyclic Camerata 
are derived from Monocyclic Inadunata at an early period 
(? Cambrian), and at a later period (Silurian) the Monocyclic 
A d u n a t a (or Platycrinoidea) arose. From the Dicyclic Inad- 
unata, similarly, arose the Dicyclic Camerata. About at the 
same time as the Adunata arose from the monocyclic strain, a modification 
of the Dicyclic Inadunata gave rise to the Flexibilia. The 
links between the nonpinnulate and pinnulate Flexibilia are missing. 
The Dicyclic Inadunata assumed an articulate modification in 
Mesozoic times, and only this type persisted to the present time. 

Jaekel (191 8) characterizes Bather's system of classification as unnat- 
ural and artificial and proposes a classification along natural lines which 
is a revision and enlargement of his earlier works along These lines. It is 
clear that in a circle of forms so narrowly limited similar structures are 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 55 

repeated in diverse places, so that parallelism and convergence are, so to 
speak, the order of the day. This, Jaekel says, must be recognized in 
classifications (ref. cit., pp. 1-4, 19). Jaekel's classification is taken up 
here somewhat in greater detail, because it differs so much from those 
generally accepted. 

The crinoids represent in their finished forms the normal ascending 
line of evolution of the Pelmatozoa. Aberrant forms occur here as every- 
where, and in the beginning, with unfinished types, the results were more 
pronounced than later in the quiet stream of evolution. For these reasons 
Jaekel established the subclass Eocrinoidea. A part of these forms separate 
themselves as individual aberrant, experimental forms just as far from the 
normal type of crinoids as perhaps the Cystoids. The aberrant forms are 
isolated, the others are the forbears of crinoids in general (ref. cit., p. 13). 

The forms seen in the Inadunata Larviformia, which 
Bather and Wachsmuth and Springer place as the starting point of the 
whole system, are regarded differently by Jaekel. He believes, while the 
simple form is doubtless didactically convenient as a starting point, that 
as a rule it is the final result of much transformation and most decidedly 
not primitive. Development brings complications, and leads to practically 
simple forms. The idea in organic progress is that every biological process 
should be accomplished in the best way and by the least means. In the 
beginning this is not simplicity, but lack of regularity, as shown in the 
forms placed by Jaekel in his subclass Eocrinoidea (ref. cit., p. 13). 

The Crinoidea are divided by Jaekel into three subclasses : Eocri- 
noidea (Jaekel 1 899) ; Cladocrinoidea (Jaekel 1 894) ; Penta- 
crinoidea (Jaekel 1 894) . The Eocrinoidea, constituting a 
new subclass, is the subdivision Eocrinites of the Cladocrinoidea 
used by Jaekel in 1899 (p. 174). This group comprises the more primitive 
crinoids of the Cambrian and Lower Silurian forms such as Acantho- 
cystites, Eocystites, Protocystis, Ascocystis of the 
order Atava ;Lichenoides,Cryptocrinus,of the order Reducta ; 
Macrocystella of the order Plicata ; Malocystis of the order 



56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Deviata, previously placed with the Cystoidea (ref. cit., pp. 24-27). The 
many plated Eocrinoidea (Order Atava) from the Lower and Middle 
Cambrian, of all the at present known crinoids, Jaekel believes stand 
nearest the primitive form of the Pelmatozoa — a form such asAcantho- 
c y s t i s Barrande with irregular arrangement of plates and biserial appen- 
dages, which Jaekel terms " fingers " because they are formed in handlike 
groups, five in number (ref. cit., p. 15). 

Under his discussion of stem and root Jaekel states that originally 
the stem and root were the rear extension of the body which, however, 
through the curvature of the intestine to the upper side came no longer 
to be occupied by this chief organ of the body and was thereby reduced 
to a passive appendage. He further states that it is probable that 
in the lower Pelmatozoa in its often very wide lumen it contains not 
only the coelom but also the parietal organ, probably originally genital 
(ref. cit., p. 5). Jaekel now places in his Eocrinoidea Cigara dusli 
Barrande, a root form, formerly described with the cystids, which is the 
bulky hind end of the body still in the process of transformation to stem 
and root. From its associations, Jaekel judges this to be the root and 
stem of an Ascocystites or a form like it. InAscocystites 
the arm groups indicate the regularity of the echinoderm body, but the 
calyx skeleton is almost indifferent to regularity of arrangement under the 
arms, except that later a carina is developed under each finger group. 
This is brought about, according to Jaekel, through the pressure of the 
arm groups, which, he believes, governs the whole regularity of the calyx 
skeleton (ref. cit., pp. 15, 16, 18). 

Forms like Acanthocystites and Cigara (Order Atava) 
Jaekel has made the types of his Eocrinoidea to which forms such as 
Lichenoides (Order Reducta) and Macrocystella (Order 
Plicata; placed with cystids by Jaekel in 1899) belong as aberrant side 
forms (ref. cit., p. 18). The order Plicata containing the Macrocystellidae 
(M acrocy stella, etc.) Jaekel believes leads to the regular cystids, 
especially to C h e i r o'c r i n u s (ref. cit., p. 26). Under the order Reducta 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 57 

Jaekel has placed the Family Paractocrinidae containing new genera 
(Paractocrinus, Parorthocrinus, Tetractocrinus) 
from the Lower Silurian, Petersburg, which are somewhat intermediate 
in development. These genera have pentamerous rings of plates which 
do not completely alternate; but lie over one another in a steplike forma- 
tion, because each succeeding ring of plates instead of being moved laterally 
one-half the breadth of the plates is moved one-quarter or less (ref. cit., 
pp. 22, 25, 26). 

Comarocystites Billings is placed in the Eocrinoidea pro- 
visionally. The arms are described by Billings as uniserial with lateral 
branches. If, Jaekel says, this statement, up to now unproved, should 
be established, one must reckon with the possibility that Comaro- 
cystites is an aberrant form of a higher type of crinoid, since such 
specialized arm structure is so far entirely unknown within the Eocrinoidea 
(ref. cit., p. 27). Foerste (1916, pp. 69-73) has described Comaro- 
cystites and Caryocrinites as the only cystids known at present 
in which the arms are free and pinnulif erous ; Comarocystites 
has uniserial arms and uniserial pinnules, Caryocrinites has biserial 
arms and biserial, brachiolar pinnules. This, according to Jaekel's defini- 
tion, excludes these forms from the Eocrinoidea and places them as 
aberrant forms of a higher crinoid type. Foerste' s paper undoubtedly 
did not reach Jaekel on account of the war. Hudson (191 8) describes a 
primitive crinoid which he calls Embryocrinus problematicus. 
It has two arms and is associated with biserial pinnules which Hudson 
believes belonged to it. Under other classifications this form would belong 
to the cystids with Comarocystites ; under Jaekel's classification 
it would belong among the crinoids with Comarocystites and 
Caryocrinites as an aberrant form of a higher crinoid type. 

The chief thing, then, is that the Eocrinoidea form the starting point 
of the genuine crinoids and doubtless of the many plated forms which 
Wachsmuth and Springer have grouped together as Camerata and which 
Bather has divided into Adunta, Monocyclica Camerata and Dicyclica 



58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Camerata. Bather's system, Jaekel believes, tears apart a natural group 
of the crinoids and in particular in the Monocyclica Adunta separates from 
the Monocyclica Camerata their immediate descendants (ref. cit., p. 18). 
Jaekel's subclass Cladocrinoidea is practically the equivalent of the Came- 
rata of Wachsmuth and Springer. The essential progress and development 
from the Eocrinoidea to the Cladocrinoidea lies in this; that their " fingers ' 
became more efficient through the transformation of the small side plates 
into pinnules and also became heavier; that through this they pressed 
more strongly upon the calyx wall and the calyx plates became arranged 
in a costal series under each arm group. The starting point of the 
Cladocrinoidea must be far back within the Eocrinoidea, since only among 
the most primitive representatives, as Acanthocystites, were the 
brachioles arranged in groups in a pentamerous fashion and the calyx 
composed so indifferently of small plates that they could be shoved into 
the right place under the arms in the arrangement characteristic of the 
primitive Cladocrinoidea calyx. The changes brought about through the 
development of the ' ' fingers ' ' would change before everything the costal 
calyx skeleton in a great variety of ways; while the deep lying base would 
be relatively little affected and therefore a good character for the separation 
of forms (ref. cit., pp. 29, 30). 

Jaekel divides the Cladocrinoidea into two orders Monocyclica and 
Dicyclica; but he says that the dicyclic base of the Cladocrinoidea has an 
entirely different morophological meaning than that of the Pentacrinoidea, 
and this, therefore, is another objection to Bather's division of the crinoids 
into Monocyclica and Dicyclica. In the Cladocrinoidea the monocyclic 
and dicyclic bases are due to differences in transference of pressure. The 
monocyclic base is considered the higher form by Jaekel, and this type 
of base is carried over into the Pentacrinoidea. Here the infrabasal ring 
is formed from the uppermost small stem pieces. Continued strong pressure 
of the much branched arms leads in most of these ' dicyclic ' Penta- 
crinoidea to a reduction of the infrabasals, which in the living comatulids 
are only preserved in the embryonic development (ref. cit., pp. 19, 20, 30) 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 59 

The Pentacrinoidea stand nearest to the tetramerous monocyclic 
Cladocrinoidea. ' Perittocrinus, from the Lower Silurian, Peters- 
burg, is a transitional form between the Cladocrinoidea and the Penta- 
crinoidea; and it is perhaps altogether the most interesting transitional 
form, because it not only binds together two divergent classes, but also 
makes the path of the transformation process clear. The intercostal 
plates noted in the calyx of the Cladocrinoidea were suppressed here; they 
are pressed into the angles between the plates which belong to the radials 
and basals of the Cladocrinoidea. That these small plates are here no 
new formation is demonstrated by their pore-rhombs which have been 
developed from an earlier system of tension-carinae which bound together 
equivalent plate centers. This same system of carinae is found in the 
same places in the somewhat younger Porocrinus (Fistulata) , but here 
there are no small plates in the angles. Likewise, the calyx here shows 
pentamerous regularity; the number of the basals has been increased from 
four to five and the eight groups of the small upper stem pieces of 
Perittocrinus have fused to uniform infrabasals (ref. cit., pp. 43, 
46-48). 

Jaekel's subclass Pentacrinoidea includes all forms except the Came 
rata, and is divided into several orders: (1) Order Fistulata (W. & Sp. 
modified by Jaekel ; see Orders Reducta, Turbata and Costata below) ; 

(2) Order Articulata (Joh. Miiller, not W. & Sp.; see Order Costata below) ; 

(3) Order Articulosa (Flexibilia of Springer, Flexibilia impinnata of Bather) . 
The Articulosa, Jaekel believes, started before the Articulata, probably 
as descendants of Lower Silurian Dendrocrinidae, along the same lines of 
development, but in this did not go as far as the Articulata (ref. cit., 
p. 77) ; (4) Order Reducta. This order and the following include the 
Larviformia of Wachsmuth and Springer, which Jaekel regards not as the 
most primitive crinoids but as simplified crinoids (see p. 55), and some of 
the forms placed in Wachsmuth and Springer's Fistulata; (5) Order 
Turbata; (6) Order Costata (Jaekel 1894). In this order are included 
forms placed by Springer (191 3) in the Fistulata, under the family Platy- 



60 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

crinidae in the Camerata ( C occocrinus, Thallocrinus, etc.) and 
forms (Saccoma, Hyocrinus, Plicatocrinus etc.) grouped 
under the Articulata. The relationships of the divisions of the Penta- 
crinoidea are given as follows (ref. cit., p. 49): 

Articulata ^Articulosa 

Reducta^ 

_____ Fistulata^ 

Turbata— — — " ^^.Costata 

Perittocrinus-^^^^ 

Arrangement of Species of New York Devonian Crinoids According to 

the Classification Used by Springer 
Order CAMERATA Wachsmuth and Springer 
Family DIMEROCRINIDAE Bather 
Genus Dimerocrinus Phillips 1836 

Dimerocrinus arborescens (Talbot) n. comb. 
Dimerocrinus ivhitfieldi sp. nov. 
Genus Pterinocrinus nov. 

Pterinocrinus quinquenodus sp. nov. 
Family RHODOCRINIDAE Roemer 
Genus Rhodocrinus J. S. Miller 1821 
Rhodocrinus nodulosus Hall 
Rhodocrinus nodulosus var. pernodosus nov. 
Genus Acanthocrinus Roemer 1850 (em. Jaekel 1895) 
Aca?ithocrinus spinosus (Hall) n. comb. 
Acanthocrinus onondaga sp. nov. 
Genus Gilbertsocrinus Phillips 1836 
Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus (Hall) 
Genus Sphaerotocrinus nov. 

Sphaerotocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 
Genus Thylacocrinus Oehlert 1878 
Thylacocrinus clarkei W. & Sp. 
Thylacocrinus gracilis (Hall) n. comb. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 6l 

Family MELOCRINIDAE Zittel (em. Wachsmuth and Springer) 
Section Melocrinites W. & Sp. 

Genus Mariacrinus Hall 1859 (restr. W. & Sp. 1881, 1897) 

Mariacrinus plumosus Hall 

Mariacrinus ramosus Hall 

Mariacrinus stoloniferus Hall 

Mariacrinus beecheri Talbot 
Genus Melocrinus Goldfuss 1826 (W. & Sp. 1897) 

Melocrinus nobilissimus (Hall) 

Melocrinus pachydactylus (Conrad) 

Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 

Melocrinus nodosus (Hall) 

Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis Hall & Whitfield 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

Melocrinus gracilis W. & Sp. 

Melocrinus reticularis Olsson 

Melocrinus williamsi Olsson 

Melocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Melocrinus sp. (?) 

Melocrinus sp. nov. . 

Melocrinus splendens sp. nov. 

Melocrinus willetensis sp. nov. 

Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus nov. 
Nomen Nudum 

Encrinites triciclas Eaton 

Subgenus Trichotocrinus Olsson 19 12 
Trichotocrinus harrisi Olsson 
Trichotocrinus (?) lutheri sp. nov. 
Section Dolatocrinites W. & Sp. 

Genus Clonocrinus Quenstedt 1876 

Clonocriiuis (?) macro petalus (Hall) n. comb. 



62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Genus Dolatocrinus Lyon 1857 (W. & Sp. 1897) 

Dolatocrinus glyptus (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedins (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. parvulus nov. 

Dolatocrinus lamellosus (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus speciosus (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus ornatus Meek 

Dolatocrinus marshi var. glaber nov. 

Dolatocrinus insignis sp. nov. 

Dolatocrinus lobatus sp. nov. 
Genus Clarkeocrinus nov. 

Clarkeocrinus troosti (Hall) n. comb. 
Genus Craterocrinus nov. 

Crater ocrinus ruedemanni sp. nov. 

Craterocrinus sclwharie sp. nov. 
Genus Comanthocrinus Springer '1920 

Comanthocrinus indianensis (Miller & Gurley) 

Comanthocrinus priscus Springer 
Genus Himerocrinus Springer 1920 

Himer ocrinus (?) polydactylus (Hall) 
Family BATOCRINIDAE Wachsmuth and Springer 
Subfamily Periechocrininae W. & Sp. 
Genus Acacocrinus W. & Sp. 1897 

Acacocrinus pentadactylus (Grabau) n. comb. 
Genus Corocrinus nov. 

Cor ocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 

Corocrinus (?) calypso (Hall) n. comb. 
Genus Saccocrinus Hall 1852 

Saccocrinus (?) hamiltonensis sp. nov. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 63 

Genus Gennaeocrinus W. & Sp. 1881, 1897 

Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis (Shumard) 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus var. crassicostatus nov. 

Gennaeocrinus decorus sp. nov. 

Gennaeocrinus peculiaris sp. nov. 
Genus Megistocrinus Owen & Shumard 1852 (W. & Sp. 1897) 

Megistocrinus depressus Hall 

Megistocrinus Ontario Hall 
Genus Thamnocrinus nov. 

Thamnocrinus springeri sp. nov. 
Subfamily Batocrininae W. & Sp. 

Genus Aorocrinus W. & Sp. 1897 

Aorocrinus cauliculus (Hall) 

Aorocrinus praecursor (Hall) 

Aorocrinus armatus sp. nov. 

Aorocrinus formosus sp. nov. 

Aorocrinus longidactylus sp. nov. 
Family PLATYCRINIDAE Roemer 
Genus Cyttarocrinus nov. 

Cyttarocrinus eriensis (Hall) n. comb. 

Cyttarocrinus (?) jewetti sp. nov. 
Genus Cordylocrinus Angelin 1878 

Cordylocrinus plumosus (Hall) 

Cordylocrinus (?) ramulosus (Hall) 
Genus Marsipocrinus Bather 1889 (for Marsupiocrinus Phillips 

1839) 

Marsipocrinus tentaculatus (Hall) 

Family HEXACRINIDAE Wachsmuth and Springer 

Genus Arthracantha Williams 1883 

Arthracantha eboracea (Hall) n. comb. 



64 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arthracantha punctobrachiata (Hall) 
Arthracantha carpenteri (Hinde) 
Arthracantha ithacensis Williams 
Arthracantha depressa W. & Sp. 
Arthracantha granosa sp. nov. 
Arthracantha splendens sp. nov. 
Order FLEXIBILIA Zittel 
Suborder SAGENOCRINOIDEA Springer 
Familly^CHTHYOCRINIDAE Wachsmuth and Springer 
Genus Clidochirus Angelin 1878 

Clidochirus schucherti (Talbot) 
Genus Synaptocrinus Springer 1920 
Synaptocrinus nuntius (Hall) 
FamilyiTAXOCRINIDAE Bather em. Springer 
Genus Eutaxocrinus Springer 1906 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis (Williams) 
Eutaxocrinus alpha (Williams) 
Eutaxocrinus curtus (Williams) 
Eutaxocrinus pulcher Springer 
Eutaxocrinus amplus Springer 
Eutaxocrinus dumosus sp. nov. 
Genus Taxocrinus Phillips 1843 
Taxocrinus lobatus (Hall) 

Order INADUNATA Wachsmuth and Springer 
Suborder LARVIFORMIA Wachsmuth and Springer 
Family PISOCRINIDAE Angelin 

Genus Hypsocrinus Springer & Slocom 1906 
Hypsocrinus fieldi Springer & Slocom 
Family ANAMESOCRINIDAE nov. 
Genus Anamesocrinus nov. 

Anamesocrinus lutheri sp. nov. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 65 

Family HAPLOCRINIDAE Roemer 

Genus Haplocrinus Steininger 1837 
Haplocrinus clio Hall 
Family SYMBATHOCRINIDAE Wachsmuth and Springer 
Genus Symbathocrinus Phillips 1836 

Symbathocrinus subtrigonalis sp. nov. 
Symbathocrinus sulcatus sp. nov. 
Genus Stylocrinus Sandberger 1850 

Stylocrinus (?) canandaigua sp. nov. 
Suborder FISTULATA Wachsmuth and Springer 
Family HETEROCRINIDAE Zittel 

Genus Brachiocrinus Hall 1859 
Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall 
Family CREMACRINIDAE Ulrich 

Genus Deltacrinus Ulrich 1886 

Deltacrinus clarus (Hall) 
Genus Halysiocrinus Ulrich 1886 (em. Bather 1893) 
Halysiocrinus secundus (Hall) n. comb. 
Family CYATHOCRINIDAE Roemer (em. Wachsmuth and Springer) 
Subfamily Carabocrininae Springer 
Genus Lasiocrinus Kirk 191 1 
Lasiocrinus scoparius (Hall) 
Lasiocrinus (?) schohariensis sp. nov. 
Genus Iteacrinus nov. 

Iteacrinus flagellum sp. nov. 
Iteacrinus robustus sp. nov. 
Genus Cradeocrinus nov. 

Cradeocrinus elongatus sp. nov. 
Cradeocrinus per gracilis sp. nov. 
Subfamily Gasterocominae Springer 
Genus Schultzicrinus Springer 191 1 
Schultzicrinus typus Springer 

Schultzicrinus (?) elongatus Springer 
5 



66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Genus Arachnocrinus Meek & Worthen 1866 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus (Hall) 

Arachnocrinus extensus W. & Sp. 

Arachnocrinus ignotus Stauffer 
Genus Myrtillocrinus Sandberger 1855 

Myrtillocrinus americanus Hall 

Myrtillocrinus (?) levis (Wood) 
Genus Mictocrinus nov. 

Mictocrinus robustus sp. nov. 
Family BOTRYOCRINIDAE Bather 

Genus Botryocrinus Angelin 1878 (em. Bather 1891) 

Botryocrinus nycteus (Hall) n. comb. 

Botryocrinus crassus (Whiteaves) 

Botryocrinus americanus Rowley 

Botryocrinus concinnus sp. nov. 

Botryocrinus obconicus sp. nov. 

Botryocrinus sentosus sp. nov. 
Genus Hallocrinus nov. 

Hallocrinus ornatissimus (Hall) n. comb. 
Genus Maragnicrinus Whitfield 1905 

Maragnicrinus portlandicus Whitfield 
Family GLOSSOCRINIDAE nov. 
Genus Glossocrinus nov. 

Glossocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Glossocrinus cornellianus (Williams) n. comb. 
Genus Liparocrinus nov. 

Liparocrinus batheri sp. nov. 

Liparocrinus halli sp. nov. 
Genus Charientocrinus nov. 

Charientocrinus ithacensis sp. nov. 
Genus Catactocrinus nov. 

Catactocrinus leptodactylus sp. nov. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 6 J 

Family POTERIOCRINIDAE Roemer (em. Wachsmuth and Springer) 
Subfamily Poteriocrininae Springer 

Genus Poteriocrinus Miller 1821 (em. W. & Sp. 1881) 

Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus Hall 

Poteriocrinus nassa Hall 

Poteriocrinus clarkei Williams 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Williams 

Poteriocrinus zethus Williams 

Poteriocrinus (?) dignatus sp. nov. 
Nomina Nuda 

Poteriocrinus verticillus Hall 

Poteriocrinus indentus Hall 
Genus Decadocrinus W. & Sp. 1879 

Decadocrinus nereus (Hall) n. comb. 

Decadocrinus gregarius Williams 

Decadocrinus decemnodosus sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus insolens sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus killawogensis sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus var. serratobrachiatus nov. 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus sp. nov. 
Genus Corematocrinus nov. 

Corematocrinus plumosus sp. nov. 
Genus Logocrinus gen. nov. 

Logocrinus infundibuliformis sp. nov. 

INCERTAE SEDIS 
Family (?) 

Genus Aspidocrinus Hall 1859 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Hall 

Aspidocrinus digitatus Hall 

Aspidocrinus callosus Hall 

Aspidocrinus onondagensis sp. nov. 



68 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Family EDRIOCRINIDAE S. A. Miller (Talbot) 

Genus Edriocrinus Hall 1859 ( em - Springer 1920) 
Edriocrinus pocilliformis Hall 
Edriocrinus sacculus Hall 
Edriocrinus pyriformis Hall 
Edriocrinus becraftensis Clarke 
Edriocrinus dispansus Kirk 
Edriocrinus holopoides Springer 
Family (?) 

Genus Ancyrocrinus Hall 1862 
Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall 
Ancyrocrinus quinquepartitus sp. nov. 

Synonyms 
Gilbertsocrinus indianensis (M. & G.) = ? Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus (Hall) 
Dolatocrinus liratus var. midtilira (Hall) = Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 
Megistocrinus ornatus M. & G. = Megistocrinus depress us Hall 
Aorocrinus ? pocillum (Hall) = Megistocrinus depressus Hall 
Cordylocrinus parvus (Hall) = Cordylocrinus plumosus (Hall) 

Nomina Nuda 

Encrinites triciclas Eaton 

Poteriocrinus indentus Hall 

Poteriocrinus verticillus Hall 

Stratigraphic Distribution of the New York Devonian Crinoids 

As shown by the accompanying table and list, the species of Devonian 
crinoids here described have no extensive range. As far as collections 
already made show, they are for the most part confined to one formation. 
The majority of the Camerata occur in the Lower Devonian; the majority 
of the Flexibilia in the Upper Devonian. The Inadunata are about equally 
abundant in the Lower and Upper Devonian, the largest number coming 
from the Hamilton and Chemung beds. 



TABLE SHOWING THE STRATIGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OI 


THE SPECIES OF NEW YORK DEVONIAN CRmOIDS 




"2 '-3 


« § Marcellu 
g« Bbds 

O 


s Hamilton Genesee Portage Beds Beds Chemung 
BBDS Bkds (Naples Fauna) (Ithaca Beds 

Fauna) 


Lower Heldcrbcrfi (Lcwiston 1. 
Lower Helderberg (Linden form, 
Coeymans limestone 
New Scotland limestone 
Becraft limestone 


| Oriskany limestone 

| Oriskany (Glenerie) limestone 

| Schoharie grit 

| Onondaga limestone 

[ Marcellus black shale 

1 Cherry Valley 1. s. (incl. in 

Marcellus) 
| Stafford limestone 


| Skaneateles shale 

1 Ludlowville shale (incl. Center 
field 1. s. at base) 


I Tichenor limestone 

1 Moscow shale (incl. Menteth 

| 1..J 

| Hamilton shales 

I Tully limestone 
I Genesee black shale 

| Huron shales (Ohio) 
[ Genundcwa limestone 
| West River shale 
| Standish flags and shales 
| Middlesex shale 
f Cashaqua shale (incl. Porrish 
1. s. at top) 

I Rhinestrcet shale 

| Angola shale (=C=Lower Hatch! 

| Hanovcrshale(=0=UpperHatchl 


| Hatch shales 

| Dunkirk shale 

| Grimes sandstone 

| Gardeau flags 

I Nunda sandstone 

| Laona sandstone (= L. Nunda) 

I Wiscoy shale 

| Portage (Naples) beds 

[ Sherburne sandstone 

I Ithaca beds 

j Enfield shale 

1 West Hill flags 

I Lower Chemung beds 

I L. Chemung (Prattsburg sand- 
stone) 


! 

u 
U 

6 9 

11 


CAMERATA 
































































































* 


































X 


• 










































X 












































■ * 




























X - X 
























x x 




















































X 


















■ * 
























































































































































































































































































X 
































PLEXIBILIA 














































































• x x 














INADUNATA 










































X 


















X 
X 






































































I 




























X 






Glossocrinus corncllianus 

Glossocrinus naplcsensis. 


















;;«;;;; 


X 

- - X 

.... X 

X X 










Hypsocrinus t'veldi 

Itcacnnus tlngi-llum 

Iteacrinus rubustus. . . . 












Liparocrinus bjtheri 

Lipjrocnnus hull. 

Logocrinus geniculatus. 

Logocrinus mfundibuliformis 

Maragmcrinus portlandicus. . 


1 








Myrtillocrinus 1 ?) levis 

Poteriocrinus cUrkei 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha 


... * 


X 






X 
















X 






Schultzicrinus typus 


























INCERTAE SEDIS 


















.. 












































! •, ■••-■•;.-»: .-« 
• ■■■ '! Ui.-i ■ ,-. 
-* •' •- -;.ir. fj Jr-.. 



•• . -•> . :■ • 



■:■ 



■ • 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



69 



List of Species of New York Devonian Crinoids According to the Forma- 
tions in Which They Occur 



LEWISTON LIMESTONE (Lower Helderberp, 
Pa.) 
Camerata 

Sphaerotocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 
LINDEN FORMATION (Lower Helderberg, 

Tenn.) 
Incertae sedis 

Edriocrinus dispansus Kirk 
COEYMANS LIMESTONE 
Camerata 

Cordylocrinus plumosus (Hall) 

Cordylocrinus (?) ramulosus (Hall) 

Dimerocrinus arborescens (Talbot) n. comb. 

Mariacrinus beecheri Talbot 

Mariacrinus plumosus Hall 

Mariacrinus ramosus Hall 

Melocrinus nobilissimus (Hall) 

Melocrinus pachydactylus (Conrad) 

Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 
Inadunata 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall 

Lasiocrinus scoparius (Hall) 
Incertae sedis 

Edriocrinus pyriformis Hall 
NEW SCOTLAND LIMESTONE 
Camerata 

Craterocrinus schoharie sp. nov. 

Himerocrinus (?) polydactylus (Hall) 

Mariacrinus stoloniferus Hall 

Marsipocrinus tentaculatus (Hall) 
Flexibilia 

Clidochirus schucherti (Talbot) 
Inadunata 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall 
Incertae sedis 

Aspidocrinus callosus Hall 

Aspidocrinus digitatus Hall 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Hall 

Edriocrinus pocilliformis Hall 



BECRAFT LIMESTONE 
Camerata 

Clonocrinus (?) macropetalus (Hall) n. comb. 
Incertae sedis 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Hall 
ORISKANY LIMESTONE 
Incertae sedis 

Edriocrinus becraftensis Clarke 
Edriocrinus bolopoides Springer 
ORISKANY (GLENERIE) LIMESTONE 
Incertae sedis 

Ancyrocrinus quinquepartitus 
Edriocrinus sacculus Hall 
SCHOHARIE GRIT 
Inadunata 

Lasiocrinus (?) schohariensis sp. nov. 
ONONDAGA LIMESTONE 
Camerata 
Acanthocrinus onondaga sp. nov. 
Comanthocrinus priscus Soring er 
Craterocrinus ruedemanni sp. nov. 
Dolatocrinus lamellosus (Hall) 
Dolatocrinus lobatus sp. nov. 
Dolatocrinus marshi var. glaber nov. 
Dolatocrinus ornatus Meek 
Dolatocrinus speciosus (Hall) 
Inadunata 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus (HalD 
Arachnocrinus extensus W. & Sp. 
Arachnocrinus ignotus Stauffer 
Halysiocrinrs secundus (Hall) n. comb. 
Mictocrinus robustus sp. nov. 
Myrtillocrinus am°ricanus Hall 
Myrtillocrinuf (?) levis (Wood) 
Schultzicrinus (?) elongatus Springer 
Schultzicrinus typus Springer 
Symbathocrinus sulcatus sp. nov. 
Incertae sedis 

Aspidocrinus onondagensis sp. nov. 



70 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



MARCELLUS (CHERRY VALLEY LIME- 
STONE) 
Inadunata 

Haplocrinus clio Hall 
HAMILTON SHALES 

1 Skaneateles shale 
Inadunata 

Botryocrinus concinnus sp. nov. 
Poteriocrinus (?) dignatus sp. nov. 

2 Ludlowville shale 
Camerata 

Arthracantha eboracea (Hall) n. comb. 

Corocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 

Dolatoerinus glyptus (Hall) 

Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood 

Gennaeoerinus eucharis (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa (Hall) 

Megistoerinus depressus Hall 

Megistocrinus Ontario Hall 
Flexibilia 

Synaptocrinus nuntius (Hall) (?) 
Incertae sedis 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall 

3 Moscow shale 
Camerata 

Acacocrinus pentadactylus (Grabau) n. comb. 
Acanthocrinus spinosus (Hall) n. comb. 
Aorocrinus armatus sp. nov. 
Aorocrinus cauhculus (Hall) 
Aorocrinus formosus sp. nov. 
Aorocrinus longidactylus sp. nov. 
Aorocrinus praecursor (Hall) 
Arthracantha eboracea (Hall) n. comb. 
Clarkeocrinus troosti (Hall) n. comb. 
Comanthocrinus indianensis (Miller & Gurley) 
Corocrinus (?) calypso (Hall) n. comb. 
Cyttarocrinus eriensis (Hall) n. comb. 
Dimerocrinus whitfieldi sp. nov. 
Dolatocrinus glyptus (Hall) 
Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedins (Hall) 
Dolatocrinus insignis sp. nov. 



Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 
Dolatocrinus liratus var. parvulus nov. 
Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood 
Gennaeocrinus carinatus var. crassicostatus 

nov. 
Gennaeocrinus eucharis (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis (Shumard) 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa (Hall) 

Gennaeocrinus peculiaris sp. nov. 

Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus (Hall) 

Megistocrinus depressus Hall 

Megistocrinus Ontario Hall 

Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall 

Melocrinus gracilis W. & Sp. 

Melocrinus sp. nov. 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus Hall 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus var. pernodosus nov. 

Saccocrinus (?) hamiltonensis sp. nov. 

Thamnocrinus springeri sp. nov. 

Thylacocrinus clarkei W. & Sp. 

Thylacocrinus gracilis (Hall) n. comb. 
Flexibilia 

Synaptocrinus nuntius (Hall) 

Taxocrinus lobatus (Hall) 
Inadunata 

Botryocrinus nycteus (Hall) n. comb. 

Botryocrinus obconicus sp. nov. 

Botryocrinus sentosus sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus var. serrato- 
brachiatus nov. 

Decadocrinus nereus (Hall) n. comb. 

Deltacrinus clarus (Hall) 

Hypsocrinus heldi Springer & Slocom 

Logocrinus geniculatus sp. nov. 

Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus Hall 

Poteriocrinus nassa Hall 

Stylocrinus (?) canandaigua sp. nov. 

Symbathocrinus subtrigonahs sp. nov. 
Incertae sedis 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



71 



4 Hamilton shale (division undetermined or outside 

State) 
Camerata 

Acanthocrinus spinosus (Hall) n. comb. 

Arthracantha carpenteri (Hinde) 

Arthracantha punctobrachiata (Hall) 

Cyttarocrinus (?) iewetti sp. nov. 

Gennaeocrinus decorus sp. nov. 

Melocrinus nodosus (Hall) (Wisconsin) 
Flexibilia 

Synaptocrinus nuntius (Hall) 

Taxocrinus lobatus (Hall) 
Inadunata 

Botryocrinus americanus Rowley (Indiana) 

Botryocrinus crassus (Whiteaves) 
TULLY LIMESTONE 
Camerata 

Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 
GENESEE SHALES 

1 Huron shales (Ohio) 
Camerata 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis Hall & Whitfield 

2 West River shales 
Camerata 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 
Inadunata 

Decadocrinus insolens sp. nov. 
PORTAGE (NAPLES) BEDS 

1 Cashaqua shale 
Camerata 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

2 Angola shale 
Camerata 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

3 Grimes sandstone 
Camerata 

Arthracantha granosa sp. nov. 
Inadunata 

Decadocrinus killawogensis sp. nov. 
Glossbcrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

4 Gardeau flags 
Inadunata 

Corematocrinus plumosus sp. nov. 



5 Laona sandstone 
Inadunata 

Anamesocrinus lutheri sp. nov. 

6 Portage (Naples) beds (division undet ermined) 
Inadunata 

Hallocrinus ornatissimus (Hall) n. comb. 
Maragnicrinus portlandicus Whitfield 
PORTAGE (ITHACA) BEDS 

1 Sherburne sandstone 
Flexibilia 

Eutaxocrinus curtus (Williams) 
Eutaxocrinus ithacensis (Williams) 

2 Ithaca beds 
Camerata 

Arthracantha ithacensis Williams 

Melocrinus reticularis Olsson 

Melocrinus williamsi Olsson 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) harrisi Olsson 
Flexibilia 

Eutaxocrinus dumosus sp. nov. 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis (Williams) 
Inadunata 

Charientocrinus ithacensis sp. nov. 

Cradeocrinus pergracilis sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus decemnodosus sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus killawogensis sp. nov. 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus sp. nov. 

Glossocrinus cornellianus (Williams) n. comb. 

Poteriocrinus zethus Williams 

3 West Hill flags 
Camerata 

Melocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 
Melocrinus sp. (?) 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) lutheri sp. 
nov. 
Inadunata 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus sp. nov. 
Glossocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 
LOWER CHEMUNG BEDS 
1 Prattsburg sandstone 
Camerata 
Arthracantha depressa W. & Sp. 



72 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



2 Lower Chemung (division undetermined) 
Camerata 

Arthracantha granosa sp. nov. 

Arthracantha ithacensis Williams (?) 

Arthracanthra splendens sp. nov. 

Melocrinus willetensis sp. nov. 

Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus nov. 

Pterinocrinus quinquenodus sp. nov. 
Flexibilia 

Eutaxocrinus alpha (Williams) 

Eutaxocrinus curtus (Williams) 

Eutaxocrinus pulcher Springer 
Inadunata 

Anamesocrinus lutheri sp. nov. 

Catactocrinus leptodaetylus sp. nov. 

Corematocrinus plumosus sp. nov. 

Cradeocrinus elongatus sp. nov. 

Deeadocrinus gregarius Williams 

Glossocrinus cornellianus (Williams) n. comb. 



Glossocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 
Iteacrinus flagellum sp. nov. 
Iteacrinus robustus sp. nov. 
Liparocrinus batheri sp. nov. 
Logocrinus infundibuliformis sp. nov. 
Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Williams 
UPPER CHEMUNG BEDS 
Camerata 

Melocrinus splendens sp. nov. 
Flexibilia 

Eutaxocrinus amplus Springer 
Inadunata 

Poteriocrinus clarkei Williams 
Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Williams 
CHEMUNG BEDS (division undetermined) 
Inadunata 

Liparocrinus halli sp. nov. 
Poteriocrinus clarkei Williams 



Summary of Terminology Used (Springer 1913; Bather iqoo) 

Crown. The crinoid without the column. 

Calyx. The crinoid without column or free arms. 

Dorsal cup. The part of the calyx below the origin of the free arms. 

Tegmen. The part of the calyx above the origin of the free arms, 
including the disk ambulacra, mouth and anus. Other names which 
have been used for the tegmen are ventral disk, vault, dome, and summit. 

Base. The proximal part of the dorsal cup, lying just above the column. 

It may be composed of one {monocyclic) or two (dicyclic) rings of plates. 

Basals (B). The proximal ring of plates in a monocyclic base. 

The basals are interradial in position, alternating with the radials which 

they adjoin. 

Infrabasals (IB). The proximal ring of plates in a dicyclic 
base. The infrabasals are radial in position. 

Radials (R). The ring of plates above the basals, radially situated. 
In some of the earlier crinoids the presence of a radianal or inferradials 
gives the appearance of transverse bisection of the radials. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 73 

Brachials (Br). The succession of radially situated plates above the 
radials. When they are incorporated in the dorsal cup, they are termed 
fixed brachials; otherwise, free brachials or arm-plates. 

Primibrachs (I Br). The brachials of the first order; that is, 
the brachials above the radial, up to and including the first axillary which 
is termed the primaxil (lax) . The brachials of the first order are also termed 
costals. 

Secundibrachs (II Br). Brachials of the second order; also known 
as distichals. The axillary is termed the secundaxil (I lax). 

Tertibrachs (IIIBr). Brachials of the third order, to which the 
name palmar s also is given. The succeeding orders which were known as 
post-palmar s are, according to position, quartibrachs , (IVBr), quintibrachs 
(VBr), etc. 

Interbrachials (iBr). The supplementary plates occupying the space 
between the rays proper. The interbrachials and the interambulacrals 
as well are termed interradials (IR). 

Inter secundibrachs (UIBr). The supplementary plates between 
the secundibrachs. Those between the tertibrachs are known as inter ter- 
tibrachs (ill I Br), etc. 

Anals. Interbrachials of the posterior side forming the base of the 
anal structures. 

Anal x. The special or first anal plate (x), which, when present, 
is situated between the radials and rests upon the truncated upper face of 
the posterior basal. Higher anal plates may be present even when the 
anal x is missing; they form a median series of plates between the inter- 
brachials. 

Radianal (RA). One of the anal plates occurring in the Inadunata 
and Flexibilia, when there are two present, and disturbing the bilateral 
symmetry of the cup. Primitively the radianal is located below the right 
posterior radial; but in later genera it is situated obliquely to the left, 
assisting in the widening of the anal area and the support of the anal 
tube. 



74 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Orals (0). Five large interradial plates which surround the mouth or 
cover it (see pages 21, 22 for views of Bather and Springer on orals). When 
they are nearly of the same size they are said to be symmetrical; when the 
posterior plate is larger than the other four or pushed in between them they 
are said to be asymmetrical. 

Ambulacrals (Amb). The covering-plates of the ventral groove 
(ambulacrum or ambulacral groove) of the arms which may be incorporated 
into the tegmen where they form radially situated rows of small plates 
The ambulacrals may be separated from the brachials or pinnulars by 
squarish side-plates or adambulacrals. When the ambulacra branch the 
ambulacrals, as in the case of the brachials, are termed ambulacrals of the 
first order or primary ambulacrals (I Amb), of the second order or secondary 
ambulacrals (II Amb), etc. 

Inter ambulacrals (iAmb). Supplementary plates of the tegmen which 
lie between the ambulacra. When the branches of the ambulacra are 
incorporated into the tegmen the supplementary plates between them 
are known as inter ambulacrals of the second order (ill Amb) , inter ambulacrals 
of the third order (UIIAmb), etc. 

Rami. The main arm-branches. 

Ramules. The smaller branches, or armlets, given off from the main 
arm-branch. 

Regular dichotomy or isotomy. A type of branching in which the 
bifurcations occur constantly at regular intervals. 

Irregular dichotomy or heterotomy. A type of branching produced 
by the suppression of bifurcations- at definite points. 

Bilateral heterotomy. A type of branching in which armlets occur 
alternately at the right and left of the main branch. 

Unilateral heterotomy. A type of branching in which armlets 
occur only on one side of the main branch. 

Uniserial arms. Arms in which the brachials are arranged in a single 
series and are more or less rectangular or wedge-shaped. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



75 



Biserial arms. Arms in which the brachials are arranged in two 
alternating rows with the smaller ends of the plates meeting midway. 

Pinnulars. Ossicles composing the pinnules, jointed appendages of the 
arms. 

Columnals. Ossicles composing the column or stem. 

Nodals. The larger columnals and all cirrus-bearing columnals. 
Internodals. The smaller columnals between the nodals. 
Proximale. The proximal columnal which in some forms remains 
fixed to the calyx and may be fused with the infrabasals. 




*»tft 



Figure 3.3 Diagrammatic analyses of a dorsal cup showing orientation and giving nomenclature; ant. R, 
anterior radius; r. ant. IR, right anterior interradius; r. ant. R, right anterolateral radius; r. post. IR, 
right posterolateral interradius; r. post. R, right posterior radius; post. IR, posterior interradius; /. 
post. R, left posterior radius; /. post. IR, left posterolateral interradius; /. ant. R, left anterolateral 
radius; /. ant. IR, left anterior interradius. 

Cirrals. The ossicles composing the cirri, jointed appendages of the 
column. 

Syzygy. An immovable sutural union between two brachials of a 
pinnulate arm. The lower brachial bears no pinnule and is termed the 
hypozygal; the upper, pinnule-bearing one is the epizygal. The term syzygy 
is also applied to a similar union between a cirrus-bearing nodal and the 
next lower columnal. 



76 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Orientation. For orientation the crinoid is placed in the natural position 
with the mouth and arms uppermost; and it is viewed from the anal side, 
which is always the posterior. The radius opposite the anal interradius 
is always anterior, and right and left are the right and left of the observer 
(fig. 33). According to this orientation, when viewed from above the anal 
side is nearest the observer (downwards in a figure) ; when viewed from below 
the anal side is always away from the observer (upwards in a figure). In 
analyses such as that shown in figure 33 A the anterior radius is always at 
the right. 

The above method of orientation suggested by Bather has received 
almost general acceptance. Jaekel (191 8, p. 8) objects to this orientation 
and the consequent terminology as unnatural and confusing. It can not be 
carried out in a part of the Pelmatozoa, because, as he points out, the anus 
among the cystids is not constant. Furthermore, among the Calceocrinidae 
with a new symmetry plane it works out in quite a confusing way. The 
same argument is carried over to the bilateral Echinoidea. 

Special Bibliography 
Bather, F. A. 

1890 British Fossil Crinoids II. The Classification of the Inadunata Fistulata. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 5:310-334, 373-388, 485, 486, pis. 14, 15 

1891 British Fossil Crinoids V. Botryocrinus, Wenlock Limestone, ser. cit.. 7:389- 

413, pi. 13 (see esp. 406-410) 

1892 Suggested Terms in Crinoid Morphology. Ser. cit. 9:51-66 

1 898-1 899 Wachsmuth and Springer's Monograph on Crinoids. Geol. Mag. 
new ser., dec. 4, 5:276-283, 318-329, 419-428, 522-527; 6:32-44, 
117-127; 34 text figs. Reprinted 1899, London 

1898 Wachsmuth and Springer's Classification of Crinoids. Natural Science, 

v. 12, no. 75, pp. 337-345- London 

1899 A Phylogenetic Classification of the Pelmatozoa. Rep. Brit. Assoc. 1898, 

pp. 916-923 

1900 Pores in the Ventral Sac of Fistulate Crinoids. Amer. Geol., 26:307-312 
1900 Lancaster's Treatise on Zoology, Pt. 3. The Echinoderma. pp. 1-43, 94-204, 

2 1 1-2 16. (Full bibliographies). London 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 77 

Bather, F. A. — Continued 

19 1 7 The Base in the Camerate Monocyclic Crinoids. Geol. Mag. dec. 6, v. 4, no- 

635, pp. 206-212 

19 1 8 The Homologies of the Anal Plate in Antedon. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist, ser 9, 

1:294-302 
Bell, J. F. 

1 89 1 On the Arrangement and Inter-relations of the Classes of the Echinodermata. 

Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, 8:206-215 
Beyrich, H. E. 

1 87 1 Ueber die Basis der Crinoidea Brachiata. Monatsber. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 

PP- 33 — 55- Translation in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 4, v. 7, 1871, pp. 

393-411 
Bury, H. 

1888 Early Stages in the Development of Antedon rosaceus. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
London, 179 6:257-300, pis. 43-47. (Bibliography) 
Carpenter, P. H. 

1878 On the Oral and Apical Systems of the Echinoderms. Quart. Jour. Micro. 
Sci. new ser., 18:351-83, 11 text figs., 1 table. London 

1884 Report on the Crinoidea, etc. The Stalked Crinoidea. Challenger Report, 
Zoology, v. 1 1 

1888 Report on the Crinoidea, etc., pt. 2. The Comatulae. Challenger Report. 
Zoology, v. 26 
Carpenter, W. B. 

1866 Researches on the Structure, Physiology and Development of Antedon (Coma- 
tula Lamk.) rosaceus. Pt. 1. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, pp. 671-756, 
pis. 31-43 

1876 Researches on the Structure, Physiology and Development of Antedon (Coma- 
tula Lamk.) rosaceus. Pt. 2. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 24:211-231; 451-455, 
pis. 8, 9 

1884 On the Nervous System of the Crinoidea. ser. cit., v. 37, no. 232, pp. 67-76 
Clark, A. H. 

1908 Some Points in the Ecology of Recent Crinoids. Amer. Nat., 42:717-726 

1909a The Axial Canals of the Recent Pentacrinidae. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 35, 
no. 1634, pp. 87-91 

19096 The Homologies of the Arm Joints and Arm Divisions in Recent Crinoids of 
the Families of the Comatulidae and the Pentacrinidae. v. cit., no. 1636, 

PP- 113-131 



78 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Clark, A. H. — Continued 

1909c The Non-muscular Articulations of Crinoids. Amer. Nat., v. 43, no. 514, 

PP- 577-587. figs- 1-14 
19090" The Affinities of the Echinoides. v. cit., no. 515, pp. 682-686 
1910a The Origin of the Criaoidal Muscular Articulations. Amer. Jour. Sci., 29 : 40-44 
19106 The Probable Origin of the Crinoidal Nervous System, ser. cit., 44:243, 

244 
1911a On the Origin of Certain Tj^pes of Crinoid Stems. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 38, 

no. 1740, pp. 2 1 1-2 16 
191 ib On the Inorganic Constituents of the Skeletons of Two Recent Crinoids. ser. 

cit., v. 39, no. 1795, pp. 487, 488 

19 1 2 The Homologies of the So-called Anal and Other Plates in the Pentacrinoid 

Larvae of the Free Crinoids. Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., 2:309-314 

1913 On the Deep Sea and Comparable Faunas. Internationale Revue der gesamten. 

Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 6:17-30, 133-146. Leipzig 

19 14 The Relation Between Recent Crinoids and the Temperature of Their Habitat. 

Jour. Wash. Acad. Sci., v. 4, no. 20, pp. 579-583 
1915a A Monograph of the Existing Crinoids. v. 1, The Comatulidae. U. S. Nat. 

Mus. Bui. no. 82, 387 pp. 17 pis., 513 text figs. 
19156 The Geographical Divisions of the Recent Crinoid Fauna. Jour. Wash. Acad. 

Sci., v. 5, no. 1, pp. 139-142. (See other papers along the same lines in 

volumes for 19 14 and 19 15) 
192 1 The Echinoderms as Aberrant Arthropods. Smith. Misc. Coll., v. 72, no. n, 

pp. 1-20 
Foeste, A. F. 

19 16 Comarocystites and Caryocrinites. Cystids with PimiuHferous Free Arms. 

Ottawa Naturalist, v. 30, no. 7, pp. 70-79, 85-93, pi. 2, 3 
Hudson, G. H. 

1918 Some Structural Features of a Fossil Embryo Crinoid. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 196 (for 1916), pp. 161-163, plate 
Jaekel, O. 

1894 Entwurf einer Morphogenie und Phylogenie der Crinoiden. Sitzber. Ges. 

naturf. Freunde Berlin, pp. 101-121 
1899 Stammesgeschichte der Pelmatozoen, v. 1:442., 18 pis., 88 text figures 
1918 Phylogenie und System der Pelmatozoen. Reprint from Palaeontologischen 

Zeitschrift, 3:1-128 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 79 

Kirk, E. 

191 1 The Structure and Relationships of Certain Eleutherozoic Pelmatozoa. Proc. 

U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 1846, 41:1-137, pis. 1-11. (Bibliography) 
1914 Notes on the Fossil Crinoid Genus Homocrinus Hall. ser. cit., no. 2038* 

46:473-483, pl- 42 
Koninck, L. G. de, & Le Hon, H. 

1854 Recherches sur les Crinoides du terrain Carbonifere de la Belgique. Mem. 
Acad. Roy. Belgique, v. 26, mem. 3, 215 pp., 7 pis. (Very full bibliography) 
Marshall, A. M. 

1884 On the Nervous System of Antedon rosaceus. Quart. Micro. Jour., v. 24 new 
ser., pp. 507-548, pl. 35. (Historical sketch incl.; bibliography in footnotes) 
Miller, J. S. 

182 1 A Natural History of the Crinoides, etc. viii 150 pp., 50 pis. 
MiUer S. A. 

1889 The Structure, Classification and Arrangement of American Palaeozoic Crinoid s 
into Families. 16th Ann. Rep't Dep't Geol. Nat. Hist. Indiana for 1888, 
pp. 302-326; Amer. Geol., v. 6, 1890, pp. 275-286, 340-354 
Miiller, Joh. 

1843 Ueber den Bau des Pentacrinus caput Medusae. Abhandl. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 
Phys. Kl., v. for 1841, pp. 177-248, 6 pis. 
Neumayr, M. 

1889 Die Stamme des Thierreiches. v. 1 (all published), vi & 603 pp. Wien und Prag. 
(Phylogeny of all Echinoderms) Crinoids, pp. 428-504 
Nicholson, H. A., & Lydekker, R. 

1889 A Manual of Paleontology, v. 1, ch.25, pp. 408-446. Edinburgh and London 
Parker, T. J., & Haswell, W. A. 

19 10 A Text-Book of Zoology, v. 1, ch. 9. London 
Patten, W. 

19 1 2 The Evolution of the Vertebrates and Their Kin. Echinoderms, pp. 421-430. 

Philadelphia 
Pictet, F. J. 

1857 Traite de Paleontologie. 2d ed., vol. 4, Crinoides, pp. 278-345. Paris. 
(Bibliography) 
Sardeson, F. W. 

1908 Discoid Crinoidal Roots and Camarocrinus. Jour. Geol., v. 16, no. 3, pp. 
239-254 



80 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Schuchert, C. 

1904 On Siluric and Devonic Cystidea and Camarocrinus. Smith. Misc. Coll. 
(quart, issue), v. 47, pt. 2, pp. 201-272, pis. 34-44 
Seeliger, O. 

1893 Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Crinoiden. Antedon rosaceus. Zool. 
Jahrb., Abth. f. Morph., v. 6:161-444, pis. 12-20. (Gives bibliography of 
Antedon embryology). 
Springer, F. 

1900 On the Presence of Pores in the Ventral Sac in Fistulate Crinoids. Amer. 

Geol., v. 26, no. 3, pp. 133-151, pi. 16 

1901 Unitacrinus : Its Structure and Relations. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, 

no. 1, pp. 1-89, pis. 1-8 
1906 Discovery of the Disk of Onychocrinus and Further Remarks on the Crinoidea 

Flexibilia. Jour. Geol., v. 14, no. 6, pp. 467-523, pis. 4-7 
191 1 Some New American Fossil Crinoids. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, no. 3, 

pp. 117— 161, pis. 1—6 
1 9 13 Zittel (Eastman), Textbook of Paleontology, 2d ed., pp. 173-243. (Biblio- 
graphy) 
19 1 7 On the Crinoid Genus Scyphocrinus and Its Bulbous Root Camarocrinus. 

Smith. Inst. Pub. no. 2440, pp. 1-55, 9 pis. (see particularly pp. 40-46) 
1920 The Crinoidea Flexibilia. Smith. Inst. Pub., no. 2501, 486 pp., A, B, C, & 76 
pis., 51 text figs. 
Thompson, W. 

1865 On the Embryogeny of Antedon rosaceus Line. (Comatula rosaceus Lamark). 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, pp. 513-544, pis. 12-27 
Wachsmuth, C. & Springer, F. 

1879-1886 Revision of the Palaeocrinoidea. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila, v. 31, 
1879, PP- 226-378, pis. 15-17; v. a, 1881, pp. 177-411. pis. 17-19; 
v. 37, 1885, pp. 225-364, pis. 4-9; v. 38, 1886, pp. 64-226. Author's 
ed., pt. 1, 1879; Pt- 2, 1881; pt. 3, 1885. (Index to all genera and 
species of Palaeozoic Crinoids, with references to literature) 
1888 Discovery of the Ventral Structure of Taxocrinus and Haplocrinus, and Con- 
sequent Modifications in the Classification of the Crinoidea. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 40; 337-361, pi. 18 
1897 North American Crinoidea Camerata. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., vols. 20, 21, 
authors' ed. v. 1, 2, Atlas 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 8 1 

Wilson, H. E. 

1 916 Evolution of the Basal Plates in Monocyclic Crinoidea Camerata. Jour. 

Geol., v. 24, nos. 5, 6, 7, pp. 488-508, 533-553. 665-684 (Bibliography) 
Wood, E. 

1914 The Use of Crinoid Arms in Studies of Phylogeny. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 

24; 1-17, pis. 1-5 
Zittel, K. A. von 

1880 Handbuch der Palaeontologie (Palaeozoologie) . v. 1, 1876-1880, pp. 308-560. 

Crinoids, pp. 315-405. Munchen and Leipzig 
1895 Grundziige der Palaeontologie (Palaeozoologie). viii & 971 pp., 8 pis. Munchen. 

(First portion translated as Textbook of Paleontology by C. R. Eastman, 

1896, with revision for Pelmatozoa by Wachsmuth and Springer. New 

York. Reissued, 1900, 1913, New York, London. Revision by Ferdinand 

Broili, Munchen and Berlin, 1915) 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 83 

DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 

DESCRIPTIONS OF SPECIES 

Order CAMERATA Wachsmuth & Springer 
Family dimerocrinidae Bather 

Genus DIMEROCRINUS Phillips 1836 (syn. Thysanocrinus Hall) 
Dimerocrinus arborescens (Talbot) n. comb. 

Plate 1, figure i 

1905 Thysanocrinus arborescens Talbot. Arner. Jour. Sci., 4th ser., v. 20, 
no. 115, p. 23, pi. 1, fig. 2 

A small species, the largest specimen seen having a dorsal cup measuring 
but little more than 12 mm in height. Cup and arms of the type specimen 
give a total measurement of about 47 mm. Greatest width of the dorsal 
cup (crushed) 11.7 mm; height, to the base of the free arms, 11.8 mm. 

Dorsal cup somewhat elongate, but owing to the badly crushed state 
of all the specimens, it appears almost globose. Infrabasals five, small, 
triangular, scarcely projecting beyond the column. The largest infrabasal 
observed has a height of 1.2 mm with a base of 2.4 mm. Basals compara- 
tively large, hexagonal. Posterior basal heptagonal, being truncated above 
to support the primary anal plate. Owing to crushing, no satisfactory 
measurements can be made of the basals. Radials heptagonal, larger than 
the basals. Those bordering the posterior interradius seem to be hexagonal. 
In the holotype, a radial gives 2.8 mm for height and 2.8 mm for greatest 
width. First primibrachs hexagonal, narrower than the radials and with 
a height of 2.1 mm in the type. Primaxils appear to be heptagonal, some- 
what smaller than the first primibrachs and longer, in the type having a 
length of 2 mm. Each supports two series of secundibrachs. First three 
or four secundibrachs larger than the others and incorporated in the dorsal 
cup. Primary anal plate, which rests upon the truncated upper face of 
the posterior basal, octagonal with a height of 2.4 mm and a breadth of 
2.9 mm. Upon its upper faces rest three plates. Above these the number 



84 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

can not be made out with certainty. The other interradial areas are very- 
poorly shown. Primary interbrachial apparently followed by two plates 
in the second range and two in the third. A few intersecundibrachs are 
present. 

Tegmen tmknown. 

Arms. Free arms biserial. stout at the base and taper rapidly distad. 
Pinnules long and slender. The free arms divide dichotomously, branching 
twice. 

Column pentagonal, or perhaps better described as obscurely stellate. 
Angles of the stem radial in position. Xear the calyx the columnals 
alternate in size; farther down the column every third or fourth columnal 
is larger. The larger columnals are the nodals. The type specimen has 
the stem preserved for some 45 cm, though still imperfect distally. The 
diameter of the stem of this specimen in the proximal portion is 3.3 mm 
while distally it tapers to 1.8 mm. Xo cirri are borne on the column so 
far as preserved. 

Horizon and locality. From the upper third of the Coeymans limestone 
at North Litchfield. Herkimer county, Xew York. 

Types. Holotype in the museum of Yale University. 

Remarks. All the specimens of Dimerocrinus arbores- 
c"e n s known are badly crushed, and show the plates very poorly. There 
is abundance of these specimens but the study of them has been made 
difficult., and the drawing of them impossible, by the fact that they are 
mostly preserved on slabs immovably mounted in museum wall cases, 
Yale University. 

The figure given here (plate 1. figure 1) is somewhat in the nature of 
a reconstruction, being made by the artist from an enlarged photograph 
furnished by Professor Schuchert. The general proportions are fairly 
accurate, having been taken from wax impressions of the original specimen. 

The name Dimerocrinus Phillips 1S36 is preferred to that 
of Thysanocrinus Hall 1S52 i Bather. 189S, p. 126; 1900, p. 198; 
Springer, 191 3. p. 187). 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 85 

Dimerocrinus whitfieldi sp. nov. 

Plate 1, figure 2 

Dorsal cup subturbinate, about 20 mm in height. Infrabasals com- 
paratively large, projecting beyond the stem. Basals averaging 4.6 mm 
in height by 4 mm in breadth. Posterior basal heptagonal, being truncated 
at the top to support the first anal plate; remaining basals hexagonal. 
Radials heptagonal, of about the same height as the basals and as wide as 
high. First primibrachs hexagonal, somewhat smaller than the radials. 
Primaxils pentagonal or hexagonal, smaller than the first primibrachs, 
supporting 2 x 10 secundibrachs, which in turn support 2 x 20 tertibrachs. 
Primary interbrachials hexagonal, nearly as large as the radials, and fol- 
lowed by two plates in the second range, three in the third and apparently 
three in the fourth. Posterior interradius wider than the others. The 
proximal anal plate lies between the radials of the posterior rays, and 
is supported by the truncated upper face of the posterior basal. It is 
probably followed in the second range by three plates. The succeeding 
plates in the anal interradius are unknown. 

At least three small intersecundibrachs are present, and possibly more. 
The first is hexagonal and of about the size of the first tertibrach. One 
intertertibrach in each half ray. 

Arms. Free arms 20 in number, slender and biserial; composed of 
short brachials which bear long slender pinnules. The arms had a length 
of probably not less than 40 mm. 

Column. Stem large and round, and measuring 5.4 mm in diameter 
in the proximal portion; composed near the calyx of alternating wide and 
narrow ossicles. The axial canal appears obscurely pentalobate in cross- 
section. 

Ornamentation. Each radial series is traversed by the rounded ridge 
characteristic of most species of Dimerocrinus. Passing downward, 
this ridge bifurcates on the radial, the two resulting branches passing to 
the centers of the adjoining basals. The plates of the interradii are marked 
by a series of indistinct ridges which radiate from the centers. These 



86 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ridges are shown, but much less distinctly, on the lower plates of the radial 
series. 

Horizon and locality. The specimen figured is from the Hamilton 
(Moscow) shales of Jaycox's run, between Geneseo and Avon, Livingston 
county, New York 

Types. The type is in the American Museum of Natural History, 

and is numbered in the type catalog of that institution where it is 

listed as the type of " Actinocrinus" eucharis. 

Remarks. The anal area of the specimen figured is badly crushed, and 
the adjoining edges of the first primibrach and primaxil are fractured, giv- 
ing these plates a somewhat deceptive outline. 

This specimen is listed in the American Museum of Natural History 
as the type of Hall's Actinocrinus eucharis. This reference 
is undoubtedly incorrect, as Hall's description of eucharis does not 
agree in any way with this form. There is a specimen in the New York 
State Museum which bears Hall's manuscript label Actinocrinus 
e'u'c h a r i s , however, which does fit the original description, and should 
therefore be taken as the type of that species. It is a Gennaeocrinus 
and will be found described under that genus. 

The name whitfieldi for this species was suggested in manuscript 
by Doctor Kirk in honor of the late Professor R. P. Whitfield, of the 
American Museum of Natural History. The name is here retained. 

Genus PTERINOCR1NUS nov. 

[Ety. TiTepTvoq, feathery; y.ptvov, Hly] 

This new genus is based upon a single species represented by several 
moulds in the Chemung sandstone. 

Infrabasals five. Radials in contact except at the posterior side 
where they are separated by an anal plate. Interbrachials in several 
rows. First anal plate followed by three plates in the second row; in the 
other interradii the primary interbrachial followed by two plates. Brachials 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



87 



incorporated up to and including the first secundibrachs. Arms uniserial 

and column round. 

This genus is very similar to Dimerocrinus, but the latter has 

biserial arms whereas this genus has uniserial arms throughout. 
Genotype. Pterinocrinus quinquenodus 
Distribution. Upper Devonian (lower Chemung) of New York. 







oSo^ 



Pterinocrinus quinquenodus sp. nov. 

Plate 1, figures 3-10; text figure 34 

This species is represented only by sharp moulds in sandstone. The 
description is based upon gutta-percha squeezes made from these moulds. 

Crown with a graceful feathery 
appearance due to the long pinnules. 
The length of the crown at maturity 
can not be given, since the specimens 
in which the arms are preserved to 
any extent are all young. 

Dorsal cup broadly obconical, higher 
than wide, broadest at or just below the 
primaxil, and constricted at the arm 
bases. Infrabasals five, small, penta- 
gonal; so small they are concealed by 
the prominent nodes on the basals. 
They are shown quite clearly in the 
natural moulds. Basals of about the same height and width and hexa- 
gonal, except the posterior one which is heptagonal, being truncated 
above for the reception of the first anal plate. The radials are the largest 
plates of the cup, heptagonal, usually wider than high. Primibrachs two, 
smaller than the radials and the second smaller than the first. First 
primibrach hexagonal; the second, the primaxil, heptagonal. First 
secundibrachs incorporated in the cup. Above this point the arms are 
free. 




Figure 34 Analysis of calyx of Pterino- 
crinus quinquenodus, the genotype 



88 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Primary interbrachial smaller than the radial, hexagonal, resting upon 
the upper shoulders of two adjoining radials. One exception to this state- 
ment has been found among the specimens (plate i, figure 6) but it is due 
to individual abnormality. Here the primary interbrachial appears to 
have been extended downward and the basal upward so that a short lower 
face of the interbrachial rests upon the truncated basal. This gives a 
heptagonal primary interbrachial and heptagonal basal. The primary 
interbrachial is followed in the second rank by two plates, in the third by 
three, and in the fourth rank the interradial area merges by a row of four 
plates into the plates of the tegmen. 

In the posterior interradius the radials are separated by a hexagonal 
anal plate. This plate is followed by a median line of large hexagonal 
plates gradually decreasing in size upwards. The plates on each side of 
this median line are small and rather irregularly distributed, so that the 
plates cannot be clearly separated into ranks or rows. Three plates follow 
the anal plate. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms two to each ray. In younger specimens (plate i, figures 3, 4) 
where some of the arms are preserved almost to the tips, they are 3 times, or 
over, the length of the calyx. Just what the length of the arms might be 
in older specimens cannot be accurately stated, but from the many scattered 
fragments of arms it is assumed that they were proportionately as long or 
longer. 

The arms are strictly uniserial. made up of short, quadrangular 
brachials, each bearing a pair of long, slender pinnules, one to each side. 
The short brachials bring the pinnules very close together, and this com- 
bined with the length and slenderness of the pinnules tends to enhance the 
feather}* effect of the arms. Apparently one arm of each ray remains 
unbranched. This has been found in most cases to be the left arm, but one 
specimen has been found I plate 1, figure 8) which suggests that the right 
arm is the unbranched member of the ray. The other arm bifurcates 
twice, first on the fifth or sixth secundibrach and then a few brachials 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 89 

above this point on the exterior ray. No bifurcations have been observed in 
the more distal portions of the arms. 

Column round. The columnals in the ultimate proximal portion are 
thin and projecting, and there is an alternation in sizes; but they gradually 
become longer until in more distal portions the columnals are all of about 
the same size, each with a wide projecting ringlike thickening. 

Ornamentation. The basals are provided with conspicuous blunt nodes. 
A faint ridge runs from the basal node to the radial on each side where it 
joins, near the center, with the ridge from the adjacent basal and forms 
a stronger rounded ridge which extends up the radial series, branching 
on the primaxil, and is even prominent on the first secundibrachs. Central 
tubercles are present on the interradial plates, particularly on the plates 
of the second rank and above. The primary interbrachial may have a 
faint tubercle, or none. 

Horizon and locality. Pterinocrinus quinquenodus 
occurs in the lower Chemung beds, Chemung Narrows, Chemung county, 
N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Family hhodocrinidae Roemer 

Genus RHODOCRINUS J. S. Miller 1821 (restr. W. & Sp. 1881) 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus Hall 

Plate 2, figures 1-5 

1862 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) nodulosus Hall. 15th Rep't N. 

Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 126 
1868 Rhodocrinus nodulosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 394 
1872 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) nodulosus Hall. N. Y. State 

Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 8. (Photographic plates distributed privately) 
1877 Rhodocrinus nodulosus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 90 
1881 Rhodocrinus nodulosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 212 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:386 
1889 Rhodocrinus nodulosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 278 
1897 Rhodocrinus nodulosus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam. 

1:225, pi. 13, fig. 8 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 



90 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

1900 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) nodulosus Whitfield & Hovey. 
Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., v. n, pt. 3, p. 198 

1903 Rhodocrinus nodulosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65, pp. 78, 79 

1904 Rhodocrinus nodulosus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

Species of medium size. 

Dorsal cup short and turbinate, widening rapidly up to the top of the 
second primibrachs. Height and greatest width about equal; plates con- 
vex; interradial and intersecundibrach spaces depressed. 

Infrabasals five in number, small pentangular, but plainly visible. 
Basals five, heptagonal, larger than any of the other plates, slightly longer 
than wide. Radials five, a little smaller than the basals, the two posterior 
ones hexagonal, the others pentagonal. Primibrachs two, smaller than the 
radials, the first being hexagonal, wider than high. Primaxils pentagonal, 
■or sometimes unequally hexagonal. The secundibrachs of the first five 
or six ranges enter into the formation of the calyx. The first three or four 
are subquadrangular, the next two or three are smaller, cuneate, and 
interlocking. Primary interbrachials slightly smaller than the radials and 
followed by two, two, and three, or two, three, and three plates, except on 
the anal side where there are three plates in the second and four or five in 
the third row. Intersecurtdibrachs three or more. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms ten in number, biserial, bifurcating 3 times, rather stout at the 
proximal ends, but decreasing in size rapidly with each new bifurcation. 

Column missing. Its cicatrix shows it to be large and round with a 
pentalobate canal. 

Ornamentation. Surface of the plates covered with obscure radiating 
ridges. The basals and primary interbrachials are distinctly nodose in 
the center, the basals very strongly so; the radials and primibrachs are 
elevated but not nodose in the center; the interbrachials above the first one 
and the interaxillaries (intersecundibrachs) are strongly nodose. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 9 1 

Ontogeny. In young specimens the plates are convex, but are without 
the radiating ridges or the central nodes, except on the basals. Even in the 
youngest specimen (plate 2, figure 4) the basal nodes are so strongly 
developed that the infrabasals are partly hidden. In the mature forms 
(plate 2, figures 1-3) where ridges and nodes have been developed on the 
other plates of the dorsal cup, the nodes of the basal plates are less con- 
spicuous. In the old form (plate 2, figure 5) the basal nodes are again 
more prominent, the nodes on the other plates are much less conspicuous 
and the radial ridges have almost disappeared. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds at Canandaigua 
lake, Bristol, Bellona, Cashong creek near Bellona, N. Y. and in the Hamil- 
ton beds at the falls of the Ohio, Louisville, Ky. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum, 

where they bear the catalog numbers , . 



Rhodocrinus nodulosus var. pernodosus nov. 

Plate 2, figure 6 

This variety occurs in the same beds and in the same locality as the 
specimens of Rhodocrinus nodulosus shown on plate 2, 
figures 1, 4, 5. There is only one specimen and it is in a fragmentary con- 
dition. However, where some of the plates have been lost their outlines 
are still visible on the matrix, so that enough can be made out to place the 
specimen. The arrangement of the plates, etc. is the same as in 
Rhodocrinus nodulosus. The dorsal cup is more slender than 
in that species, flaring less in the region of the primibrachs. If the inter- 
radii are depressed they are only slightly so. The most striking variation 
is in the size of the nodes ornamenting all the plates of the cup. They 
are very strong and almost spinose on the basals and somewhat flattened 
in the direction of the vertical axis of the cup. The next largest nodes are 
on the radials and primary interbrachials, and they are very strongly 
developed on the median line of anal plates. 



9-? NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds along the west 
shore of Canandaigua lake. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Genus ACANTHOCRINUS Roemer 1850 (em. Jaekel 1895) 
Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, P- 2I 9) regarded this genus as synony- 
mous with Rhodocrinus and it is so listed by Springer in Zittel- 
Eastman (1913, p. 188). Bather 11900, p. 201) lists the genus Acantho- 
c r i n u s among the Rhodocrinidae, recognizing the similarity to 
the American genus Rhodocrinus. Wachsmuth and Springer do not 
discuss Hall's 'Rhodocrinus' spinosus, and list it as "too 
little known to be recognized." There are five very well preserved speci- 
mens, four of them types, in the Xew York State Museum, and three of 
them are figured here (plate 2, figures 7-9). This species and the new 
species o n o n d a g a (plate 2. figure 12) with their characteristic spinose 
ornamentation seem enough distinct from the species of Rhodocrinus 
to be placed in a separate group ; and they are here placed under A c a n - 
thocrinus which seems at least to merit subgeneric value. 



'& v 



Acanthocrinus spinosus i.Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 2, figures 7-1 1 

1S62 Rhodocrinus spinosus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't X. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 127 
1S6S Rhodocrinus spinosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:394 
1872 Rhodocrinus spinosus Hall. X. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 10. 

(Photographic plates distributed privately) 

1877 Rhodocrinus spinosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 90 

1878 Rhodocrinus spinosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 20 

1SS1 Rhodocrinus spinosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeoer., pt. 2, 

p. 212 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 33:386 
1SS9 Rhodocrinus spinosus S.A.Miller. X. A. Geol. & Pal., p. 278 
1S97 Rhodocrinus spinosus ("species too little known to be recognized") 

Wachsmuth & Springer. X. Amer. Crin. Cam., 1 : 220 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus, 

Comp. Zool., v. 20 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 93 

1903 Rhodocrinus spinosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65. P- 79 

1904 Rhodocrinus spinosus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

Calyx of medium size, with subrotund dorsal cup and low vault. 

Dorsal cup. Five infrabasals are sunk in the deep columnar pit. 
Basals hexagonal, slightly longer than wide, the lower part of the plates 
incurving sharply and taking part in the basal excavation. Radials 
heptagonal, longer than wide, somewhat smaller than the basals. First 
primibrachs hexagonal, small. Primaxils heptagonal, supporting 2 x 10 
secundibrachs. They are a trifle smaller than the first primibrachs. 
Primary interbrachial hexagonal, supporting three plates in the second, 
three in the third and three in the fourth range. Posterior interradius 
not shown, but undoubtedly with more interbrachials. There is one 
intersecundibrach . 

Tegmen composed of numerous small plates. 

Arms biserial (joint-lines between the ossicles form a " zigzag ") 
sharply recumbent, 10 in number. They bifurcate once, quite near the 
calyx, but not again so far as the arms are preserved. The pinnules are 
slender and of unknown length. 

Column stout with thin plates in the proximal portion, becoming thicker 
distally. The nodes and internodes are hardly differentiated. 

Ornamentation consists of the typical Acanthocrinus spines on 
the basals, radials, and primary interbrachials, rather prominent radial 
ridges from the radials upward, nodes and low radiating ridges on the higher 
ranges of interbrachials. The maximum length of the spines observed in 
the specimens under study was about 1 cm. 

Horizon and locality. This species was collected from the Hamilton 
(Moscow shale) beds, Vincent, N. Y., and at Menteth's point, Canandaigua 
lake. An internal mold of a Rhodocrinoid which may be doubt- 
fully referred to this species has been found in the Hamilton beds near 
Cazenovia, N. Y. 



94 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum 

i -, ■■ -, 4502 4502 4502 4502 

where they bear the catalog numbers , — — , - , - -. 

j s 1 ' 2 ' 3 ' 4 

Remarks. Acanthocrinus spinosus may be easily dis- 
tinguished from the European species, A. longispinus Roemer, by 
its more globose form, its smaller number of interbrachials and its excavate 
base. It also has but two secundibrachs, whereas all the figures of the 
European forms show three. 

By far the best preserved calyx of this species is the one found at 
Menteth's point, Canandaigua lake by Mr Ernest Brown of Rochester, 
N. Y., and loaned to the State Museum for study (plate 2, figure 10). 
The dorsal cup is beautifully preserved, so that all the plates up to the 
secundibrachs are well shown. One of the interesting features of this 
specimen is the attachment at the anal side of a parasitic gastropod, a 
Platyceras. The gastropod is so attached that the posterior inter- 
radius is entirely covered ; the other specimens are not well enough preserved 
to show this interradius. 

Acanthocrinus onondaga sp. nov. 

Plate 2, figure 12 

This species is founded on a single specimen which, although showing 
the dorsal cup, arms and a portion of the column, is in a quite unsatisfactory 
state of preservation. The specimen is imbedded in a fine-grained, dense 
limestone which may be cleared away only with great difficulty. The 
plates of the dorsal cup are somewhat dissociated, and this portion of the 
spec'imen has been exposed and weathered. As a result it is difficult 
accurately to determine the sequence of plates. Nevertheless, the generic 
designation of the species is made with considerable assurance, and there 
should be little difficulty in recognizing it. Before the specimen under 
consideration was collected, material was found in the Onondaga limestone 
in the vicinity of Le Roy, N. Y., which strongly suggested the genus 
Acanthocrinus. The material consisted of numerous isolated 
plates produced into long spines, which could not be referred to any of the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 95 

known crinoids of the region. This, together with the thinness of the 
plates, suggested a dorsal cup of such fragility that it could be preserved 
only under the most favorable conditions. There are in the New York 
State Museum a number of specimens of the Onondaga limestone from the 
vicinity of Lime Rock which show these spines either scattered or several 
clustered together One slab shows a very badly crushed calyx which 
undoubtedly belongs to this species but is in too poor a condition either 
for figuring or descriptive purposes. 

The species is a small one, judging from the only complete individual 
observed, which shows no evidence of immaturity. The crown in all has a 
height not greatly in excess of 25 mm. 

Dorsal cup probably subglobose as in A. spinosus. Infrabasals 
hidden because of the crushed condition of the specimen. Basals larger 
than any of the other plates and provided with spines which in their 
unbroken condition probably measured 5 mm or 6 mm. Spines are not 
distinguishable on any of the other plates. Radials smaller than the 
basals, and the primibrachs smaller than the radials. The succession of 
plates is not accurately determinable on account of the crushed condition, 
but up to the primaxil it appears to be the same as in A. spinosus. 
There appear to be more than two secundibrachs. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms bifurcate once, quite near the calyx, giving twenty arms, four to 
each ray, biserial, directed upward and provided with long pinnules. 

Column rather stout, plates thin in the proximal portion and becoming 
thicker distally. 

Ornamentation. The only ornamentation that can be distinguished 
in the single specimen observed is the spinous character of the basal plates. 

Horizon and locality. The holotype and other specimens were collected 
in the Onondaga limestone, Lime Rock, Genesee county, N. Y. 

Types. In the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species can readily be distinguished from spinosus 
by its smaller size, the fewer spines on the plates of the dorsal cup, and the 



96 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

upright arms. The species has received its name from the formation from 
which it was collected. 

Genus GILBERTSOCRINUS Phillips 1836 
Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus (Hall) 

Plate 3, figures 1-6 

1862 Trematocrinus spinigerus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. 

Nat. Hist., p. 128 
1866 Gonioasteroidocrinus spinigerus Meek & Worthen. Geol. Surv. 

111., 2 122 2 

1872 Gilbertsocrinus (Trematocrinus) spinigerus Hall. N. Y. 
State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1 a, fig. 9. (Photographic plates distributed privately) 

1877 Gonioasteroidocrinus spinigerus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., 

p. 80 

1878 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 17 
1881 Ollacrinus spinigerus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2 ? 

p. 219 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. St Louis, 33:393 
1889 Ollacrinus spinigerus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 2, p. 103, 

pi. 13, figs. 4, 40, 4b 
1889 Gonioasteroidocrinus spinigerus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & 

Pal., p. 250 
1891 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Whitfield. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 5:553, 

pi. 11, fig. 12 
1895 Gilbertsocrinus indianensis Miller & Gurley. Bui. 111. State Mus. , 

no. 6, p. 38, pi. 3, figs. 16-22 

1897 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:247, pi. 15, figs. 3 a, b, c (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1898 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 5, 

pp. 368, 369 

1900 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 

1901 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Shimer & Grabau. Bui. Geol. Soc. 

Amer., 13 : 184 
1903 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State 
Mus. Bui. 65, p. 71 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 97 

1904 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

63. P- 52 
1910 Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index 
Foss., 2:551 

Dorsal cup small; widest at the radials, somewhat constricted at the 
arm bases and expanding at the upper margin. Cup pentagonal in cross- 
section, with the angles interradial. 

Infrabasals small, hidden within the deep basal pit. Basals com- 
paratively large, hexagonal, forming the sides of the basal pit, and scarcely- 
visible in a side view: Radials heptagonal, slightly larger than the basals 
and deeply wedged between them. They are of about the same height and 
width. First primibrachs hexagonal, considerably larger than the primaxils. 
They are as high, but narrower than the radials. Primaxils heptagonal. 

Secundibrachs 2 x 10. The second is axillary, supporting on its inner 
side an arm and on the outer an interradial appendage. Primary inter- 
brachial somewhat smaller than the radials, hexagonal, resting between 
the radials upon the truncated basals. It is followed by the series 3, 3, 3, 2 , 
2 or 3, 3, 3, 3, 2 or 3, 3, 4, 2, 2. The anal interradius gives in one specimen 
the series 3, 3, 3, 3, 3. It shows a distinct median line of plates 
decreasing in size upwards and separating the interradial appendages. 

Intersecundibrachs three or more, usually one in the first row and two 
in the second. 

Tegmen low, made up of numerous small plates of rather irregular 
arrangement, nodose in the ambulacral areas and oral region. Interambu- 
lacral areas depressed. Anus excentric, opening out directly through the 
tegmen. 

The interradial tubular appendages are composed of a single series of 
longitudinal, cylindrical joints, perforated by an almost oval canal. The 
adjacent appendages from the two rays are united up to the sixth plate and 
then diverge, not recurving, however, as in the later forms. The tubular 
appendages on the anal side are not confluent, but are simple and separated 
by the anal plates. 



98 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arms ten, short, uniserial, erect, fairly stout, bifurcating once on 
the fifth secundibrach. The brachials incline to wedge-form. 

Column round, of medium size, nearly filling the basal pit. 

Ornamentation. This species is ornamented with prominent spines on 
the radials, first primibrachs and primary interbrachials. A prominent 
ridge extends up the radial series, bifurcating on the primaxil. The orna- 
mentation of the tegmen consists in the small nodes on the plates of the 
ambulacral areas and the oral region. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, 
Vincent. Ontario county, N. Y. ; Hamilton of Thedford, Ontario, and Clark 
county, Indiana. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum where they bear the 

4240 4240 

catalog numbers and . 

& 12 

Remarks. Two species from the Hamilton of Clark county, Indiana, 

described by Miller & Gurley (1895, pp. 35, 40), G. greenei and 

G. indianensis, are very similar to G. spinigerus. The 

former differs from spinigerus in not possessing a spine on the first 

primibrach, otherwise there is no essential difference. G. spinigerus 

was figured by Hall (1872, pi. 1 a, figure 9) without spines on the primary 

interbrachial. This specimen, figured on plate 3, figure 1, is crushed in the 

interradial areas, the spines were broken off and the bases were smoothed 

down in the cleaning. The second specimen constituting one of Hall's 

types, number in the catalog, was not figured. It is figured here 

(plate 3, figure 2) and shows the spines on the primary interbrachials. 
This absence of spines on the primary interbrachials was one of the 
important distinctions between G. spinigerus and G. indianen- 
sis. The tegmen of indianensis is described as composed of much 
more numerous plates. The tegmen was figured from a smaller speci- 
men, possibly a younger specimen of the species. There do not seem to be 
any essential differences between the two species, and indianensis 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



99 



then becomes a synonym of spinigerus. Specimens from Clark 
county, Indiana, in the collection of Doctor Springer, are figured here 
(plate 3, figures 3-6). 

Genus SPHAEROTOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. ffipatpWToq, button; x,pivov, lily] 

This new genus was created to contain Sphaerotocrinus 
ornatus sp. nov. The genus which it most resembles is the Silurian 
genus Lyriocrinus. The calyx is more globose, not flattened at 
the base, with a strongly arched tegmen. One secundibrach is incorporated 
in the calyx. The interbrachial areas are wider at the arms showing the 
series 1, 2, 3. The anal area is distinct, the primary brachial being followed 
by a median line of hexagonal anal plates with a row of smaller irregular 
plates on each side. The arm openings are placed at the upper margin of 
the dorsal cup. The arms are ten in number, of small diameter and abruptly 
separated from the calyx. The anus is at the end of a tube and central. 
For further details see the description of the genotype. 

Genotype. Sphaerotocrinus ornatus. 

Distribution. Lower Devonian (Lower 
Helderberg, Lewistown limestone) of Penn- 
sylvania. 

Sphaerotocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 

Plate 3, figures 7, 8; text figure 35 

This species is based upon two speci- 
mens. The smaller is entirely free from 
the matrix, and has been used for illustra- 
tion. The larger specimen is so buried in 
the matrix and weathered that only the 
plates of the tegmen can be distinguished. 
The calyx is subglobose, having in the 
smaller specimen a height of 9 mm and a width of 8.5 mm; in the larger 
specimen, a height of 11.7 mm and a width of about 11.4 mm. 




Figure 35 Analysis of the calyx of Sphae- 
rotocrinus ornatus, the 
genotype. 



100 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dorsal cup decidedly bowl shaped, almost hemispheric, with a height 
of 6.7 mm and a width of 8.5 mm. Infrabasals very small, scarcely visible, 
being concealed in the small basal depression into which the column fits. 
Basals hexagonal, being truncated above for the reception of the primary 
interbrachials, the two lower lateral faces being about two-thirds the length 
of the upper lateral faces. The greatest width is at the lateral angles and 
about equal to the height, and it comes low in the basal. The most proxi- 
mal parts of the basals are included in the small, shallow depression into 
which the column fits. Radials pentagonal, -wider than high, fitting low 
into the basal cup because of the deep notch formed by the upper lateral 
faces of the basals. 

Primibrachs two, the first hexagonal, as large as the radials; the 
second, the primaxils, higher than the first primibrachs, but not quite so 
wide. The two upper lateral faces are long and slightly concave. Above 
the primaxil is truncated, making it hexagonal in shape and giving a very 
short face upon which the intersecundibrach rests. 

Secundibrachs two, one to each half ray. They are large and pen- 
tagonal, the face supporting the arm being very small and entirely occupied 
by the curved arm facet. 

Primary interbrachial large, heptagonal, slightly wider than high, fol- 
lowed in the second row, in the regular interradii, by two large heptagonal 
plates, and in the third row by three smaller plates, more than twice as long 
as wide. These last unite by means of two wedge-shaped plates with the 
smaller plates of the tegmen. Each of these wedge-shaped plates has its 
greatest width near the median line of the interbrachial area, where they 
are united, and tapers rapidly toward the base of the arms where the 
width is extremely small. 

In the anal interradius there is an extra hexagonal anal plate in the 
middle of the second row which is followed by a median line of hexagonal 
plates gradually decreasing in size up to the base of the anal tube. This 
median line of large anal plates is bordered on each side in the cup by a 
single row of rather irregular, small plates. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK IOI 

There is one large intersecundibrach. It is triangular with the longest 
side or base of the triangle on a line with the two arm openings in each ray. 
This triangular plate is slightly truncated at the apex giving an additional 
very short face which rests upon the short face of the primaxil. This 
plate meets above a plate of the same size, and, roughly, of the same shape, 
which connects with the small plates of the tegmen. 

Tegmen arched and with a height of about 2.3 mm, which is very nearly 
one third the height of the dorsal cup. It is composed, for the most part, 
of numerous small plates. The wedge-shaped plates connecting the regular 
interradial areas with the tegminal plates and the roughly triangular plate 
resting upon the intersecundibrach have already been mentioned. Between 
these in the tegmen are two smaller wedge-shaped plates tapering toward 
the arm bases. These wedge- and triangular-shaped plates of the tegmen, 
together with the secundibrachs, intersecundibrachs, and the outer plates 
of the third row of interbrachials, form around each arm opening a circlet 
of triangular and wedge-shaped plates with the longer axis directed toward 
the arm opening. This holds true of the arm opening each side of the anal 
interradius, though the series of anal plates causes a slight modification. 

The tegmen is provided with an anal tube which is central. The 
median line of hexagonal anal plates, as mentioned above, extends to the 
base of the anal tube. 

Arms. There are ten arm openings, two to a ray. They are very 
small, so that the arms must have been very slender. The arms themselves 
are missing in both specimens. 

Column missing, but judging by the cicatrix round, fitting into the shal- 
low basal depression. The axial canal is small and round. 

Ornamentation. This species is very beautifully ornamented. From 
the median point of the widest part of each basal a prominent slightly 
curving ridge extends to the same point on the basal at each side. This 
forms a pentagonal figure bounding the basal depression. The angle in 
each basal is marked by a thickening which forms a slight node. From 
this point in each basal a ridge extends to the center of the radial on each 



102 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

side, forming thus five triangles resting upon the five sides of the basal 
pentagon. Within each of these triangles is a smaller, rather fragmentary 
triangle with its sides parallel to those of the larger one. An intermittent 
ridge extends from the center of the radial up each radial series. Sometimes 
two or three more or less intermittent longitudinal ridges are shown; but 
in general plates of the radial series and the interbrachials, especially those 
of the first two rows, show a number of ridges radiately arranged and cross- 
ing the suture lines. Those extending from center of plate to center of 
plate are slightly more prominent. Sometimes at the center of the plate 
where the ridges come together there is a small node; again there appears 
to be no node, but a little to one side of the place where the ridges meet 
there is a slight pit or depression, not due apparently to the breaking off 
of one of these nodes. 

The plates of the tegmen are not so prominently ornamented. They 
show, sometimes indistinctly, radiately arranged ridges, rather heavy 
for the small size of the plates. The ridges are sometimes intermittent. 

Horizon and locality. This species was collected from the Lewistown 
limestone (Lower Helderberg), from the quarry on the summit of the ridge 
west of the road at Frankstown, Pa. 

Types. Genoholotype in the collection of the New York State 

Museum. 

Genus THYLACOCRINUS Oehlert 1878 

Thylacocrinus gracilis (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 4, figure 5 

1862 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) gracilis Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't 

N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 127 
1868 Rhodocrinus gracilis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 394 
1872 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) gracilis Hall. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 7. (Photographic plates distributed privately) 
1877 Rhodocrinus gracilis S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 90 
1881 Rhodocrinus gracilis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 212 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:386 
1889 Rhodocrinus gracilis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 277 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 103 

1903 Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) gracilis Clarke & Ruedemann. 

N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 65, p. 78 

1904 Rhodocrinus gracilis Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

The description of this species is based upon the type of Hall's 
Rhodocrinus (Acanthocrinus) gracilis. Although 
somewhat flattened and imperfectly preserved, the specimen permits of a 
fairly satisfactory description. 

Dorsal cup turbinate with the radial series prominent. 

Infrabasals concealed by the proximal columnal which has remained 
attached to the cup. Basals much crushed and pushed out of place. They 
are large and heptagonal, and appear to be as large as, if not larger than, 
the radials. They support the primary interbrachials upon their truncated 
upper faces and the radials rest between them. The basals are overlapped 
by the proximal columnal. Radials heptagonal, and, so far as can be 
ascertained in the crushed condition of the dorsal cup, they are of the same 
height but slightly narrower than the basals. Primibrachs a little smaller 
than the radials. The first primibrachs are hexagonal, the primaxils 
heptagonal or hexagonal. The primaxil is broader than the first primi- 
brach but of about the same height. Secundibrachs two, slightly smaller 
than the primaxil. The second bifurcation normally gives rise to four 
arms which are free to a certain extent above the first bifurcation and 
entirely so above the second. 

Primary interbrachial supported by the basal and followed by a series 
of interbrachials the exact number and arrangement of which are not 
determinable in the specimen. One interradius seems to have the series 
i> 2, 3, 3, 3, etc., another i, 2, 3, 4, 4, etc.; but this can not be positively 
stated. Interaxillary plates small and undeterminable. In one ray the 
intersecundibrachs seem to be in a vertical row. 

Tegmen not preserved. 

Arms normally four to the ray, so far as the preservation of the speci- 
men has permitted observation. One ray shows an unusual variation. 



104 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

In this, one of the main forks bifurcates once, the other bifurcates twice, 
giving five branches. As noted above, the arms are free above the second 
bifurcation. They are composed of wedge-shaped ossicles, though there 
is a tendency toward biseriality near the tips. The pinnules apparently 
were removed in the working out of the specimen. They are shown only 
in one place, and appear to be fairly long for the size of the specimen. 

Column. Only the proximal columnal is preserved. It adheres to the 
cup, concealing the infrabasals and lapping up on the basals. This, how- 
ever, shows that the column was stellate in section with deeply reentrant 
angles. The articulating face of the columnal, though much weathered, 
is marked with petaloid ridges. 

Ornamentation. Hall describes the interradial plates as subnodose or 
tuberculose, but the specimen does not show this characteristic. There 
are conspicuous pittings at the angles of the plates which weathering has 
made more pronounced, giving the centers of the plates an elevated 
appearance. This is only shown well in one interradius. 

Horizon and locality. The single specimen came from the Hamilton 
(lower Moscow) shales, North Bristol, Ontario county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. In his original description Hall speaks of ' second radials 
two or three below the first bifurcation of the arms." The type shows but 
two secundibrachs. 

There see ns to be no doubt as to the generic designation of this species, 
though the specimen is, I believe, an immature individual. In the Hamil- 
ton beds of neighboring localities there occurs another species of this genus , 
Thylacocrinus clarkei. There are three specimens of this 
species in our possession, all of which are well-developed adult forms. It 
is quite possible that gracilis may be found to be an immature form 
of clarkei. While there are notable differences between the immature 
and adult forms, particularly as regards the incorporation of the proximal 
brachials and the biseriality of the arms, the study of immature forms 
of other species where more of an ontogenetic series has been available, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 105 

has led to the belief that just such differences are to be expected. There 
is such a great discrepancy of growth between the two species, however, 
that it has seemed wiser to keep the species distinct for the present. We 
have recently acquired new material of c 1 a r k e i , and it is possible that 
intermediate forms may yet be found. Should gracilis and c 1 a r k e i 
prove to be the same species, the name c 1 a r k e i should, I think, properly 
stand for the species as it was based upon adult characters. Likewise, 
the description of the immature form was unaccompanied by a figure; 
and a very inadequate figure of the specimen was published in a set of 
photographic plates distributed privately. 

Thylacocrinus clarkei W. & Sp. 

Plate 4, figure 1-4 

1897 Thylacocrinus clarkei Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam. , 
1:248, pi. 13, figs. 11 a, b (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1903 Thylacocrinus clarkei Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 
65, p. 80 

190 \. Thylacocrinus clarkei Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 
p. 52 

The description of this species is based upon three specimens, one of 
which (plate 4, figure 2) was used by Wachsmuth and Springer as the type 
of the species. The second specimen was recently collected by Doctor 
Clarke at Bethany, N. Y. It is the largest specimen found, being larger 
than the specimen figured by Wachsmuth and Springer. The third, and 
by far the finest, specimen (plate 4, figure 1) was found in the New York 
State Museum where it had been for years. The specimen used by Wachs- 
muth and Springer is a badly crushed and imperfect adult individual 
which, though clearly indicating its generic affinities, is in too poor a state 
of preservation to afford much knowledge of the species. The Bethany 
specimen is likewise crushed and imperfect. The most perfect specimen, 
which is somewhat smaller than the one figured by Wachsmuth and Springer, 
lies upon the rock with the arms outspread in all directions. The base of 



106 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the dorsal cup is somewhat crushed, but all the essential characters may be 
observed without difficulty. 

Dorsal cup subglobose and apparently somewhat constricted at the 
base of the arms. Owing to the thinness of the plates, their number 
and the looseness of the sutural union between them, the theca has a lack 
of solidity unusual among the Camerata. 

Infrabasals small, and as they do not extend beyond the column they 
have not been observed. Basals large and heptagonal. Between them 
rest the radials, while upon their truncated . upper faces they support the 
primary interbrachials. The basals are overlapped for a considerable 
distance by the proximal columnal. Radials heptagonal. They have a 
height approximately the same as the basals and are somewhat narrower. 
First primibrachs hexagonal and of approximately the same width as the 
radials. Primaxils heptagonal or hexagonal. The plate is slightly wider 
than high and has a height practically the same as the first primibrach. 

Secundibrachs two in number and slightly smaller than the primaxil. 
In the specimen figured on plate 4, figure 1, there are two rays each of which 
has a series of secundibrachs in which there is but one plate and that an 
axillary. The second bifurcation gives rise to four arms which are incor- 
porated to a variable extent in the dorsal cup. The tertibrachs are incor- 
porated to the number of from three to six. 

Primary interbrachial supported by and somewhat smaller than the 
basal. It is followed by a series of interbrachials having the following 
number in successive ranges: 2 or 3, 4, 5, 5, 3, 2, 2, or 1, 1 ; or 2, 3, 4. 4, 3, 
3, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, etc. In one interradius there are four plates in the second 
range instead of the two or three noted above. It may be that in this 
case we have to deal with the posterior interradius. Higher ranges of 
brachials are incorporated into the dorsal cup, not only by the regular 
interbrachial series, but also by intersecundibrachs and intertertibrachs as 
well. The interaxillaries (intersecundibrachs and intertertibrachs) between 
each half ray have the following number of plates in the successive ranges: 
1, i t 2, 2. In another individual, the type of clarkei, there is the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 107 

following sequence: i, 2, 2, 1, . . . ; or 1,2, 2, 2, ... The intertertibrachs 
between the arms of each half ray consist of a vertical row of plates, three 
or four in number so far as observed in one of the specimens. 

Tegmen. The structure of the tegmen is unknown. In the specimen 
figured on plate 4, figure 1, which was favorably disposed to preserve the 
tegmen, the theca was removed from the rock. Careful cleaning failed to 
show any trace of the tegminal plates. It seems probable therefore that 
the tegmen is made up of very fragile plates. 

Arms biserial, long and stout with an almost cylindrical cross-section. 
They taper rather rapidly distad. In a specimen of average size the maxi- 
mum length observed is 55 mm. The pinnules are long and slender. The 
free arms do not bifurcate. 

Column. The proximal columnal in all the specimens remains adhering 
to the cup where it entirely conceals the infrabasals and laps over on the 
basals. The column is stellate in section with deeply reentrant angles. 
The fragments of stem shown on the rock (plate 4, figure 1), may 
pertain to this species and probably to the individual with which it is 
associated. In this specimen at the angles of the column the ossicles 
are produced into tubercles. These are much more prominent in certain 
cases than in others, probably indicating a division of the ossicles into 
nodes and internodes. Fragments of the column found scattered in the shale 
at the horizon in which this species occurs have a pentagonal cross-section, 
as figured on plate 4, figure 4. These columnals evidently represent more 
distal portions of the stem of this species. The filling out of the reentrant 
angles is a character to be observed in other genera as, for example, in the 
case of the recent genus Isocrinus. The articulating faces of the 
columnals are marked by petaloid ridges. 

Ornamentation. The surface of the plates making up the dorsal cup 
seems to have been covered by a coarse vermicular marking in low relief. 
Only traces of this ornamentation may be seen on an occasional plate, the 
plates as a rule appearing quite smooth. Two of the specimens show con- 
spicuous pittings at the angles of the plates, giving the effect of incipient 



108 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ridges (plate 4, figures 2, 3). This is particularly well shown in the Bethany- 
specimen. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (lower Moscow) shales. The three 
specimens figured all come from different localities. The holotype was 
found on the shore of Canandaigua lake, near Canandaigua, N. Y. ; the 
most perfect specimen came from Vincent, N. Y. ; and the third was recently 
collected by Doctor Clarke at Bethany, N. Y. A fourth specimen, from 
Menteth's glen, Canandaigua lake, has recently come to our notice. 

Types. Holotype and the other figured specimens as well are in the 
New York State Museum. The fourth specimen is in the collection of Mr 
Ernest Brown, Rochester, N. Y. 

Remarks. See Remarks under Thylacocrinus gracilis. 

Family melocrinidae Zittel (em. Wachsmuth & Springer) 
Section MELOCRINITE3 Wachsmuth & Springer 

In the classification of the Crinoidea used by Wachsmuth and Springer 
(1897) the family Melocrinidae was divided into two sections: (1) Melo- 
c r i n i t e s , including those forms in which the symmetry of the dorsal 
cup is disturbed by one or more anal plates ; (2) Dolatocrinites, 
including those forms in which the symmetry of the dorsal cup is undis- 
turbed by anal plates. In the classification used by Springer in the 19 13 
edition of Zittel-Eastman no subdivisions of the family were used. 1 I have 
used the two divisions of Wachsmuth and Springer here. The section 
Melocrinites includes, among the forms treated here, Maria- 
crinus, Melocrinus and M e 1 o c r i n u s (T r i c h o t o- 
c r i n u s) ; the other genera of this family treated here — -Clonocrinus, 
D o 1 a t o c r i n u s , C 1 a r k e o c r i n u s , C r a t e r o c r i n u s , 

Comanthocrinus and Himerocrinus — belong in the sec tion 
Dolatocrinites. 

1 Since the completion of this monograph a paper on " The Fossil Genus Dolatocrinus 
and its Allies " has appeared (1921) in which Springer retains the section Dolatocrinites. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK IO9 

Genus MARIACRINUS Hall 1859 (restr. W. & Sp. 1881, 1897) 

Mariacrinus plumosus Hall 

Plate 5, figures i, 2 

1859 Mariacrinus plumosus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3 : no, pi. 3, figs. 6-1 1 
1868 Mariacrinus plumosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 380 
1877 Mariacrinus plumosus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 
1 88 1 Mariacrinus plumosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 116 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:290 
1889 Mariacrinus plumosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Mariacrinus plumosus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

1:284, pi. 23, figs. 6, 7 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1 900 Mariacrinus plumosus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer. , 11:279 
1903 Mariacrinus plumosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65- P- 73 

Dorsal cup small, obconic or turbinate. Basals four, three penta- 
gonal, one hexagonal, about as long as wide. Radials of about the same 
length and width, or a little longer than wide. Four are heptagonal, the 
fifth, the one above the hexagonal basal is hexagonal. First primibrachs 
smaller than the radials; hexagonal, so far as observed, and of about equal 
length and width. Primaxils smaller than the first primibrachs, of about 
equal length and width and heptagonal, so far as observed. Secundibrachs 
3 x 10, smaller than the primibrachs and gradually decreasing in size 
upward. 

Primary interbrachial hexagonal, probably heptagonal in the anal 
interradius. It is followed by two plates in the second row, three in the 
third and two in the fourth. Only a portion of the anal area is visible, 
and the succession of plates can not be ascertained. The second row 
probably has three plates. The interradii are widest at the primaxil and 
then narrow. 

Intersecundibrachs few. When there are two they are arranged one 
above the other in a vertical row; when there are more, there is one in the 
first row and two in the second. No plates are visible above this. 



110 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen not visible. The proximal portion of the anal tube is visible 
in one specimen (plate 5, figure 1) and is seen to be composed of small, 
irregular plates. 

Anns. Each secundaxil gives rise to two arms, making four arms 
to a ray. The arms are simple, rather long, composed of short subcuneiform 
brachials which bear pinnules alternately on each side of the arm. The 
pinnules appear to be borne from the second brachial upward. Syzygies 
are mentioned by Hall (1859, p. no) and Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, 
p. 284), but they have not been observed in the material at hand. 

Column comparatively large, round, and consisting in the proximal 
part, which is all that is preserved, of nearly equal columnals. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup carry strong, radiating 
ridges, proceeding from the center of the plates to adjoining ones, crossing 
the suture lines. These are not well shown on weathered specimens opiate 
5, figure 2). The rays from the primaxil up are marked by strong ridges 
which pass into the arms. 

Horizon and locality. Coeymans limestone, associated with Melo- 
crinus paucidactylus. at Wheelock's hill, Litchfield, Herkimer 
county, and at Schoharie, N. Y. 

Type. One of the cotypes opiate 5, figure 1) is in the New York State 

4301 
Museum where it bears the catalog number — - — . The second and 

poorer cotype has not been located. 

Remarks. One of the very young stages of Melocrinus pauci- 
dactylus opiate 9. figure 3) bears a resemblance to M. plumosus. 
It apparently shows in the adult stage, as does M. r a m o s u s , the 
characters which M. paucidactylus shows in some of its earlier 
stages. The three secundibrachs of M. plumosus will readily dis- 
tinguish it. » 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK III 

Mariacrinus ramosus Hall 

Plate 5, figures 3, 4 

1859 Mariacrinus ramosus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3 : 147, pi. 2, fig. 6 

1868 Mariacrinus ramosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 380 

1877 Mariacrinus ramosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 

1 88 1 Mariacrinus ramosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2 , 

p. 116 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:290 
1889 M ariacrinus ramosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 260 
1897 Mariacrinus ramosus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

1:284 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1900 Mariacrinus ramosus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:279 
1903 Mariacrinus ramosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65- P- 73 

Dorsal cup urn-shaped. Basal plates small; three pentagonal, the 
fourth or anterior one, hexagonal. Radials as wide or wider than long, 
heptagonal, except the anterior one which rests upon the hexagonal basal. 
First primibrachs smaller than the radials, a little wider than long. Prim- 
axils, the second primibrachs, smaller than the first primibrachs and 
somewhat wider than long. Secundibrachs 3 x 10, all smaller than 
the primaxil and gradually decreasing in size upward. Third secundibrach 
axillary. 

Only the anal interradius is well shown. In this interradius there are 
three plates in the second row, three in the third, four in the fourth and four 
in the fifth. This would make the primary interbrachial here heptagonal. 
In the regular interradii they are probably hexagonal, as in similar forms, 
and followed by two plates in the second row. The intersecundibrachs 
appear to be three in number in those rays in which they are exposed. They 
are arranged in a single vertical row. 

Tegmen. Only the proximal part of the proboscis-like anal tube is 
visible. It is made up of hexagonal plates which appear to be arranged in 
vertical rows . 

Arms. Each secundaxil gives rise to two arms, making twenty arms 
to the calyx. The outer arm of each half ray remains simple; the inner 



112 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

arm bifurcates at least three times at irregular intervals. The bifurcations 
of the two inner arms of each ray are at the same height. In one specimen 
(plate 5, figure 3) the right antero-lateral ray appears to have both the inner 
and outer arms simple, as in Mariacrinus plumosus. The 
proximal brachials are quadrangular, becoming decidedly wedge-shaped 
above. In the branches of the inner arms, often the first few proximal 
brachials are quadrangular followed by the wedge-shaped plates. Pinnules 
are borne by the brachials alternately on each side of the arms. 

Column in the proximal part comparatively large and round and made 
up of columnals of approximately the same length. 

Ornamentation. The rays above the primaxils are marked with 
strong ridges which pass into the arms. Below the primaxils they are faint 
and low. 

Horizon and locality. Coeymans limestone, Wheelock's hill, Litchfield, 
Herkimer county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. As pointed out by Hall, this species represents a type of 
arm structure intermediate between Mariacrinus plumosus and 
the species of Melocrinus. In each ray the outer arm of the two 
pairs corresponds to the axillary arms of M. nobilissimus, 
M. pachydactylus and M. paucidactylus. The two inner 
arms of each ray correspond to the tubular appendage. 

M. ramosusis very much like some of the ontogenetic stages of 
M. paucidactylus. The stages which M. ramosus resembles 
represent younger forms, and it seems quite possible that M . pauci- 
dactylus passes through in its youthful stages the form which 
M. ramosus has attained in the adult stage. 

M. ramosus differs from M. paucidactylus in havi ng 
three secundibrachs. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK II3 

Mariacrinus stoloniferus Hall 

Plate 59, figures 1-5 

1859 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:112, pi. 3 A, fig. 2; 

pi. 3 B, figs. 3-7. 
1868 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Nat. Sci. St 

Louis, 2:380 
1877 Mariacrinus stoloniferus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 
1889 Mariacrinus stoloniferus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:282 (authors' ed.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1899 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 94 

1900 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 

11 : 279 
1903 Mariacrinus stoloniferus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 
Bui. 65, p. 73 

Only the columns of this species are known, and because of the general 
similarity of the columns to others of the genus Mariacrinus Hall 
referred them here. The species is readily recognizable because of 
the great uniformity in the columns together with the characteristic 
appendages. 

The column is round, with a large round axial canal which is often 
excentric, composed of columnals which are thin, nearly equal, with finely 
striated articulating surfaces. The columns are provided with numerous 
lateral branches or radical cirri, which in both large and small individuals 
seem to be given off principally from one side. The mode of occurrence 
of the columns suggests that they were in a recumbent position, growing 
irregularly over the surface and conforming to its irregularities. Where 
the columns are curved the cirri are given off chiefly from the inner side of 
the curve. 

Horizon and locality. New Scotland beds, Clarksville and Schoharie, 
N. Y. 

8 



114 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History 

. 2298 2298 2298 . 

numbers , , — — , and in the New York State Museum, number 

123 

4303 

1 * 

Mariacrinus beecheri Talbot 

Plate 5, figure 5; text figure 36 
1905 Mariacrinus beecheri Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:25, pi. 1, fig. 3 

Original description. In rediagnosing the genera Mariacrinus 
and Melocrinus, Wachsmuth and Springer recognized the fact 
that the arms of the former remain apart and do not form the tubular 
appendage which is so conspicuous in Melocrinus. The only species 
in the Yale collection that shows this characteristic of Mariacrinus 
is a new species, M. beecheri, in which the proximal end of the 
ray forms a tube while the distal end is divided, the arms diverging con- 
spicuously. The species is thus seen to hold a position intermediate 
between Mariacrinus and Melocrinus. As the features of 
the former are more strongly developed, this species is referred to that 
genus. 

This species bears a resemblance to Melocrinus nobilis- 
s i m u s but differs from it in features other than the division of the rays. 
The auxiliary arm, instead of being comparatively inconspicuous, as in 
Melocrinus, is strong and prominent and lies alongside the tube. 

The joints of the rays are longer than those of M . n o b i 1 i s - 
s i m u s , so that although the arms are given off more frequently than in 
the last named species, they seem to take origin at greater intervals. As 
in M. nobilissimus, the stem joints alternate in size, but they are 
so very thin in all parts of the stem, and especially so near the crown, that 
there is no difficulty in determining this form by the column alone. The 
column is also much larger in proportion to the size of the calyx. 

Specific description. Calyx, small, elongate, once and a half as long 
as wide, the increase in width being very gradual. Basals wider than long, 
pentagonal, not forming a projecting cup, but continuing the width of the 
column. Radials five, four heptagonal and one hexagonal. Costals 
(primibrachs) two, the first hexagonal, more than half as large as the radials, 
and the second smaller, pentagonal, and supporting two rows of distichals 
{secundibrachs) , three in each row. The last distichal supports two rows 
of palmars (tertibrachs) , whose first two plates are connected. Above 
this point, the palmars separate, those on the outside of the ray forming 
an auxiliary arm which lies alongside the ray but is not connected with it. 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK H5 

The inner row of palmars joins corresponding plates from the other row of 
distichals to form a tubular appendage which extends for a short distance 
only, when the divisions separate and remain apart to the end of the ray. 
On the outer side of the ray, arms arise from every fourth or fifth joint; 
but, on account of the length of the joints, the arms are quite far apart. 
The arms are biserial to the end. The first interbrachial is large, hexagonal, 
followed by a double row of alternating hexagonal plates. Anal inter- 
radius wider and ending in a short thick tube or sac, composed of numerous 
plates which seem to have been hexagonal originally. 
This sac is seen in but one specimen, where the plates rVy'X 

are very poorly preserved (text figure 36) . Column tb(0)\ 

circular, with diameter large in proportion to the ffijfcCfi 

size of the calyx. Distally the joints alternate in S^y-[fri 

size, but near the calyx they are very thin and of Yttfi 

uniform thickness. 

Horizon and locality. Upper third of the Coey- 
mans limestone at North Litchfield. 

Cotypes in the Yale University Museum. „. , , , 

J c J r igure 36 Mariacnnus 

Remarks. There is no specimen of this species b e e c h e r i . Anal sac, 
in the New York Museum. The illustrations shown the anal series of plates in the 
here (plate 5, figure 5) are based upon Talbot's types ^ (After Talbot ' r 9°5)- 
in the Yale University Museum. The resemblance between this species 
and Melocrinus nobilissimus is very close, and it is possible 
that it may prove to be a young stage of the latter. The narrower form, 
the longer ossicles of the main appendages and the incomplete union of the 
two halves of the main arms into a tubular appendage are all characters 
to be looked for in younger forms, as seen in the ontogenetic series of 
M. paucidactylus. 

Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 1826 (W. & Sp. 1897) 
This genus is described by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897), Bather 
(1900) and Springer (1913) as having biserial arms. Talbot (1905, p. 27) 
in a description of some specimens of Melocrinus in the Yale Uni- 
versity Museum notes the occurrence of uniserial arms. The specimens 
there described belong to Hall's species, Melocrinus pauci- 
dactylus. Uniserial arms have been found to occur also in 



Il6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis and c 1 a r k e i and in the new- 
species, sp. no v., splendens and willetensis var. 
perstriatus. Biserial arms are found in M e 1 o c r i n u s n o b i 1 - 
issimus and pachydactylus. 

Whether the genus Melocrinus should be made to include 
species some with uniserial and some with biserial arms or whether this 
character is to be regarded as a ground for subdividing the genus is a matter 
for consideration. The genus Ctenocrinus Bronn (1840, p. 542) 
is regarded by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897) as a synonym of Melo- 
crinus, but is upheld by Jaekel (1895). The characters upon which 
the genus was based, as pointed out by Wachsmuth and Springer, were not 
sufficient for generic separation. However, the type of the genus, 
Melocrinus (Ctenocrinus) typus, figured here on plate 12, 
figure 1. from a squeeze of the type in the collection of Doctor Springer, 
shows uniserial arms. This character is also shown by a number of 
European species. Should a division or subgenus of Melocrinus be 
founded upon this character it would seem proper that the name Cteno- 
crinus should be used for the uniserial group. 

Such separation has not been made here, for it would only create 
difficulties. The species vary as to shape and the presence of interaxillaries, 
and, if the arms are not preserved, they could not be placed in their proper 
divisions. Thus, while Melocrinus bainbridgensis and 
c 1 a r k e i have uniserial arms, none have been found for M . brevi- 
r a d i a t 11 s which is closely allied and would seem to belong in the same 
division. Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus has 
uniserial arms ; none have been found for M. w r illetensis. The 
subgenus Trichotocrinus was founded by Olsson (191 2) upon 
a species showing trichotomous branching of the main trunk or arm. His 
species, h a r r i s i , has biserial arms; a n ew r species, 1 u t h e r i , is here 
described with uniserial arms. If Melocrinus were subdivided upon 
the character of the arms this subgenus should be subdivided upon the 
same ground, which would only make more complication; or the subgenus 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 11 J 

could be raised to generic rank, which I do not think our present knowledge 
of the subgenus warrants. 

The majority of the species of Melocrinus in which arms have 
been found have uniserial arms; and these species, with the exception of 
Melocrinus paucidactylus occur in the higher beds of the 
Devonian. 

Melocrinus nobilissimus (Hall) 

Plates 6 and 7 

1859 Mariacrinus nobilissimus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3 : 105, pi. 2, figs. 1-4; pi. 

2 A, fig. 1 
1868 Mariacrinus nobilissimus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:380 
1877 Mariacrinus nobilissimus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 
188 1 Melocrinus nobilissimus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 

pt. 2, p. 122 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:296 
1889 Mariacrinus nobilissimus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 260 
1897 Melocrinus nobilissimus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:295, pi. 22, figs. 1, 2, 3 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1900 Melocrinus nobilissimus Bather. Lankester's Treatise on Zoology, 

pt. 3, The Echinoderma, p. 161, text fig. 74 
1900 Melocrinus nobilissimus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:279 
1900 Melocrinus nobilissimus Whitfield & Hovey. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Bui. 11, pt. 2, p. 94. 
1903 Melocrinus (M ariacrinus) nobilissimus Foeste. Jour. Geol. , 

11 :7i2 
1905 Melocrinus nobilissimus Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20 : 26, pi. 2 
1910 Melocrinus nobilissimus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 

2:556 

This is a rather large and very beautiful species of Melocrinus. 

Dorsal cup obconical, higher than wide. In the upper part of each 
interradial area, except the anal, just above the primibrachs, is a depression 
which gives it an obtusely pentangular appearance. 

Basals four in number; one, the anterior, hexagonal, three pentagonal. 
They are wider than long and form a small, subcylindrical cup projecting 



Il8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

slightly beyond the column. Radials larger than the succeeding primi- 
brachs; of about the same height and width, heptagonal except the anterior 
one which is hexagonal. First primibrachs smaller than the radials, some- 
times longer than wide; hexagonal or heptagonal according to the number 
of interradial plates with which they come in contact. Primaxils of 
about the same width and length; heptagonal or sometimes octagonal and 
giving rise to 3 x 10 secundibrachs. 

Secundibrachs about half the size of the primibrachs. The third, the 
secundaxil, supports on the outer sloping face the lateral or auxiliary arm, 
the first four or five proximal plates of which are longer and incorporated 
in the dorsal cup; the inner sloping face supports a series of six, seven or 
eight tertibrachs which give rise to one-half the tubular appendage. The 
plates of adjoining divisions are united laterally from the first tertibrach. 
Regular interradii long and narrow. Primary interbrachial usually 
hexagonal, larger than the others, and resting within a deep notch between 
the two radials. Succeeding interbrachials arranged in two longitudinal 
rows; generally hexagonal, alternating with one another so that no horizontal 
rows are formed. The plates decrease in size upward. 

Anal interradius flattened instead of being depressed as in the regular 
interradii, and considerably wider. Primary interbrachial heptagonal, 
larger than those in the regular interradii, and followed by three plates 
in the second row and three or four in the succeeding rows. 

Intersecundibrachs rather large, three or four in number and arranged 
longitudinally. Between the auxiliary arm and the tubular appendage 
of each ray are interposed several intertertibrachs, three or four in a single 
vertical row or in several rows. 

Tegmen not shown in the type. One of the specimens figured by Hall 
(1859, plate 2 A, figure 1) partially shows the domelike extension of the 
anal series of plates; but the full length is unknown. This feature is also 
seen indistinctly in a specimen in the Yale University Museum on a slab 
bearing the number 2777. 

Arms. Brachials not incorporated above the tertibrachs. There are 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 119 

five plates in the fourth and fifth orders, and generally four in the orders 
above except near the tips where they may be fewer. Brachials short and 
broad, arranged longitudinally, and connected suturally with the brachials 
of the adjacent branch so as to form compound, free tubular appendages 
characteristic of the genus. Approximately thirty pinnule-bearing arms 
are borne on each side of this tubular appendage, and they all rise to about 
the same general height. The first two, less frequently the first three, 
arm plates are quadrangular or wedge-shaped. Above this point the arms 
are biserial. 

Column large, round, made up of columnals of alternating thickness 
with distinctly wavy suture lines. The columnals have an increasing 
thickness or length in the distal part of the column. Columns of con- 
siderable length have been found on slabs in the Yale University Museum 
(Talbot, 1905, p. 26), and two of these are shown attached to the crowns 
in a photographic reproduction (plate 7). 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup marked with obscure radiating 
ridges, and a shallow pit at each angle. A low, faint ridge passes up the 
radial series, bifurcating on the primaxil and scarcely visible above the 
secundibrachs . 

Horizon and locality. Coeymans limestone at Litchfield and North 
Litchfield, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Melocrinus pachydactylus (Conrad) 

Plate 8, figures 1-4 

1835 Actinocrinus polydactylus (nom. nudum) Bonny. Schenectady 

Reflector 
1841 Astrocrinites pachydactylus Conrad. Ann. Rep't Pal. N. Y., p. 34 
1843 Astrocrinites pachydactylus Mather. Geol. Rep't N. Y., p. 246 
1859 Mariacrinus pachydactylus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3: 107, pi. 3, figs. 1-4 
1868 Mariacrinus pachydactylus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis 

p. 380 
1877 Mariacrinus pachydactylus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 



120 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

1881 Melocrinus pachydactylus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 

pt. 2, p. 122 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 33:296 
1889 Mariacrinus pachydactylus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Melocrinus pachydactylus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:296, pi. 23, figs. 4- s; P^ 2 4> figs. 4a. b (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., v. 20 
1900 Melocrinus pachydactylus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 94 
1905 Melocrinus pachydactylus Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:27, pi. 1, 

fig. 1 
19 10 Melocrinus pachydactylus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss. 

2:556 

Species of medium size. Dorsal cup sub turbinate, but so badly 
crushed in all the specimens observed that its proportions can only be 
approximately given. The following description is made mainly from the 
largest specimen (plate 8, figure 1). 

Dorsal cup with four basals, one hexagonal, the other three pentagonal. 
Hexagonal basal with a median height of 2.3 mm and a width of 5 mm; 
pentagonal basals vary somewhat in size among themselves. An average 
plate gives the following measurements: height 2.7 mm, width 4.4 mm. 

Radials large, four heptagonal, one, resting on the hexagonal basal, 
hexagonal. Height of this hexagonal radial 5 mm and greatest width 5.4 
mm. The other radials vary in size, but seem to average somewhat larger 
than the one measured. 

First primibrachs smaller than the radials, one plate giving 4.2 mm 
for the height and 4.6 mm for the width. The shape varies according to 
the number of interradials coming in contact with the plate. Hexagonal 
and heptagonal plates have been observed, and it is quite possible that 
octagonal plates occur. Primaxils smaller than the first primibrachs, 
having a height of 3.6 mm and a width of 3.7 mm. The primaxils support 
3 x 10 secundibrachs which are quite large, three of them together measur- 
ing 7.8 mm. The brachials are free above the third tertibrach. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 121 

Primary interbrachial of about the same size as the first primibrachs 
and followed, so far as observed, by two plates in the second range. The 
third range normally contains three plates, and the fourth three. Above 
this the plates cannot be separated definitely into ranges; the interbrachials 
become smaller and the interradii narrower. In the area bounded on the 
sides by the secundibrachs and tertibrachs of each ray, is a variable number 
of interaxillaries (intersecundibrachs and intertertibrachs) . In one ray 
only one is present, while in another there are four, one in the first, two in 
the second, and one in the third range. Between an auxiliary arm and the 
complemental half of the main trunk, there appear to be several quite small 
irregular plates. 

Arms. The auxiliary arm is comparatively slender in the adult, of 
about the stoutness of one of the proximal ramules. The main trunks 
or arms are stout. So far as observed, four or five, usually five, brachials 
intervene between the successive axillaries; higher up in the arms three are 
found. The brachials of the trunks are firmly united by the interlocking 
of crenulations in the apposed surfaces of the ossicles. The union of the 
axillary and the next lower brachial seems especially close, in fact the 
suture can only be made out by close examination. The union appears 
to be syzygial. 

Ramules or arms long (one, incomplete, is 35 mm long) , biserial and fairly 
stout. The first three or four ossicles at the base of the arms interlock to 
a greater or less extent, but from that up the arms are strictly biserial. 

Column. The column in its proximal, uncrushed portion measures 6 mm 
in diameter (crushed 8 mm-9 mm). 

Ornamentation. This species is well marked by its heavy sculpturing. 
The radiating ridges are so thick that the surface seems to be deeply pitted 
rather than ornamented by radiating striae, as in the other closely related 
species. 

Horizon and locality. At the base of the Coeymans limestone, Scho- 
harie, and in the upper third of the same limestone at Jerusalem hill and 
North Litchfield, N. Y. 



122 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History, number 
2304 and the Walker Museum, University of Chicago, James Hall Collec- 
tion, number 10877. 

Remarks. For comparison of this species with Melocrinus 
paucidactylus see Remarks under that species. 

Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 

Plate 8, figure 5; plates 9-1 1 

1859 Mariacrinus paucidactylus Hall. Pal. X. Y., 3:109, pi. 3, fig. 5 
1868 Mariacrinus paucidactylus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:380 
1877 Mariacrinus paucidactylus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. S3 
1881 Melocrinus paucidactylus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 122 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 33:296 
1889 Mariacrinus paucidactylus S. A. Miller. X. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Syn. Melocrinus pachydactylus Wachsmuth & Springer. X. Amer. 

Crin. Cam.. 1:296 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1905 Syn. Melocrinus pachydactylus Talbot, Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:27, 

pi. 1. fig. 1 
191 1 Mariacrinus paucidactylus Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 41 : 43 

Specimens are of medium size with the dorsal cup enlarging very 
gradually. 

Dorsal cup with four basals, one hexagonal and the other three 
pentagonal and smaller. 

Radials somewhat longer or at least as long as wide; four of the radials 
heptagonal, the fifth, that above the hexagonal basal, being hexagonal. 
First primibrachs smaller than the radials, longer than wide, hexagonal, 
heptagonal and octagonal in shape, depending upon how many interradial 
plates come in contact with them. Primaxils smaller than the first primi- 
brachs, slightly longer, or as long as wide. Secundibrachs 2 x 10, large, 
the first in each series generall}?' quite decidedly longer than wide, the 
second axillary. Primary interbrachial hexagonal or heptagonal, of about 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 123 

the size of the first primibrach, usually followed by two in the second 
range, three in the third, three in the fourth. In some specimens there 
are interradii which show the succession i, 2, 3, 2 or 1, 2, 2, 2. The anal 
interradius has the succession 1, 3, 4, 4, etc. Above the fourth range the 
interradii become narrower, the interradial plates fewer and more irregu- 
lar. Interaxillaries one or two, usually two. Several small irregular 
plates lie between the auxiliary arm and the main trunk. 

Tegmen. The tegmen, as shown in one of the Yale specimens (plate 
9, figure 10), is made up of numerous small, irregular plates. 

Arms. In each ray bifurcation takes place upon the second secundi- 
brach, the outer plate on each side giving rise to the auxiliary arm, the 
two inner ones giving origin to the double series of plates forming the 
tubular appendage, the main arm. The auxiliary arms are slender, of 
about the stoutness of the proximal ramules, or even more slender. 

The main trunks are stout, made up of a double series of plates; 
ramules or arms rather stout and either strictly uniserial or they begin 
with a few quadrangular plates and then are made up of interlocking wedge- 
shaped plates forming a zigzag. These are given off at the same place on 
opposite sides of the trunk, usually from every seventh, eighth, or ninth 
plate, though sometimes they are closer together. This makes the ramules 
fewer and farther apart than in the case of M. pachydactylus. 

Column round; in the proximal portion of the larger specimen measur- 
ing 3.5 mm and 4.5 mm in diameter. The stem joints alternate in size 
near the calyx but in the more distal portions the thin plates are more 
numerous. 

Ornamentation. The surface of the plates is strongly marked with 
radiating ridges, but not so strongly as to give the pitted effect of the sur- 
face of M. pachydactylus. The ridges become fainter in the 
upper portions of the cup. 

Ontogeny. A number of specimens in the State Museum and the Yale 
University Museum form an ontogenetic series (plate 8, figure 5; plate 9, 
figures 1-10) which shows very nicely the development of the species from 



124 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

very young forms to the adult. The chief differences between young and 
adult forms are in the character of the arms, the strength of the ornamenta- 
tion, and the relative size of the basals. In the youngest individuals, 
the basals are fairly large and conspicuous, of about the same size as the 
first primibrachs ; in the adults the basals are small compared with the other 
plates of the dorsal cup with the exception of the hexagonal basal which 
is often of fair size. The ornamentation in the youngest examples is faint, 
the radial ridges sometimes only showing at the edges of the plates. In 
the older forms, the ridges are very pronounced and extend from the centers 
of the plates. The arms of the young are simple, two to a ray. In two of 
the examples figured (plate 9, figures 1, 2) the two second secundibrachs of 
each ray are axillary, giving origin on the outside to the main arm and on 
the inside to a short armlet. These two inner armlets of each ray cor- 
respond to the tubular arm of the adult. Other specimens (plate 9, figures 4, 
5) show twenty simple arms, each secundaxil giving rise to two arms of 
equal size, the two outer arms in each ray corresponding to the auxiliary 
arms and without armlets, the two inner arms corresponding to the 
tubular arm and bearing armlets widely spaced and originating at the same 
place on each arm. One specimen (plate 9, figure 6) shows these two 
inner arms united to form a main tubular arm in some of the rays, in 
other rays still separate. The other examples figured (plate 8, figure 
5; plate 9, figures 8, 9, 10) have the auxiliary and tubular arms. 

Horizon and locality. From the upper third of the Coeymans limestone 
at Jerusalem hill, Litchfield, and at North Litchfield, Herkimer county, N. Y. 

Types. Hypotypes in the Museum of Yale University and the New 
York State Museum. Hall's type (Pal. N. Y., v. 3, pi. 3, fig. 5) is refigured 
here on plate 9, figure 1 1 ; it has not been located. 

Remarks^ M. paucidactylus is considered a synonym of 
M . pachydactylus by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, v. 1, 296) 
and it is so described by Talbot (1905, p. 27) following Wachsmuth and 
Springer. M . paucidactylus can be readily distinguished from M. 
pa chydactylus. The specimen from Yale University, figured by 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 25 

Talbot (1905, plate i, figure i), and the description as well answer to the 
description of paucidactylus; this same specimen is here figured 
as paucidactylus in the ontogenetic series. 

The calyx of paucidactylus is more slender than that of 
pachydactylus, the plates of the radial series are longer in pro- 
portion to their width, and there are only two secundibrachs, 
while pachydactylus has three. In paucidactylus, gen- 
erally, more brachials intervene between the ramules. The ramules 
in pachydactylus have three or four interlocking plates in their 
proximal portion and from there on are strictly biserial ; in pauci- 
dactylus, the ramules are either strictly uniserial throughout or made 
up of interlocking wedge-shaped plates forming a " zigzag." 

Melocrinus nodosus (Hall) 

Plate 12, figures 2, 3, 4 

1861 Melocrinites nodosus Hall. Rep't Prog. Geol. Surv. Wis., p. 19 

1868 Melocrinus nodosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 381 

1877 Melocrinus nodosus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 84 

1878 Melocrinus nodosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 18 

1 88 1 Melocrinus nodosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 122 (authors ' ed.) ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:296 
1889 Melocrinus nodosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 261 
1895 Melocrinus nodosus Whitfield. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., mem. 1, p. 48, 

pi. 5, fig. 14 

1897 Melocrinus nodosus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam.. 

1 1294 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1898 Melocrinus nodosus Weller. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 11, no. 7, p. 118, 

pi. 14, fig- 6 
1900 Melocrinus nodosus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 198 
191 1 Melocrinus nodosus Cleland. Wis. Geol. & Nat. Hist. Surv. Bui. 21, 

p. 38, pi. 3, fig. 4 

Dorsal cup pyriform, 27 mm wide by 32 mm total height. Basals 
fused to four, large, extending far beyond the stem. Radials larger than 



126 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the basals, wider than high, hexagonal or heptagonal. First primibrachs 
hexagonal, considerably smaller than the radials, wider than high or of 
about equal height and width. Primaxils heptagonal (in right posterior 
radius hexagonal), smaller than the first primibrachs. In the right posterior 
radius the primaxil is hexagonal and somewhat smaller than the others. 
Secundibrachs 2x10; the first pentagonal, about half the size of the pri- 
maxils; the second very small, less than half the size of the first, and 
axillary. 

First tertibrachs incorporated in the cup. There are 1 x 10 terti- 
brachs on the inner portions of the rays; 2 x 10 on the outer portions_ 
The inner tertibrachs form the bases of the arms. 

Primary interbrachial in the regular interradii hexagonal, a little larger 
than the first primibrachs. It is followed by two plates in the second 
row, three in the third, and three or four in the fourth. 

Anal area distinct. Primary interbrachial larger than in the other 
interradii, heptagonal, supporting three plates in the second row, three 
in the third, three in the fourth, three in the fifth. Above this the}' merge 
into the plates of the tegmen. A very young individual (plate 12, figure 4) 
has in the anal area the series 1, 2, 3. 

Tegmen low, slightly arched and composed of many small plates. 
Anus excentric. 

Arms. The radial trunks are comparatively very small. The lateral 
or auxiliary arms are absent even in the very young stage, or represented 
by one or two plates and incorporated in the vault. In certain rays there 
are apparently traces of lateral arms, as best shown in the anterior ray; 
but these are undoubtedly the bases of the first ramules which are partly 
incorporated into the calyx. A ray (left posterior) which has been weathered 
shows the true character of the brachials quite well. 

Column missing. It is round and deeply inserted. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup possess immense pro- 
tuberances, those on the basals and radials being broad and oval in cross- 
section, while the others are high blunt nodes. Vault plates bear similar 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 12J 

but smaller nodes. The nodes on the young specimens are of the same 
character, and are as pronounced in proportion to the size of the 
specimen. 

Horizon and locality. The type was found in the drift near Milwaukee, 
supposed to be from rocks of Hamilton age. Other specimens of Hamilton 
age have been found in the Milwaukee cement quarry, Milwaukee, Wis- 
consin (Cleland, 191 1, p. 39). 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 



number 



5579 



1 

Remarks. This specimen, described by Hall from the Wisconsin 
Devonian, is placed here for comparison with the New York Devonian 
forms. There are several New York forms which show a very spiny or 
nodose character of the cup plates, but in none is such an extreme con- 
dition met with. 

Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall 

Plate 13, figures i, 2 

1872 Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, 

figs. 18, 19. (Photographic plates distributed privately) 
1875 Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall & Whitfield. Rep't Geol. Surv. Ohio, 

Pal., v. 2, pt. 2, p. 160 
1877 Ctenocrinus breviradiatus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 74 
1881 Melocrinus breviradiatus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 

pt. 2, p. 121 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:295 
1889 Melocrinus breviradiatus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal. , 

p. 261 
1897 Melocrinus brevidactylus (incorrectly cit.) Wachsmuth & Springer. 

N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 1:294 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

Dorsal cup subturbinate, rounding and not pentagonal in cross- 
section ; rendered asymmetrical by a decided bulging of the posterior portion 
of the theca, such as is shown by many of the Melocrinidae ; height 
to the top of the second secundibrach on the anterior side 21 mm; total 
height of the calyx to the basal of the anal tube 29 mm; width of cup, 



128 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

measuring in a line from the anterior ray to the posterior interradius, 
about 26 mm. 

Basals fused to three instead of the normal four. Together they 
form a sharply defined, distinctly projecting disk, 8 mm in width by 2.8 mm 
in height, with nearly vertical sides. Radials large, hexagonal, an average 
one having a height of 4.2 mm and a width of 7 mm. First primibrachs 
hexagonal, an average one having a height of 4.6 mm and a width of 5.8 mm. 
Primaxils hept agonal, averaging 4.4 mm in height by a greatest width 
of 5.2 mm. 

First and second secundibrachs and first tertibrach incorporated into 
the cup. First secundibrachs quite large, pentagonal, hexagonal or 
heptagonal in form, and very variable in size; second secundibrachs com- 
paratively small in most rays, in others nearly as large as the first secundi- 
brachs. First tertibrachs of the inner half of the ray small and facing 
outward at an abrupt angle, forming the bases of the radial trunks. 

Primary interbrachials of about equal height and width ; slightly higher 
than the radials, but somewhat narrower; hexagonal, and in all the inter- 
radii followed by two plates in the second range. In the posterior, right 
posterolateral and right anterior interradii there are three plates in the 
third and fourth ranges ; in the other two interradii there are but two plates 
in each range. Above, the interradial plates are somewhat irregularly 
arranged and merge gradually into the tegmen. 

Tegmen low, composed of numerous small nodose plates; inter- 
ambulacral areas quite distinctly depressed; anal tube subcentral. 

Arms. Radial trunks not preserved in the type specimen, but were 
moderately stout. Auxiliary arm entirely suppressed. 

Column wanting, but judging from the stem cicatrix was round. 

Ornamentation. Unfortunately this specimen has been cleaned with 
acid, and as a result the exact character of its ornamentation can not be 
made out. The sutures between the plates in the dorsal cup are marked 
by well-defined pits, which were undoubtedly formed by short ridges 
passing from plate to plate, traces of which can still be seen. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 29 

The plates of the dorsal cup have well-defined, smooth, rounded bosses 
of the general outline of the plates themselves. These bosses are separated 
from the edges of the plates by narrow beveled margins which in turn are 
traversed by the short, narrow ridges mentioned above. 

Horizon and locality. The original label accompanying the specimen 
reads as follows: " Melocrinus, Hamilton group, Eighteen Mile creek. 
From Doc. Mayo." The specimen is probably from the Moscow shales. 

Types. Holotype in the Jewett Collection, now in the Cornell Uni- 
versity Museum, number 7330. 

Remarks. This species differs from M. bainbridgensis in 
its narrower, more elongate calyx, in its rounded instead of subpentagonal 
cross section, and in the asymmetry of the dorsal cup. In brevi- 
radiatus the basals are fused into a. sharply projecting, clearly defined, 
nonlobate disk. In bainbridgensis the four segments of the 
basal circle are well marked, each projecting in quite a decided lobe. The 
plates of bainbridgensis are ' depressed convex with slightly 
concave centers," according to the description of Hall and Whitfield (1875, 
v. 2, p. 159). In breviradiatus, from the beveled edge the plates 
rise rather abruptly into rounded bosses. This difference seems of no 
great importance. 

One remarkable feature shown by the only specimen of this species 
known is that instead of the normal four subequal segments in the basal 
ring there are only three. Two of these are small and of nearly the same 
size. The third is equal in size to the other two combined. The base 
is in a very good state of preservation, and if a fourth suture were present, 
it undoubtedly would show. Whether this is an individual variation or not 
can not be determined. It is a feature, however, that one would naturally 
expect to find appearing among the later Melocrinoidea. 

No full description has ever been published of this species. In the 
"Paleontology of Ohio", volume 2, under the description of Melo- 
crinus (Ctenocrinus) bainbridgensis, occurs this 

passage: 

9 



130 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The species bears considerable resemblance to M e 1 o c r i n u s 
breviradiatus (name issued with explanation of photographic 
plate, August 1872) from the Hamilton group of New York; but differs 
in the projecting rim at the base of the cup formed by the basal plates, 
in the greater inequality of the interradial and anal areas, and also in the 
surface character and ornamentation of the plates, as well as in the flatten- 
ing of the surface of the plates themselves, those of that specimen being 
highly convex, approaching tumidity. 

This species is incorrectly cited by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, 

v. 1 , p. 294) as "Melocrinus brevidactylus". They state 

that the species can not be regarded as a good one for it " was figured but 

not described, and the figure not properly published." 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis Hall & Whitfield 

Plate 12, figures 5-9 

1875 Melocrinus (Ctenocrinus) bainbridgensis Hall & Whitfield. 

Geol. Surv. Ohio, Pal., 2:158, pi. 13, figs. 2, 2a, 3 
1877 Ctenocrinus bainbridgensis S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 74 
1881 Melocrinus bainbridgensis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 121 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:295 
1889 Melocrinus bainbridgensis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal. , 

p. 261 
1897 Melocrinus bainbridgensis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:297, pi. 22, figs. 4 a, b, c\ pi. 24, fig. 5 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., v. 20 
1910 Melocrinus bainbridgensis Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index 

Foss., 2:556 

This description is based upon a single calyx, a fragment of a radial 
trunk and several column fragments. 

Species above medium size. Height of the calyx to the arm bases 
26 mm, to the base of the anal tube 34 mm. Width of the cup, measuring 
in a line from the anterior ray to the posterior interradius, is about 34 mm. 

Dorsal cup as high as wide, very broadly turbinate, spreading rather 
rapidly from the base of the cup to the arm bases, with somewhat convex 
sides and pentagonal cross section. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 131 

Basals four, forming a low cup which is slightly lobed because of the 
notching at the interbasal sutures. The cup has a width of io.i mm and 
a height of 2.7 mm. Radials hexagonal, slightly wider than high. An 
average one has a height of 7.2 mm and a width of 8.2 mm. First primi- 
brachs smaller than the radials, wider than high. An average one measures 
5.1 mm in height and 7.7 mm in width. Primaxils heptagonal, smaller 
than the first primibrachs, averaging 4.6 mm in height and 6.7 mm at the 
greatest width. First and second secundibrachs and first tertibrachs incor- 
porated in the dorsal cup. First secundibrachs about half as large as the 
primaxil; variable in shape, being pentagonal, hexagonal and heptagonal. 
Secundaxils (second secundibrachs) comparatively small. First terti- 
brachs of the inner side of the half rays small, facing out at an abrupt angle 
and forming the bases of the radial trunks. 

Interradial areas broad. Primary interbrachial hexagonal, of about 
the same size as the first primibrachs, approximately equal in height and 
width. In the regular interradii this plate is followed by two in the second 
row, three in the third and a variable number in the fourth — three, four 
or five. Above this they gradually intermingle with the interambulacrals. 

In the anal interradius the primary interbrachial is larger than the 
others, equal in size to the radials. It is heptagonal in shape, supporting 
three plates in the second row, which form an arch, and four in the third 
and fourth. The arching is characteristic of each range, and continues, 
though with less distinctness, almost to the base of the anal tube. 

Tegmen low, depressed pentapyramidal, surmounted by a subcentral 
anal tube. It is composed of numerous, more or less uniform, medium- 
sized plates which are slightly depressed. 

Arms. Auxiliary arms entirely suppressed; no radial trunks preserved 
on the type specimen. A fragment of a radial trunk, supposed to belong 
to this species, was found associated with the calyx along with several 
pieces of column. The radial trunk is stout, composed of very short 
ossicles, and giving off uniserial arms at every third plate on each side. 
This arm fragment is shown here on plate 12, figure 7. 



132 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Column. The columns associated with the calyx are round, pierced 
by a pentalobate canal, about a quarter of an inch in diameter, composed 
in some cases of columnals of alternating sizes, in others, of similar-sized 
columnals. The latter probably occur in the more distal parts of the 
column. All the columnals have their exterior surfaces longitudinally 
marked, similar to the plates of the calyx. 

Ornamentation. The plates are slightly elevated, with the centers a 
little depressed, beveled at their margins and with the suture lines giving 
the appearance of being widely grooved. Except at their margins, the plates 
of the dorsal cup are marked by a system of confluent granules arranged 
in concentric circles. The plates of the tegmen are finely granulose. The 
column is marked longitudinally in a manner similar to the markings on the 
plates of the dorsal cup. 

Horizon and locality. In a limestone layer, 6 inches in thickness, 
above the base of the Huron shales, Bainbridge, Ross county, Ohio. 

Types. Holotype in the Ohio State Collection. 

Remarks. This Ohio Devonian form has been introduced here because 
of its resemblance to the two New York forms, M. bainbridgensis 
from the Hamilton and M . c 1 a r k e i from the Genesee and Portage. 

This species differs from M. breviradiatus in the shape of 
the calyx, which is pentagonal in cross-section, in the projecting lobate rim 
formed by the basal plates, in the greater inequality between the regular 
and anal interradii, and in the character and ornamentation of the plates. 
No arms have been found for M. breviradiatus. 

The resemblance to M . clarkei is discussed under that species 
under the heading Remarks. 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

Plate 13, figures 3-5; plate 14 

1882 Melocrinus clarkei Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 34:31 
1885 Melocrinus clarkei Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, p. 104 
(authors' ed.) Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 37:326 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 33 

1889 Melocrinus clarkei S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 261 

1897 Syn. Melocrinus bainbridgensis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Grin. Cam., 1:297, pi- 2 4> fig- 5 (authors' ed.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1903 Melocrinus clarkei Clarke. N. Y. State Mus. Mem. 6, pp. 346, 347, 

pis. D, E 

1903 Melocrinus clarkei Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 65, 

P- 74 

1904 Melocrinus clarkei Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, p. 52. 

1905 Melocrinus clarkei Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 80, 

P- 43 

All the calyces of this species are in such a crushed condition that 
it is rather difficult to determine their shape. The specimens are all smaller 
than M. bainbridgensis, but the shape and number of the 
plates agree so well with that species that probably the shape was the 
same — ■ broadly turbinate. 

Dorsal cup. Basals forming a low cup, slightly projecting, with 
nearly vertical sides. The cup has a width of about 5.9 mm and a height of 
about 2 mm. Radials hexagonal, much larger than the basals. Three 
average ones give the following measurements: height 4.5 mm, width 5.4 mm; 
height 4.9 mm, width 5.8 mm; height 3.6 mm, width 5.4 mm. Width usually 
slightly greater than the height, though sometimes they are about equal. 

There is no striking difference in size between the radials and the 
primibrachs. First primibrachs hexagonal, smaller than the radials, 
wider than high. Characteristic ones give the following measurements: 
height 3.7 mm, width 6.1 mm; height 3.9 mm, width 4.8 mm. Primaxils 
usually heptagonal, though pentagonal ones occur; slightly narrower than 
the first primibrachs, though often as high or higher. 

The two secundibrachs and the first tertibrachs are incorporated in 
the cup. First secundibrachs smaller than the primaxils and variable in 
shape — pentagonal, hexagonal, heptagonal; secundaxils usually much 
smaller, often half the size of the first secundibrachs. The first tertibrachs 
of the inner half of the ray form the base of the radial trunk or tubular 
appendage. 



134 NEW y O RK STATE MUSEUM 

Interradial areas broad. Primary interbrachial, in the regular 
interradii, hexagonal, slightly smaller than the radials; followed in the second 
row b}^ two, in the third by three and in the fourth by three or four plates. 
Above this there is a variable number and they merge into the plates of the 
tegmen. In the anal interradius the primary interbrachial is larger than 
in the other interradii. It is as large or larger than the radials, heptagonal, 
supporting three plates in the second row, and apparently four in the 
third. They have not been determined above this row. 

Tegmen. No part of the tegmen is preserved in any of the specimens. 

Arms. Radial trunks stout at the base, flattened on the back, and 
tapering gradually almost to a point; at least 3 times the length of the 
calyx and composed of very short ossicles. Arms uniserial, long, slender, 
pinnule-bearing; given off from the main trunk usually from every third 
plate on each side. 

There are no auxiliary arms. 

Column round and composed of thick and thin columnals. The thicker 
columnals project somewhat beyond the others. The thin and thick 
columnals may alternate or there may be two or more thinner ones between 
the thick ones. Some of the stems associated with the calyces show all 
columnals of nearly the same size, and they probably represent more distal 
parts of the column. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are slightly rounded 
at the margins and flattened in the middle. In some, the suture lines 
appear to be grooved and the plates slightly beveled at the margin. The 
ornamentation is only well shown in one specimen. The plates are marked 
with granulations over the central portion. There are also rows of fine 
striae connecting the plates. These fine lines radiate out in groups of 
three or four from the center, or almost the center, of the plates to all the 
faces, forming delicate starlike figures. The delicacy of this ornamentation 
is probably the reason why it is not preserved in all the specimens. It is 
best shown in one of the Portage specimens (plate 13, figure 5) from the 
Eighteen Mile creek region. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 35 

Horizon and locality. Genesee (West River shale) beds from Bell's 
gully, Canandaigua lake; Blacksmith gully, Bristol; Bristol Center; Mill 
gully and Hamilton gully, Honeoye lake, N. Y. Also found in the Portage 
(Cashaqua shales) at Naples and along Eighteen Mile creek at North 
Evans, N. Y. ; in the Portage (Angola shale) at Fox's point, Lake Erie, 
near Angola, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum, 



number 



4340 



1 

Remarks. The name Melocrinus clarkei was given to this 
species by Hall (manuscript) in honor of Noah T. Clarke, father to Dr. 
John M. Clarke, by whom the original slab was collected in 1870. The 
species was described by Williams (1882, p. 31) without illustration, and 
was first illustrated by Doctor Clarke in his " Monograph of the Naples 
Fauna " (1903, pp. 346, 347, pis. D, E). The illustrations used by Doctor 
Clarke and those used here, with the exception of figure 5, plate 13, are 
from the original slab. 

This species may be distinguished fro n M. breviradiatus by 
the shape of the calyx which in this species is broadly turbinate as in 
M. bainbridgensis; the interradii are broader and show a different 
number of plates in the higher ranges; the radials are smaller and there 
is less difference in size between the radials and primibrachs; the plates 
of the dorsal cup are low and flattened while in breviradiatus 
they have well-defined, rounded bosses. No arms have been found for 
breviradiatus, so no comparison can be made in this respect. 

M . clarkei resembles M. bainbridgensis in shape, but 
it is a smaller species. The basals are smaller and are not lobed. The 
plates of the radial series are much smaller in comparison with the other 
plates of the cup in clarkei. Even taking into consideration the 
difference in size of the cup, the radials are considerably larger in bain- 
bridgensis, and there is a much greater difference in size between the 
radials and the primibrachs. The radial trunks in bainbridgensis 



I36 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

appear to be heavier and less tapering, and the arms are given off from every 
fourth plate while in clarkei the arms are given off from every third 
plate. The plates of the cup in clarkei are ornamented with granules 
and faint radiating clusters of striae, while in bainbridgensis 
the plates are marked except at the beveled edges with confluent granules 
arranged in more or less concentric circles. There seem to be enough 
differences to retain M. clarkei as a separate species. More speci- 
mens of the two species may throw further light upon this matter. 

Melocrinus gracilis Wachsmuth & Springer 

Plate 13, figure 6 

1897 Melocrinus gracilis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 
1:298; pi. 22, fig. 5 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1903 Melocrinus gracilis Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 65, 

P- 74 

1904 Melocrinus gracilis Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, p. 52 

Calyx of medium size. Dorsal cup pyramidal and sharply pentagonal 
in cross section owing to the highly arched character of the radial series 
and the depressed interbrachial areas. 

Dorsal cup. Basals forming a low cup which projects slightly beyond 
the column at the lower edges, while the upper edges are turned abruptly 
upward. Radials hexagonal and wider than high. First primibrachs 
smaller than the radials; wider than high. Primaxils pentagonal or 
heptagonal, smaller than the first primibrachs, and supporting 2 x 10 
secundibrachs. Of these the second is axillary, supporting a small arm on 
the outer and a radial trunk on the inner face. Primary interbrachial 
in the regular interradii hexagonal, smaller than the radials; followed by 
two plates in the second row, three in the third, three in the fourth, etc., 
connecting insensibly with the vault plates. Anal interradius not preserved. 
There is one small intersecundibrach. 

Tegmen elevated and, so far as known, composed of small, smooth 
plates with a minute tubercle in the center of many of them. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 37 

Arms. Radial trunks heavy and bent outwards. The trunks are 
dreserved only to the fourth plate, so nothing is known of the arrangement 
of the arms. In addition to the arm trunk there is an auxiliary arm given 
off in each half ray by the secundaxil. 

Column large and round, perforated by a small canal. The nodal 
columnals are projecting with thinner internodals between. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the radial series are strongly arched so 
as to form a broad conspicuous ridge which extends up to the bases of the 
arms. There are small tubercles on the first primibrachs and the prim- 
axils, those on the primaxils being stronger and sharper. The plates of 
the higher orders of interbrachials have each a small, central node, and 
there are incipient nodes on the plates of the tegmen. The angles of the 
plates of the dorsal cup are marked with slight pittings, especially in the 
higher orders of interbrachials. 

Horizon and locality. This specimen was collected by Dr John M. 
Clarke in the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, Canandaigua lake, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum 

where it bears the catalog number 4o4_ # 

Melocrinus reticularis Olsson 

Plate 15, figure 1 

1912 Melocrinus reticularis Olsson. Bui. American Paleontology, v. 5, 
no. 23, pp. 5, 6, pi. 7, fig. 1 

Original description. Shape pyriform, spreading rapidly from the 
narrow base. Basals strongly tumid, only two shown on the specimen, 
anterior one hexagonal, the other pentagonal in shape. Radials (three 
shown), anterior one resting upon the hexagonal base, hexagonal in shape, 
the other two heptagonal, about as wide as high. First costal (primibrach) 
slightly longer than wide and hexagonal in shape. The second costal 
axillary and heptagonal in shape, supporting upon its two upper sloping 
sides the distichals. Distichals (secundibrachs) 2 x 10 and incorporated 
in the dorsal cup. Their shape is not easily discernible because their sutures 
are indistinct. 



I38 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arms biserial (one arm is shown lying on its side embedded in the rock) ; 
armlets appear to be given off from each third brachial plate. 

Commencing on the basals, a groove is continued up through the 
radials and costals, branches into the distichals on the second costal. 
Plates with the exception of the basals flat, the radials and brachials only 
slightly convexed by the longitudinal groove. Plates ornamented with 
raised lines, radiating in pairs or by threes from, but not showing in the 
centers of the plates. These lines pass across the sutures of the plates. 
Sutures distinct only between the lower plates of the dorsal cup, becoming 
very indistinct on passing upwards. Beyond the third series of inter- 
radials the sutures are not visible, the lines of ornamentation on the plates 
become single, producing a netlike appearance. 

First interradials hexagonal in shape, longer than wide, and supported 
on the upper sides of the radials and first costals. These are followed by 
the second series of interradials consisting of two plates which are irregularly 
hexagonal in shape and wider than high. The third series of interradials 
consists of three plates. Above this series the suture lines become indistinct. 

Radials, first costals, first and second interradials have ornamentation 
lines of three each, the two lateral ones shorter than the middle line and 
pass nearly to the middle of the plates. Other plates have only one 
ornamental line passing across the sutures of the plates. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (Ithaca) beds, McGraw or 
University quarry, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Remarks. It has not been possible to obtain the holotype. Com- 
parisons with other species have been based upon the original description 
and figure. See Remarks under M. (Trichotocrinus) lutheri 
for comparison with that species. 

Olsson's description mentions a groove continuing up over the radial 
series. From a study of the ornamentation of other species of M elo- 
c r i n u s , it seems likely that this furrow will prove to be a ridge. The 
radial ridge possibly was broken off and the specimen so weathered as to 
give it the appearance of a groove. 

Melocrinus williamsi Olsson 

Plate 15, figure 2 

1912 Melocrinus williamsi Olsson. Bui. American Paleontology, v. 5, no. 23, 
pp. 4, 5, pi. 6, fig. 3 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 39 

Original description. Specimen about medium size. Dorsal cup 
higher than wide. Arms five, biserial. 

Plates tumid, with the centers of each supporting a conspicuous 
spiniferous node. This applies not only to the plates of the dorsal cup, but 
also to the plates of the ventral surface and of the anal tube. The centers 
of the radials and brachials are connected by a ridgelike elevation, which 
commencing on the basal plates follows up through the radials and brachials, 
dividing the dorsal cup into five equal fields. The interradials above the 
first have their centers connected by a low ridge, which passes from one 
plate to another, but is much less pronounced. The spiniferous node in 
the center of the radials and of the first interradial plates is surrounded 
by a circle of low beadlike elevations. 

Basals four, strongly tumid, those shown on the specimen pentagonal 
in shape. Radials twice as large, those shown on the specimen pentagonal 
in shape and as wide as high. Costals (primibrachs) two of nearly equal 
size, but much smaller than the radials. First costal hexagonal, second 
heptagonal in shape and both slightly higher than wide. Distichals 
(secundibrachs) I x 10, borne on the inner surface of the second costals, 
pentagonal in shape and slightly higher than wide. 

Interradials i, 2, 3, 3. First interradial hexagonal, slightly higher 
than wide, second interradial irregularly hexagonal, as are the remainder 
of the interradials. Plates of the ventral surface small, apparently of an 
irregular hexagonal shape. Anal tube long and composed of several small 
irregular plates. 

Remarks. This species is remarkable in its possession of the strongly 
spiniferous character of its plates. In this respect the species approaches 
Melocrinus gregeri Rowley (Melocrinus calvini 
W. & Sp. ?) from the Hamilton of Missouri, which however has the 
spiniferous nodes confined only to the larger plates of the dorsal cup, as 
well as lacking the ridgelike elevations extending through the radials and 
brachials and the circle of beadlike elevations around the spiniferous 
centers of the radials and the first interradials. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (Ithaca) beds, near Cortland, 
N. Y. 

Remarks. It has not been possible to obtain the holotype. Com- 
parisons with other species have been based upon the original description 
and figure. See Remarks under M. naplesensis for comparison 
with that species. 



I40 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Melocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Plate 15, figures 3, 4, 5(?) 

Species of medium size. It has been found occurring either in a crushed 
condition or as molds. A young and a mature specimen are figured 
here. The larger is quite crushed, so it would be difficult to say what 
relation the width bears to the height, but in the smaller specimen the 
calyx is slightly wider than high. 

Dorsal cup. Basals four, one hexagonal, the other three pentagonal, 
thick in their lower portions and projecting out over the column in strong 
spines or spinelike nodes. Radials wider than high, four pentagonal, 
one hexagonal, the latter resting upon the hexagonal basal. First primi- 
brachs smaller than the radials, as wide or slightly wider than high, 
hexagonal so far as any have been observed. Primaxils smaller than the 
first primibrachs, slightly wider than high, hexagonal or heptagonal, 
depending upon the number of bordering interbrachials, and giving rise 
to 2 x 10 secundibrachs which are in contact in each ray. Primary 
interbrachials smaller than the radials, hexagonal or heptagonal in shape, 
followed by two plates in the second rank, three in the third, four in the 
fourth. The anal interradius of one specimen shows the succession i, 

3, 5. 6. 

Tegrnen composed of many small plates, apparently of irregular hexa- 
gonal or heptagonal shape. Anal tube composed of small, irregular, spinose 
plates; this is not shown in the older specimen. 

Arms. Only the bases of the radial trunks are shown, except in one 
ray of the younger specimen which shows about one-half inch of the proximal 
portion of a radial trunk. This fragment shows a pair of spines or spinose 
nodes on the fifth and ninth pair of brachials. A fragment, about one 
inch in length, of the upper part of a radial trunk lies in close proximity 
to the younger calyx. It has paired spines every fourth or fifth pair of 
brachials where the arms are given off. This is very much like the main 
arm of Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) lutheri, but may 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK I41 

also belong to this species as it has the characteristics which the short 
piece attached to the calyx would lead one to expect. 

Column large and strong compared to the size of the calyx, and made 
up of thick columnals, the nodals, with one or two thin columnals of smaller 
diameter between them. In the smaller specimen the thick columnals 
have a diameter of 6 mm, the thinner ones, about 5 mm; in the larger speci- 
men, the thicker columnals have a diameter of 8 mm and the thinner about 
6.2 mm. The heavy columnals are thickened at their edges into nodes 
which are so strongly developed as to give an almost spinose appearance 
to the stem. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are tumid, more so 
in the younger specimen. Each plate bears at the center a conspicuous 
node or spine. These spines are present on the plates of the ventral surface 
and anal tube as well ; more strongly developed on the plates of the radial 
series and the primary brachials, and appear much stronger in the younger 
form. Radiating ridges connect the centers of the plates of the interradial 
series, even extending up over the tegmen, and are also present on the 
higher brachials though not so prominent. In the older specimen these 
ridges are only faintly developed on the primary interbrachials and first 
primibrachs and do not show on the radials at all; in the younger example 
the ridges on the primary interbrachials and first primibrachs are more 
prominent, and ridges may be distinguished on the radials. In the young 
specimen, in addition to the ridges, the plates show a vermicular marking 
which in the older specimen is replaced by irregularly scattered small 
papillae which give a granular appearance to the plates. As mentioned 
above, the nodal columnals in both the young and mature specimens are 
ornamented with prominent nodes which give it a spinose appearance. 

Locality and horizon. Several specimens of the species were collected 
by D. Dana Luther in the Portage beds (West Hill flags) from the gully 
at the head of Italy hollow, near Naples, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species is similar to Melocrinus williamsi 



I42 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

described by Olsson (191 2, p. 4) from the Portage rocks near Cortland, 
N. Y., but there are too many differences to permit placing these two 
together. Melocrinus naplesensis is at least as broad as high, 
lacks the ridgelike elevations connecting the radials and brachials, the 
beadlike elevations around the central spines, and has radiating ridges 
on the radial series as well as on the interbrachials. M. naplesensis 
has 2 x 10 secundibrachs while M. williamsi has 1 x 10. The 
heavy nodose stem in M. naplesensis is very characteristic and 
is not found in M. williamsi. 

A very young specimen of a Melocrinus from the same locality 
and horizon as naplesensis is figured on plate 15, figure 5. It is 
a sturdy form with a relatively large, strong stem; and when allowances 
are made for the changes which maturity might bring, it seems quite pos- 
sible that this specimen may prove to be the young of naplesensis. 

The species was named from the locality near which it was collected. 

Melocrinus sp. ? 

Plate 15, figure 6 

Two very young specimens of Melocrinus are shown on a small 
slab from the Portage beds (West Hill flags) in the vicinity of Naples, N. Y. 
The larger of the two (plate 15, figure 5) is very suggestive of Melo- 
crinus naplesensis and has been provisionally placed with that 
species (see Remarks under M . naplesensis). 

The smaller individual is of particular interest because it shows a 

parasitic gastropod, a Platyceras, resting over the anal area. It 

would be rather difficult to say to which species this young form belongs. 

The basals are very small, much smaller than seen in any of the Portage 

forms. 

Melocrinus sp. nov. 

Plate 15, figures 7-9 

This species is based upon very fragmentary material, but it is so 
characteristic that there can be no difficulty in recognizing it when more 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 43 

material is found. The present description is based upon a very beauti- 
fully preserved tubular appendage or arm trunk and several pieces of 
column which apparently belong to this species and are provisionally 
placed here. 

Arms. The tubular appendage preserved measures 10 mm, and even 
then the tip and most proximal part are missing. It is grooved on the dorsal 
side and must have been very flexible for as it lies in the rock it is bent over 
toward the dorsal side in almost a complete circle. The double row of 
ossicles forming the main trunk are short and broad and have crenulate 
edges. Arms are given off on each side from every third ossicle, and these 
arm-bearing ossicles are longer than the others. The arms are uniserial, 
composed of quadrangular brachials which are broader than long and 
have crenulate edges. Each bears a pair of long, delicate pinnules. The 
pinnules are composed of long ossicles and have a dorsal carina which gives 
them an angular appearance. Both the main trunk and the arms are 
ornamented with strong spines. On the main trunk they are borne, in 
each half, usually by every ninth ossicle, but they are not paired. Of each 
two spines borne by the main trunk the one on the left half is borne by the 
third ossicle above the one on the right half. The intermediate arm-bearing 
ossicles sometimes show a faint tubercle. The spines on the arms are borne 
singly on the backs of the brachials. They are borne at unequal intervals, 
being closer together nearer the tips. 

Column. On the same slab with the tubular appendage is a portion 
of a column. This same type of column is found on two other slabs from 
the same locality, and are associated with small arm fragments. It may 
well be that this is the column of this species, and it is provisionally referred 
here. The fact that the sutures between the columnals are strongly crenu- 
late, just as in the case of the brachials, is another point in favor of this 
designation. 

The column is composed of nodes and internodes. There are two sizes 
of nodals. The larger ones project considerably, and are ornamented with 
strongly developed nodes or tubercles which give an almost spinose appear- 



144 NEW y O rk STATE MUSEUM 

ance to the nodals. The minor nodals are midway between the heavier 
ones. They project slightly and have a knifelike edge. The internodals 
are very short. There are three between each minor nodal and the large 
nodal immediately above and below. The margins of all the columnals 
are strongly crenulate. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, Cashong creek 
near Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The arms of this species in their spinose character resem- 
ble the arms of Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) lutheri 
more than any other species; but otherwise they are quite different as a 
reference to the figured arms of that species will show (plate 16, figures 

10-12). 

Melocrinus splendens sp. nov. 

Plate 16, figure 1 

This species is described and figured from an excellent gutta-percha 
squeeze of a single specimen from the Chemung beds. It is a very large 
specimen, probably the largest described, exceeding M. willetensis 
in size of calyx and with much heavier arms. 

Dorsal cup in a somewhat crushed condition but the normal propor- 
tions remain; broader than high, somewhat hemispheric or bowl-shaped. 
Basal portion crushed and the basals can not be distinguished. Radials 
large and hexagonal, broader than high, the lower lateral faces being the 
longer. First primibrachs hexagonal, of about the same size as the radials 
and of subequal height and width. Primaxils smaller than the first primi- 
brachs and hexagonal so far as known. Secundibrachs 3 x 10 giving rise 
to the brachials of the tubular arms. First secundibrachs large, in one 
ray longer than the primaxil; the second and third much smaller, the third 
being but little longer than the arm brachials. The arms appear to be 
free at about the fifth secundibrach. Primary interbrachial hexagonal, 
smaller than the first primibrachs and followed by two plates in the second 
row, three in the third, three or four in the fourth. Above this they are 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 45 

not distinguishable. Anal interradius not preserved. There is one rather 
large intersecundibrach. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms. Arm trunks composed of short, heavy brachials and apparently 
free above the fifth secundibrach ; no auxiliary arms. Arms given off 
at every third brachial on each side, the arm-bearing brachials being wider 
than the others. Arms long, the proximal ones probably reaching well up 
toward the tips of the arm trunks. They are composed of quadrangular 
brachials wider than long and each bearing a pair of fairly long, slender 
pinnules. 

Column not known. 

Ornamentation. A strong, rounded ridge extends up the radial series, 
bifurcating on the primaxil, broadening out on the first secundibrachs and 
"occupying practically the entire width of the second and third secundi- 
brachs. At about the centers of the radials, primibrachs, and first 
secundibrachs, this ridge is produced into a rounded node. Both the 
brachials and interbrachials are ornamented with strong, rounded ridges 
which radiate from the center or nearly the center of each plate to all the 
faces. 

The arms are provided with dorsally situated strong spines, with 
apparently no regular arrangement. They are best shown on the more 
distal parts of the arms. 

Horizon and locality. From the upper Chemung beds, Binghamton, 
N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the Walker Museum, University of Chicago, 
number 12926. 

Remarks. This species of Melocrinus is quite distinct from 

any of the forms described. Perhaps that to which it bears most resemblance 

is M. pachydactylus from the Coeymans limestone, and from 

this species it is readily distinguishable. Among the many differences 

are the larger size and the shape; the arms are heavier, uniserial and 

spinose, and given off more frequently (every third brachial) from the 
10 



I46 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

main trunks; there is no auxiliary arm, and only one intersecundibrach ; 
and the radiating ridges on the plates of the dorsal cup are coarser and 
rounded. 

Melocrinus willetensis sp. nov. 

Plate 16, figure 2 

A very large species, one of the largest described. Dorsal cup long 
and turbinate; tegmen slightly convex. 

Dorsal cup. Basals four, very long and narrow, the bases rising 
in abrupt blunt elevations, slightly excavated laterally. Radials large, 
hexagonal, of the same width and length. First primibrachs slightly 
longer than wide, and a trifle shorter than the radials. Primaxils heptagonal , 
as long as wide, somewhat smaller than the first primibrachs, support- 
ing 2 x 10 secundibrachs which in turn support the arm trunks. Primary 
interbrachial hexagonal (in anal side heptagonal ?), as high as the first 
primibrachs and of equal width and height, supporting in the higher ranges 
2, 3, 5 interbrachials which connect insensibly with the plates of the 
tegmen. There appears to be one intersecundibrach. 

Tegmen slightly convex and composed of numerous medium-sized plates 
which are tumescent. 

Arms. Radial trunks composed of short, wide plates; character of the 
arm appendages unknown. 

Column. Associated with the calyx are two types of large columns 
with two sizes of thick, projecting nodals and thinner internodals. In one 
stem the nodals are ornamented with prominent nodes. Either may be 
the column of this species, but judging from the character of the column 
of variety perstriatus , that with the nonnodose nodals would seem to 
be the right one. 

Ornamentation. All of the brachials have strong central spines between 
which run faint, low connecting ridges. The interbrachials of the higher 
ranges (third, fourth, fifth) have, in addition to the central spines, incipient 
radiating ridges running from the centers of the plates. 

Horizon and locality. Lower Chemung beds near Willet, N. Y. 



DEVONIAN CRlNOiDS OF NEW YORK 1 47 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species most nearly resembles M . calvini Wachs- 
muth & Springer, from which it differs in its much greater size, in the 
more elongate, turbinate character of the dorsal cup, in the long, narrow 
basals with their peculiar lateral extensions, in the greater length of radials 
and first primibrachs compared with their breadth, in the presence of 
the radial ridges and in the nodose character of the higher ranges of 
interbrachials together with the presence of radiating ridges. 

Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus nov. 

Plate 1 6, figures 3-5 

Similar to Melocrinus willetensis and from the same 
locality and horizon is a small Melocrinus which is here regarded 
as a variety of willetensis. At present only a few fragmentary 
specimens are at hand. 

The exact shape of the calyx can not be determined but it appears 
to be turbinate. The specimens, differ from willetensis in their 
much smaller size and their less pronounced basals. As in willetensis, 
the higher plates of the cup, especially the higher orders of interbrachials, 
show radiating ridges in addition to the spines. These ridges extend well 
up on the base of the anal tube and as far on the tegmen as can be observed. 
On the lower plates of the cup, which have only spines in willetensis J 
there are delicate radiating ridges or striae. They are arranged in clusters, 
usually of three, which radiate from near the center of each plate to every 
face. The delicate ornamentation is very faint on two of the specimens, 
and, indeed, is a character which is likely to grow fainter or even disappear 
with maturity. This, together with the fragmentary preservation, has 
induced the writer to make this form a variety. 

The column is large and composed of alternating thick and thin 
columnals. There are two sizes of thick, projecting columnals which 
alternate, and between these are the thin columnals. There are detached 
fragments of columns of the same type associated with these fragments 



I48 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of calyces; and there is also another type of column with the thicker 
columnals nodose. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds at Willet, X. Y. 
A much flattened fragment of a cup belonging to this variety has been 
collected from Greene, Chenango county, N. Y., and is labelled Ithaca 
formation. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the Xew York State Museum 
and in the Walker Museum, University of Chicago, number 14240. 

Encrinites triciclas Eaton 

The name Encrinites triciclas Eaton (Yanuxem: Geol. 
N. Y., pt 3. 1842, p. 182) has been given to a crinoid column showing three 
different sized columnals. This column was noted as a characteristic fossil 
of the Chemung, occurring at Greene, near Binghamton, and many other 
localities. The column is quite evidently a Melocrinus column; 
and it is possible that more than one Chemung species could have 
this same type of stem.. Under these conditions it does not seem that 
the specific name can stand. 

Subgenus TRICHOTOCRINUS Olsson 19 12 
Melocrinus I Trichotocrinus ) harrisi Olsson 

Plate 16, figure 6; text figures 37, 38 

1912 Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) harrisi Olsson. Bui. American 
Paleontology, v. 5, no. 23, pp. 3. 4, pi. 6, figs. 1, 2 

Original description. Specimen about medium size. Dorsal cup as 
high as wide spreading rapidly. Arms five, biserial and developing three 
biserial branches, which give off armlets bearing pinnules. 

Plates slightly tumid and beautifully ornamented with well-defined 
ridges, those of the second series of plates passing from one plate to another. 
From, the radials a strong and well-defined ridge is carried up along the 
brachials, interruptedly at each plate, and dividing the dorsal area into five 
nearly equal fields. Because of the hexagonal shape of the plates, the ridges 
tend to be in the form of six-armed stars, all the arms of which seldom 
join in the center and never do on the radials, but are well marked on the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



149 



borders of the plates. Between these ridges are situated small beadlike 
elevations. Suture line deeply grooved. 

Basals four, forming a low cup and projecting beyond the surface of 
the radials. Radials about as wide as high and heptagonal in shape, except 
the anterior one, which is hexagonal and rests squarely upon the basal 
plate. Costals (primibrachs) about as wide as high, decreasing in size 
upwards and hexagonal in shape, except the second costal (prim axil) 
which is heptagonal and supports on its inner face the next order of brachial, 
the distichals (secundibrachs) . Distich- 
als 2 x 10, those of the same ray in 
contact laterally. First two rows of 
distichals pentagonal in shape, elevated 
in the center and with two small bead- 
like elevations on the adjacent and 
opposite extremities, the others much 
smaller and plain. The trunk tapers 
upwards and is deeply grooved along 
the fusion of the rays and this also 
extends into the branches. Armlets 
given off at every third, fourth or fifth 
brachial plate, those of the branches at 
each fourth brachial plate. 

Regular interradials 1, 2, 3, and 
others above, more or less hexagonal 
in shape and highly ornamented. The 
plates rapidly decrease in size on passing 
upwards towards the ventral surface and Figure 38 M 

the Shape Varies. crinus) harrisi. The branches of its 

Horizon and locality. From the biserial arms - (After 01sson ' I9I2) " 
Portage (Ithaca) beds, McGraw or University quarry, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Remarks. It has not been possible to obtain the holotype. Com- 
parisons with the other species have been based upon the original descrip- 
tion and figures. See Remarks under M. (Trichotocrinus?) 
1 u t h e r i for comparisons with that species. 





Figure 37 Melocrinus (Trichoto- 
crinus) harrisi. Portion of an arm 
showing the trichotomous branching. (After 
Olsson, 1912). 



Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus?) lutheri sp. nov. 

Plate 16, figures 7-12 

This species is represented by a number of specimens both of the calyx 
and of the arms. Detached arms or portions of arms are very frequent and 



150 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

in various stages of preservation. Both calyx and arms are usually pre- 
served as sharp, external molds in sandstone or sandy shale. The descrip- 
tion here is based mainly upon three specimens. The smallest example 
(plate 1 6, figure 9) shows the anal interradius; figure 8, an external mold, 
shows the calyx, the proximal portions of two arms and about 35 cm of 
stem. The figure was made from a gutta-percha squeeze. The largest 
and oldest specimen (figure 7) is imbedded in rock, and shows one side 
of the dorsal cup, a portion of the tegmen, a considerable portion of one 
arm. trunk and a few joints of the stem. Some of the more perfect speci- 
mens of the main arms are also figured (figures 10-12). The species is of 
medium size. 

Dorsal cup as high as wide, spreading rapidly. Basals four, forming a 
low cup; the largest hexagonal, the other three pentagonal. Radials about 
as wide or slightly wider than high, four heptagonal, the one resting upon 
the hexagonal basal hexagonal. First primibrachs hexagonal, smaller than 
the radials, slightly wider than high. Primaxils pentagonal or hexagonal, 
supporting 2 x 10 secundibrachs which are in contact in the same ray and 
give rise to the main trunks or arms. 

Primary interbrachial of about the same size as the first primibrach, 
and, so far as observed, hexagonal. It is followed by two plates in the second 
range, two in the third, three in the fourth, and in the fifth, five or six small 
plates which merge into the tegmen. One small specimen shows the anal 
interradius. In this there are three plates in the second row and appar- 
ently three in the third. 

Tegmen slightly arched and made up of numerous small irregular plates. 
Interradial areas slightly depressed. 

Arms. The radial trunks branch some distance above the calyx. 
Usually these branches are oppositely arranged and together with the main 
trunk form the trichotomy upon which the subgenus is based. One speci- 
men of an arm (figure 10) has been found in which the first division is nearer 
the calyx, the second division being only a short distance above this. This 
character of the main arms is shown in the older specimen incompletely 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 151 

(figure 7) and in separate specimens of the arms (figures n, 12). The main 
trunk and the branches are deeply grooved along the fusion of the rays, 
and they bear on each side at every fourth or fifth, usually every fourth, 
brachial a uniserial arm bearing comparatively long pinnules. There is a 
strong, rather long, articulated spine on the dorsal side at the place of 
origin of the branches of the arm trunk and also at the origin of each arm. 

The younger specimen (figure 8) shows only a very small portion of 
the arms, only enough to indicate the character of the main trunk and the 
uniserial character of the proximal arms. On the same slab with this 
specimen are detached arm trunks showing the trichotomous branching. 

Column. One of the specimens (figure 8) shows about 35 cm of stem. 
It is stout for the size of the specimen, measuring about 5 mm in the proximal 
portion and 6 mm in the distal portion. The stem is made up of alternat- 
ing thick and thin columnals. 

Ornamentation. This species is beautifully ornamented. Each plate 
of the dorsal cup supports a central spine, and, so far as can be ascertained, 
the plates of the tegmen are also provided with a central spine or tubercle. 
Prominent radiating ridges connect the centers of the different plates, 
crossing suture lines. These ridges form six- or seven- sided stars according 
to the number of sides each plate possesses. In addition to the ridges the 
plates are ornamented with granules which may be irregularly distributed 
or more or less fused into delicate ridges parallel to the main ridges. The 
ridges and granules, as well as the central spines are present on the tegminal 
plates ; the ridges are fainter, but the granules seem to be as well developed. 

In the older form (figure 7) the radial ridges are fainter and the papillae 
form strong vermicular markings over the surface of all the plates. 

As noted above, the arm trunks are marked with articulated spines at 
the place of branching of the main trunk and also at the origin of each 
arm. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage beds (West Hill flags), Italy 
hollow, near Naples, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum. 



15^ NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Remarks. This new species has been placed under the subgenus 
Trichotocrinus because it possesses the characteristic branching 
of the arm trunks. The younger specimen (figure 8) does not show the 
character of the main arms in this regard; but the calyx shows only those 
differences which would be found between young and mature forms of the 
same species, and is therefore referred to this species. On the slab with 
this younger specimen are detached portions of arm trunks with trichoto- 
mous branching. The association of the detached arm trunks here figured 
with the calyces leaves no doubt as to their connection with this species 
The arms in all cases, as far as can be determined, are uniserial. Olsson 
(1912, pp. 2, 3) states that his subgenus is based on one specimen with only 
one main arm preserved, and so far as he can ascertain the arms are biserial; 
and he so figures them. It may be possible that the character of the arms 
of this genus is variable. Judging by the preponderance of arm trunks with 
trichotomous branching, it is probable that strictly trichotomous branch- 
ing is the rule. 

A very young specimen referred to this species (figure 9) is of especial 
interest. As far as preserved, it shows only the Melocrinus type 
of arm, though in all other respects characteristic of the species. The 
arms are not preserved to their full length, and it is possible that the 
trichotomous branching occurs high up on the arm; but, as pointed out 
in the Introduction, page 49, this condition in such a young specimen 
is very suggestive of an ontogenetic stage repeating the evolution of the 
subgenus in the development of the individual. 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus?) lutheri bears a 
resemblance to two species described by Olsson (pp. 3, 5. pi. 6. figs. 1,2; 
pi. 7, fig. 1), Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) harrisi and 
Melocrinus reticularis. M . reticularis, when arms 
are present, is readily distinguished from lutheri. Reticularis 
has a more elaborate system of ridges, no central spines on the plates, 
a groove beginning on the basals and continuing up through the radials, 
primibrachs. and secundibrachs ; and the interradial series gives the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 53 

succession I, 2, 3, etc. (Olsson, p. 6). These characters make it easily 
separable from lutheri. There is a closer resemblance between 
lutheri and h a r r i s i , partly because of the character of the arms. 
H a r r i s i lacks the central spines on the plates, the radial ridges seldom 
join in the centers and have beadlike elevations between them, and the 
regular radial series gives the succession 1,2,3 (ibid, pp. 3, 4), while lutheri 
has the interradial succession 1,2, 2, 3, 5 or 6. If harrisi has biserial 
arms as the description and figures suggest, this is another point of difference. 
Olsson makes no mention of spines on the main arms, but his figures seem 
to indicate that they might have been present. 

This fine species is named in honor of its collector, D. Dana Luther. 

Section DOLATOCRINITES Wachsmuth & Springer 

Genus CLONOCRINUS Quenstedt 1876 
Clonocrinus (?) macropetalus (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 20, figure 10 

1859 Mariacrinus macro-petalus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:111, pi. 3 A, figs. 

1, 8, 9, 10-12; pi. 3 B, figs, i, 2 
1868 Mariacrinus macropetalus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis ? 

2:380 
1877 Mariacrinus macropetalus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 
1889 Mariacrinus macropetalus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Corymbocrinus ? macropetalus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Crin. Cam., 1:28 (authors' ed.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1 899 Corymbocrinus macropetalus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer ■ 

Mus. Nat. Hist., v. n, pt. 2, p. 88 

1900 Corymbocrinus ? macropetalus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer. j 

11 :279 
1903 Mariacrinus macropetalus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 
Bui. 65, p. 73 

The specimen upon which this description is based is very fragmentary : 
when entire it must have been very large. 



154 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dorsal cup large, probably hemispheric. The specimen consists of 
the base, a portion of two series of radial plates and one series of inter- 
brachial plates. Basal plates wide and short: one larger than the others 
and hexagonal. Radials wider than high, the one resting upon the hexa- 
gonal basal hexagonal, the other four heptagonal. Primibrachs two. both 
wider than high; the first quadrangular; the second pentagonal, axillary. 
^-cundibrachs two. shown in the half of one ray. wider than high: the 
first hexagonal, larger than the primaxil. followed by a smaller pentagonal 
plate which is axillary. Primary interbrachial very large, ten-sided, and 
followed in the second row by two smaller hexagonal plates. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms unknown. 

Column large, round and deeply inserted into the base of the body. 

Horizon and locality. Becraft limestone. Schoharie and the Helderberg. 

Types. Two of the cotypes are in the Xew York State Museum. 

iws.-.': ri's ~- v ~"~' . ^— . Another is in the American Museum of Natural 

I 2 

XT' U 22 99 

Jriistorv. numoer — — . 

2 

Remarks. Hall (1850. p. 11. pi. 5 A. 3B' referred to this species 
fragments of large columns which were associated with it in great numbers . 
They have not been refigured here. 

Mariacrinus macropetalus Hall was designated by 
Wachsmuth & 5 c ringer [1897, v - l > P- 2 ^ 2 as probably belonging to 
C orymbocrinus Angelin. and this designation was later accepted 
by Schuchert (1900. p. 279. Corymbocrinus Angelin proves to 
be synonymous with Clonocrinus Quenstedt ^Bather. 1900. p. 162; 
Springer. 1913. p. 190 ■ , thus changing Hall's Mariacrinus macro- 
petalus to Clonocrinus (?) macropetalus. The 
species is difficult to place because there is only one specimen and that very 
fragmentary. It is placed here with its doubtful designation. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 55 

Genus DOLATOCRINUS Lyon 1857 (W. & Sp. 1897) 
Dolatocrinus glyptus (Hall) 

Plate 1 8, figures 4-7 

1862 Cacabocrinus glyptus Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist. , 

p. 140 
1868 Dolatocrinus glyptus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis. 

2:367 

1877 Dolatocrinus glyptus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

1878 Cacabocrinus glyptus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

1 88 1 Dolatocrinus glyptus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 125 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phi la., 33:299 
1889 Dolatocrinus glyptus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 
1897 Dolatocrinus glyptus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

1:317, pi. 26, figs. 2 a, 2 b (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
Syn. Cacabocrinus gl}-ptus var. intermedins Hall 
Syn. Dolatocrinus ornatus Meek 
1900 Dolatocrinus glyptus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 
1904 Dolatocrinus glyptus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

pp. 49, 52 
1910 Dolatocrinus glyptus (ornatus Meek) Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. 

Index Foss., 2:557 
1921 Dolatocrinus glyptus Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 115, p. 41 

Theca of medium size, the dorsal cup of one of the largest specimens 
examined, the holotype, having a width of 50 mm and a height of 22 
mm. Dorsal cup depressed to subglobose; basal region flattened up to 
the first primibrachs. from there curving rather abruptly upward; 
periphery in some cases distinctly lobed, in others not. Vault moderately 
elevated. 

Dorsal cup. Basals three, fused into a pentagonal disk, the sutures 
usually visible. Radials hexagonal, wider than high; plates comparatively 
narrower at the base, broadening rapidly upward. First primibrachs 
quadrangular, averaging twice as broad as high, much narrower than the 



I56 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

radials. Primaxils pentagonal, supporting 2 x 10 fixed secundibrachs 
which in turn support the free arms. Primary interbrachial very large, 
nonagonal, and followed either by a hexagonal or heptagonal plate, depending 
upon whether or not the plate of the second range has fused with the central 
plate of the third range. In case of such fusion, the resultant plate is 
heptagonal, with a broad base and narrowing gradually upward. On its 
concave upper sides rest two interbrachials. 

Tegmen composed of heavy nodose plates; interambulacral areas 
moderately depressed. Anal tube stout, central. 

Arms apparently stout; otherwise their nature is not known. 

Column moderately large, only partially concealing the basal disk. 
Axial canal pentalobate. 

Ornamentation. In the adult g 1 y p t u s the ornamentation consists 
chiefly of rather regularly arranged elongate nodes and granules. The 
ridge traversing the radial series is quite distinct, though seldom 
continuous. 

The youngest specimen observed (plate 18, figure 4) has an orna- 
mentation somewhat resembling that of 1 i r a t u s . The carinae forming 
the triangles characteristic of that species are as a rule incomplete, and 
at times are indicated .merely by faint striae. The radial ridge is repre- 
sented by elongate nodes at the centers of the plates, which merge into 
one another more or less completely. 

In the next stage observed (plate 18, figure 5) the radial ridge has 
become practically continuous. All signs of uninterrupted linear orna- 
mentation have disappeared in the interradii, being replaced by a series of 
elongate nodes ranging from 1 to 4 mm in length. 

In the final stage, these elongate nodes are broken up still more com- 
pletely (plate 18, figures 6, 7). 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow) shales. Holotype from 
Pavilion, N. Y.; other specimens from York, Livingston county, and 
Hopewell, N. Y. Also reported from the Ludlowville shales of the Can- 
andaigua lake region. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 157 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 
number ^-^-. The old specimen, figured on plate 18, figure 7, from Hope- 
well, N. Y., apparently has on it a faded hypotype mark of the Museum, 
and may be the specimen figured by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, 
plate 26, figure 2 b). 

Remarks. Dolatocrinus glyptus differs from 1 i r a t u s 
in its somewhat more globose form, its larger basals, and more particularly 
in its ornamentation. All of these are variable characters, but glyptus, 
as defined, seems to be a well-marked species. 

The fragment of stem attached to the holotype is completely covered 
with matrix, but was restored by Wachsmuth and Springer in their Mono- 
graph, plate 26, figure 2 a. The stem is really wider than figured by them, 
its width being more nearly that given on plate 18, figure 6. 

Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius (Hall) 

Plate 18, figure 8 

1862 Cacabocrinus glyptus var. intermedius Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. 
State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 141 

1868 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius Shumard. Trans. Acad. 

Sci. St Louis, 2 : 367 

1869 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius Lyon. Trans. Amer. 

Philos. Soc. Phila., p. 444 

1877 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. 

Foss., p. 77 

1878 Cacabocrinus glyptus var. intermedius Bigsby. Thesaurus 

Dev.-Carb., p. 16 
1881 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius Wachsmuth & Springer. 

Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, p. 126 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

33 : 3oo 
1889 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius S. A. Miller. N. Amer. 

Geol. & Pal., p. 240 
1897 Syn. Dolatocrinus glyptus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:318 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool.. v. 20 



I58 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

1904 Dolatocrinus intermedins Clarke & Lnther. N. Y. State Mus. Bnl . 

63. P- 52 

1 905 Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedins Clarke & Ruedemann. 

N. Y. State Mus. Rep't for 1904, p. 118 
192 1 Syn. Dolatocrinus glyptus Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 1 r 5 , p. 41 

This variety differs from glyptus in the character of its orna- 
mentation. In this form, instead of having the linear ornamentation 
broken up into a series of elongate, sharply defined nodes, the lines remain 
unbroken, but are very indistinct, in some cases being nearly obsolete. At 
the center of each primary interradial is a conical protuberance, while 
near it on the same plate are from one to three irregular nodes. The radial 
ridge is well denned, and at its bifurcation on the primaxil forms a promi- 
nent node. This type of ornamentation differs considerably from that 
of glyptus, as well as that of liratus — so much so that it 
seems best to maintain the variety as defined by Hall. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow) shales at York, Livingston 
county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum, number ^ - . 

Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 

Plate 17, figures 1-13; plate 18, figures 1-3 
1862 Cacabocrinus liratus Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., 

P- i39 

Cacabocrinus liratus var. multilira Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. State 

Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 139 

1868 Dolatocrinus liratus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:367 
Dolatocrinus liratus var. multilira Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci . 

St Louis, 2 1367 

1869 Dolatocrinus (Cacabocrinus) liratus Lyon. Trans. Amer. Philos. 

Soc. Phila., 13:443 
1877 Dolatocrinus liratus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. multilira S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. 
Foss., p. 77 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 59 

1878 Cacabocrinus liratus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

Cacabocrinus liratus var. m u 1 1 i 1 i r a Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.- 
Carb., p. 16 
1881 Dolatocrinus liratus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 
p. 126 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:300 
Dolatocrinus liratus var. m u 1 1 i 1 i r a Wachsmuth & Springer. 
Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, p. 126 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:300 
1889 Dolatocrinus liratus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. m u 1 1 i 1 i r a S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. 

& Pal., p. 240 
Dolatocrinus liratus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 2, book 2, 
p. 98 

1897 Dolatocrinus liratus (prob. var. of glyptus) Wachsmuth & Springer, 

N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 1:319, pi. 26, fig. 3 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
v. 20 

1898 Dolatocrinus liratus Bownocker. Bui. Denison Univ., v. 11, art. 2, p. 20 
1900 Dolatocrinus liratus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 

1904 Dolatocrinus liratus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63. 

PP- 49. 52 

1905 Dolatocrinus liratus var. multilira Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. 

State Mus. Rep't for 1904, p. 118 
1910 Dolatocrinus liratus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 2:557 
192 1 Dolatocrinus liratus Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 115, p. 41 

Quite a large species, specimens ranging up to 60 mm in breadth having 
been found. 

Dorsal cup depressed to subglobose; basal region generally flattened, 
or even somewhat concave up to the primibrachs. From here the plates 
may turn abruptly upward, giving a subglobose form (plate 17, figure 2) 
or the flattening may partially include the first primibrach, resulting in a 
more depressed form (plate 17, figure 1). The dorsal cup varies consider- 
ably in its proportions, the chief variations occurring in the adult speci- 
mens. Measurements of a number of individuals give the following 
figures : 



i6o 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Height 
5.6 mm 



7 3 

(?) 
(abnormal) 12.3 

15-5 
16.5 
17. 

23- 

(18) 



Breadth 
12. 5 mm 
16.8 
17.9 

25- 
30. 

4i- 

36. 

38. 

5i- 

60. 



The measurements enclosed in parentheses are only approximate, owing to 
distortion of the specimens. 

Basals fused into a tripartite, pentagonal, excavated disk which in 
adult specimens has a prominent rounded rim which projects beyond the 
column. Radials hexagonal, nearly twice as broad as high. First primi- 
brachs quadrangular, of about the same height as the radials, but narrower. 
Primaxils pentagonal, slightly wider than the first primibrachs, supporting 
3 x 10 large secundibrachs (fixed), giving two arms to a ray. Primary 
interbrachial nonagonal, large, reaching to about the middle of the 
primaxil, usually followed by one plate in the second and three in the third 
range. Intersecundibrachs one, large, resting on the upper faces of the 
second secundibrachs and between the third secundibrachs. 

Tegmen only slightly elevated with depressed interambulacral areas 
(plate 17. figure 4). Plates of the tegmen rather heavy and with central 
nodes; in addition often papillose or with vermicular markings. 

Anal tube ('plate 17, figure 5) stout and subcentral; length unknown, 
although it was probably not much longer than that figured on plate 24, 
figure 3. 

Arms only known from fragments; fairly stout, biserial, with rounded 
backs. In two rays of one specimen (plate 18, figures 2, 3) a bifurcation 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK l6l 

is shown a short distance above the calyx; whether higher bifurcations 
occur is not known. This specimen is abnormal. 

Column round and fairly stout; central canal large and pentalobate. 

Ornamentation. This is the most beautifully ornamented species of 
Dolatocrinus. Traversing the radial series run low carinae, which 
rise into tubercles at the centers of the plates. From the center of each 
radial to the next runs a carina. Proximad in each interradius there is a 
variable number of carinae parallel to this, the whole forming a series of 
pentagons surrounding the basal disk. From the center of each primary 
interbrachial, carinae run to the centers of the adjacent radials, primibrachs, 
and secundibrachs, and the single large interbrachials of the second range. 
These carinae form a set of triangles, within each one of which is a 
group of smaller triangles, more or less perfect, which nest one within 
the other. 

Ontogeny. The changes taking place in the integumentive develop- 
ment of this species are very great. The general proportions of the dorsal 
cup remain fairly constant. The character of the base and the ornamenta- 
tion are, however, subject to great modifications. 

In the young form, the basal region is deeply excavated, and the basals 
are deeply sunk in the basal pit (plate 17, figures 6-9). With the growth 
of the crinoid, this pit gradually becomes filled by a thickening of the 
basals and the lower portion of the radials, giving a flat or slightly excavated 
base (figures 1, 2, 11.) The basals become more and more prominent 
finally projecting in a well-defined rim (figures 1, 3, 10, 12). 

In the youngest forms observed (figures 6-8) a prominent ridge runs 

from the center of each radial to the next, forming a pentagonal, elevated 

rim about the basal pit. From the center of each primary interbrachial 

a strong carina runs to the center of each adjacent radial, first primibrach, 

primaxil, and secundibrach. Between these carinae, the surface of the 

plates may be somewhat roughened, or there may even be incipient secondary 

carinae present. Along the radial series extends a prominent ridge which runs 

into sharp nodes at the center of each plate traversed. The ornamenta. 
11 



1 62 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

tion in these specimens as in other individuals in various stages of develop- 
ment, varies considerably in the different interradials. 

At least up to the stage represented in figure 8, the development of 
the ornamentation consists in a strengthening of the carinae already formed, 
and a greater accentuation of the nodes on the plates of the radial series 
and the primary interbrachials. The only notable addition to the orna- 
mentation is that of the somewhat irregular ridges circumscribed by the 
carinae passing from the primary interbrachial to the radials, and from 
radial to radial. 

The next stage observed is, unfortunately, considerably older (figure 9). 
The carinae are much less prominent, and with the widening of the 
interradii their number has greatly increased. The nodes borne by the 
primary interbrachials and formed by the intersection of the radiating cari- 
nae are scarcely noticeable. The keel traversing the radial series is quite 
strong, while the nodes are comparatively less conspicuous. The basal 
pit is quite marked, but has already become much more shallow. In the 
specimen figured, the basals have been slightly crushed in, making the 
pit seem deeper than it really is. 

With increasing age the basal region becomes more ' flattened 
(figures 1, 2), and the ornamentation grows more complex. The radial 
keels are much less prominent. 

In the adult form described by Hall (1862, p. 139) as liratus 
tar. multilira (figure 10), the radial keels form a very insignificant 
part of the ornamentation, in some cases being practically obsolete. The 
ornamentation of the interradii is highly complex. Having reached this 
complex stage, there appears to be a breaking up of the carinae caused by 
a partial resorption (figures 12, 13). The beginning of this process may 
be seen in figure 1 1 , where in parts the ornamentation has lost its distinctly 
linear character. 

A portion of a very large specimen (figure 13) shows a complete break- 
ing up of the carinae which are now represented by scattered tubercles. 
Close examination shows that they have a more or less linear arrangement, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 63 

while on the surface of the plates may occasionally be seen indistinct striae 
marking the position of the original carinae. The radial ridges alone retain 
any degree of continuity. Even the projecting basal rim has become 
partially resorbed, and is marked by a ring of irregular tubercles. 

Two abnormal specimens worthy of special mention have been 
observed. In one (plate 18, figures 1-3) but four rays have been developed, 
the fifth ray, apparently, being entirely unrepresented. The two primary 
interbrachials of the interradii that would normally be adjacent to the 
missing ray are unusually large, and together with an extension of the 
basals in that area, occupy the space usually filled by two interradii and a 
radial series. Another peculiar feature possibly induced by the abnormal 
condition of the dorsal cup is the possession by two of the rays of but one 
primibrach, being essentially similar in this regard to Stereocrinus. 

In the other specimen, one interradius is exceptionally wide, owing to 
the greater size of the primary interbrachial and of the plates of the adjacent 
rays. The result of this enlargement is a peculiar change in the character 
of the ornamentation. This is of the typical multilira type, whereas all 
the other interradii are typically 1 i r a t u s . This fact shows very clearly 
that the type of ornamentation in 1 i r a t u s depends entirely on the 
width of the interradius and therefore, in normal individuals, On the age 
of the animal. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales of Geneseo; 
Cashong creek near Bellona; Bellona; Leicester, Livingston county; 
Menteth's point, Canandaigua lake; near Darien, Geneseo county; in the 
upper shales of the Livonia salt shaft; and in the Ludlowville shales of the 
Canandaigua lake region; also found in the Tully limestone near Tully, 
N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum where they bear 

the catalog numbers 4-4 and 4_4 ; holotype of Dolatocrinus 

li r a t u s var. multilira in the same collection, number 4_i_. 

1 



164 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

■ 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. parvulus nov. 

Plate 17, figure 14 

i From the Hamilton (Moscow) beds of Canandaigua lake comes a 
Dol'atocrinus which resembles Dolatocrinus liratus in 
form, arrangement of plates and general character of the ornamentation; 
but differs from that species in its very much smaller size and the delicacy 
of the ornamentation. The specimen figured has a breadth of about 15.2 
mm and a height of about 7.2 mm. The ridges extending up the radial 
series are very strong, raised into a conspicuous node on each radial and with 
less prominent nodes on the other plates. A series of three or four delicate 
carinae or lines extends from radial to radial forming around the base a 
series of pentagons nesting one within the other. The carinae from the 
center of the radials to the center of the primary interbrachials are even 
more delicate, and the carinae within the triangles thus formed are fainter 
still. There is usually only one carina, sometimes two, from the center 
of the primary interbrachial to the plates other than the radials. Thus 
the greater part of the ornamentation is confined to the radials and lower 
part of the primary interbrachials. 

Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Dolatocrinus lamellosus (Hall) 

Plate 19, figures i, 2 

1862 Cacabocrinus lamellosus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. 

Nat. Hist., p. 141 
1868 Dolatocrinus lamellosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:367 

1877 Dolatocrinus lamellosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

1878 Cacabocrinus lamellosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

1881 Dolatocrinus lamellosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 
pt. 2, p. 126 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:300 

1889 Dolatocrinus lamellosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 

1889 Dolatocrinus lamellosus (in err.) Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1 , 
pt. 2, p. 98 

1921 Dolatocrinus lamellosus (?) Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 115, p. 36 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 65 

It is very probable that Hall's D. lamellosus is not a New 
York form (see Remarks below). The species is here described from speci- 
mens in the American Museum of Natural History labeled " Louisville, 
Kentucky ". One of the specimens has the manuscript label 
"D. lamellosus" and is apparently Hall's type specimen. The 
description given below is based upon this type specimen (plate 19, figure 1) 
and the two other large forms, which meet the requirements of Hall's 
description. A fourth specimen is very small, incomplete and varies 
somewhat, but it may be a younger stage. 

Dorsal cup large and broad and low, spreading horizontally to the top 
of the primaxil. Basals small, concealed at the bottom of the large, deep, 
subcircular basal depression into which the column fits. Radials hexagonal 
with a narrow base, expanding rapidly upward. Lower lateral faces very 
long and upper lateral faces very short, making the radials over twice as 
wide at the top as at the base. Lower third of the radials embraced in 
the basal depression. 

First primibrachs short, quadrangular, not as broad as the radials, 
over one and a third times as broad as high. Primaxils pentagonal, both 
higher and broader than the first primibrachs, with long upper faces which 
support 2x5 secundibrachs. Secundibrachs large, pentagonal or hexagonal 
and axillary, supporting on each upper face a series of three tertibrachs which 
are smaller. This gives 3 x 20 tertibrachs in the dorsal cup. 

Primary interbrachial large, the largest plate in the cup ; resting between 
the plates of the adjacent radial series as high as the secundaxils or first 
tertibrachs; ten- or eleven- sided, depending upon whether or not it touches 
the first tertibrachs. Usually one plate in the second row, pentagonal, 
followed by two in the third and apparently two in the fourth; sometimes 
one plate in the second and one in the fourth, in which case the second 
plate is quadrangular. In one interradius in the larger specimen there 
are two plates in the second row, and the first tertibrachs do 'not rest 
upon the primary interbrachial; a smaller specimen shows two small 
plates in the second row and the first tertibrachs bordering the primary 



1 66 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

interbrachial, which therefore has twelve sides. This may be the anal 
interradius. 

At least one interaxillary (intertertibrach) separating the half rays 
at the level of the second tertibrachs. It is small and appears to be followed 
by a second one half its size. This is only shown in one ray, so it can not 
be further verified. 

Tegmen not preserved in any of the specimens. 

Arms twenty, four to a ray; apparently heavy, but no part of them 
preserved. 

Column large and round, judging by the stem cicatrix situated at the 
bottom of the deep basal pit. Axial canal large and pentalobate. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are ornamented with 
numerous fine radiating striae passing from center of plate to the centers 
of adjoining plates. This ornamentation is similar to, but more delicate 
than, the multilira type of ornamentation in D. liratus. A strong 
central ridge passes up the radial series from the edge of the basal depression 
to about the center of the primaxil. Along the ridge on the radials and first 
prirnibrachs are strong rather sharp nodes; particularly strong and sharp 
on the radials. where they give a pentagonal appearance to the basal 
depression. The ridges almost die out on the primaxils; but they continue 
over the secundaxils as rather accentuated striae, which become elevated on 
the tertibrachs into broad angular ridges which continue to the arm bases. 

In the specimen doubtfully referred to a younger stage of this species, 
the striae are fewer and have more the character of elevated laminae, 
and the radial ridges are less pronounced. These, however, are all 
characters which are to be expected in younger forms. 

Horizon andjocality. Cited by Hall from the Onondaga of western 
Xew York, but there seems to be little doubt now that the type, as well 
as the other specimens in the American Museum, is from the Onondaga of 
Louisville, Kentucky {see Remarks below). 

Types. Holotype and the other specimen figured here in the collection 
of the American Museum of Natural History, number 4167. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 67 

Remarks. The specimen figured on plate 19, figure 1, fits the original 
description and is no doubt Hall's type. It is labeled ' near Louisville, 
Kentucky," and the rock is not the characteristic New York Onondaga- 
Doctor Springer in writing to me of this species says : 'D. lamellosus 
(which you identified in the American Museum, from Louisville specimens) 
is probably not a New York species at all. The type is there, as I saw it 
many years ago and made a cast of it; and I noted at the time that it was 
apparently from Louisville." Through the kindness of Doctor Springer 
I have a cast from the wax impression of the type, and this cast corresponds 
with the specimen which I had already judged must be the type. 

Miller & Gurley (1894, no - 4» P- 8, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5) described specimens 
of Dolatocrinus from the Hamilton of Charlestown, 111., as 
D. spinosus. 1 In the specimens described the surface ornamentation 
was not preserved. Outside of this, apparently the only difference between 
the dorsal cups of the two species is the presence of three plates in the 
third row of interbrachials in spinosus, which is a variable character 
anyway. The tegmen is not preserved in the specimens of lamellosus, 
so no comparison in this respect between the two specimens can be made. 

Rowley (in Green, 1903, p. 164, pi. 48, fig. 4) refers an abnormal, 
four-rayed specimen doubtfully to spinosus. This specimen is from 
the Middle Devonian, Falls of the Ohio. It shows the ornamentation 
beautifully, and, so far as preserved, fits the description of lamellosus. 

In writing concerning the type of D. lamellosus Springer says : 

It (the type) is incomplete, being minus the tegmen, for which 
reason the name can not take precedence over Miller & Gurley's 
D. spinosus, of which the dorsal cup is identical with this, but 
the tegmen strongly spiniferous. As we do not know whether lamel- 
losus is spiniferous or not, we have to recognize Miller & Gurley's 
species and leave the earlier one in doubt. 2 

It might be well to retain both species until the character of the tegmen 

of lamellosus is established. Many fossils have been named from 

1 Shown by Springer (1921, pp. 34, 35) to be Onondaga of Louisville and vicinity. 

2 The same position is held by Springer (192 1, p. 36) in his paper on Dolatocrinus 
and its allies. 



1 68 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

incomplete specimens, and a more complete or perfect specimen found 
later takes the earlier name. Therefore, if only one of the two specific 
names is to be retained, instead of both, lamellosus ought to stand 
until further material proves whether its tegmen is or is not identical 
with that of spinosus. 

Dolatocrinus speciosus (Hall) 

Plate 1 8, figures 9-12 

1862 Cacabocrinus speciosus Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 137 

1868 Dolatocrinus speciosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 367 

1877 Dolatocrinus speciosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

1878 Cacabocrinus speciosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

1881 Dolatocrinus speciosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2 , 
p. 126 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:300 

1889 Dolatocrinus speciosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 

1897 Dolatocrinus speciosus (in err.) Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 
Grin. Cam., 1:323, pi. 25, fig. 4 a, 6 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1905 Dolatocrinus speciosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 
Rep't for 1904, p. 119 

1921 Dolatocrinus speciosus Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 115, p. 30 

Theca of medium size. Dorsal cup in the holotype 33 mm in breadth 
by 16 mm in height, subglobose; largest specimen observed with breadth 
of about 38 mm. Basal region somewhat flattened up to the top of the 
radials. From there the cup curves outward and upward to the top of 
the primaxil; the sides of the cup above this point become practically 
vertical. Tegmen only slightly elevated. 

Dorsal cup. Basals three, small, completely concealed within a rather 
deep pit, which is entirely filled by the stem. Radials hexagonal, broader 
than high; narrow at the edge of the basal pit, widening rapidly upward. 
First primibrachs quadrangular, about twice as broad as high. Primaxils 
pentagonal, slightly wider than the first primibrachs and much higher. 

Secundibrachs in adult specimens 4 x 10, fixed. Primary interbrachial 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 69 

nonagonal, reaching to about the middle of the primaxil, followed in the 
second range by one quadrangular plate, and in the third by three smaller 
plates; occasionally, one, or possibly more, small plates in interradius in 
addition. Intersecundibrachs one, so far as observed, though there are 
probably more in older specimens. " Respiratory slits ' two for each 
interradius, and two between the arms of each ray, making twenty 
in all. 

Tegmen made up of heavy, somewhat nodose plates. Anal tube 
somewhat excentric, large. In the holotype the " obtusely pointed spine " 
mentioned by Hall, is not a spine at all, but appears to be the result of 
some abnormal condition of growth. In other specimens such a pro- 
tuberance is entirely wanting. 

Arms two to a ray, given off from sharply defined arm bases; arm 
bases of each ray separated from one another by a rather broad sulcus. 
As a result, the free arms of an adult specimen, at their inception, are 
fully 5 mm apart. This is about one half the interval that separates the 
arm bases of contiguous rays. 

Column of medium size and round. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are heavy, and with the 
exception of the plates of the radial series, are often smooth and slightly 
convex. Traversing the plates of the radial series are narrow, rather 
high keels which at the centers of the plates become somewhat more elevated 
• and thickened. The character of this keel varies considerably, ranging 
from a sharply defined, elevated carina to a low, broad ridge, rising gradually 
from the edges of the plates. This variation is one largely due to growth 
changes. The keel is narrow and well marked at first, but with the sub- 
sequent thickening of the plates it becomes broader, finally almost losing 
its distinctive character as a carina. 

In the holotype, the interradii are marked by indistinct sets of parallel 
lines, radiating from the centers of the primary interbrachials and passing 
to the adjacent plates in series of four or five lines each. In some specimens 
even this incipient ornamentation seems to be entirely wanting. 



170 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ontogeny. One interesting change due to growth is the shortening 
of the radials, owing to the enlargement of the stem. As the stem enlarges, 
the inner edges of the radials are resorbed, widening the basal pit. In 
the holotype, which possibly represents the maximum growth of the 
radials, these plates are 6 mm in height, while in a considerably older 
specimen (plate 18, figure 11) they average slightly less than 5 mm in 
height. 

Horizon and locality. Onondaga limestone. Holotype from Schoharie 
county, exact locality unknown; other localities are Cherry Valley, Otsego 
county, and Thompson's lake, Albany county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum, 

number 

1 

Remarks. It is very unfortunate that Hall did not figure this species. 
Wachsmuth and Springer formed an erroneous impression as to the nature 
of speciosus from the description given by Hall and figured quite 
a different form in their Monograph, PI. 25, figs. 4a, 46. 

See Remarks under Dolatocrinus lobatus. 

Dolatocrinus ornatus Meek 

Plate 18, figures 13, 14 

1871 Dolatocrinus ornatus Meek. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 23:57 

1878 Dolatocrinus ornatus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 17 

1885 Dolatocrinus ornatus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3 ( 

p. 105 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 27:327 
1889 Dolatocrinus ornatus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 
1894 Dolatocrinus ornatus Miller & Gurley. Bui. 111. State Mus. Nat. 

Hist., no. 4, p. 18, pi. 2, figs. 7, 8, 9 
1897 Syn. Dolatocrinus glyptus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:318 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1904 Dolatocrinus ornatus Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., v. 47, no. 1471, p. 76 
1921 Dolatocrinus ornatus Springer. U. S. Nat. Mus. Bui. 115, p. 29, pi. 6, 

figs. 1-4 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK iyi 

Theca small, the dorsal cup of the specimen examined having a width 
of 23 mm and a height of 17.5 mm. Dorsal cup depressed, subglobose, 
with nearly vertical sides and basal area flattened up to and including 
the lower part of the first primibrach. Vault moderately elevated with 
depressed interambulacral areas making the arm bases slightly protuberant. 
The flattened basal area includes a shallow concavity taking in the radials 
and basals. 

Dorsal cup. Basals small, fused into a pentagonal disk, no suture line 
visible. Basal plate marked with a rather deeply indented column facet, 
so that when the column is attached only a very narrow ring of the basals 
would be visible. 

Radials hexagonal, wider than high, with the upper (distad) face 
the longest ; extend out nearly horizontally, in their lower portions curving 
slightly into the shallow central concavity. 

First primibrachs quadrangular, one third wider than high, less broad 
and less high than the radials. Primaxils pentagonal, as wide as the primi- 
brachs and as high or slightly higher, supporting 2 x 10 secundibrachs 
which in turn support the free arms. First secundibrach considerably 
smaller than the primaxil; second secundibrach smaller again and some- 
what cuneiform. Primary interbrachial large, nonagonal, above the 
center as wide or wider than high ; followed by a hexagonal plate due to the 
fact that the plate of the second range has fused with the central plate of 
the third range. This fusion gives a plate with a broad base and narrowing 
gradually upward. On its concave upper sides rest two interbrachials, 
while the short truncate upper side connects with the large cuneiform 
interambulacral plates of the tegmen. There are no interaxillaries present. 

Tegmen composed of large plates ornamented with tubercles which are 
most numerous in the ambulacral areas and on the plates about the anal 
tube. Orals large and pushed anteriorly by the subcentral anal tube. 
In this specimen the anal tube was broken off at the base, but apparently 
was stout. Two large, cuneiform plates in the interambulacral area connect 
with the interbrachials of the dorsal cup. 



172 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

As far as the tegmen is concerned, figure 14 is not entirely accurate. 
The specimen was weathered so that the small projecting tubercles were 
not very distinct. They are not shown in the drawing; neither is the 
broad and rather deeply lobed character of the tegmen brought out. (See 
Springer 192 1, pi. 6, fig. 2.) 

Arms ten, two to each ray, rather stout and biserial; broken off in the 
specimen described. 

Column moderately large and round, judging from the cicatrix. 

Ornamentation. The surface of the dorsal cup is ornamented with 
radial ridges and radiating costae. A ridge or carina starts at the proximad 
face of each radial and runs along the radial series, bifurcating on the prim- 
axil and forming a prominent, rather sharp node at the center of each 
plate, the one on the first primibrach being the strongest. From the upper 
part of the node of each radial a rather strong curving carina runs to a 
similar place on the neighboring radials, thus forming a pentagon with 
slightly curving sides which surrounds a shallow concavity. Within this 
pentagon is another formed by carinae a little less strong. The primary 
interbrachial has a small central node from which radiate carinae to the 
nodes of the radials, first and second primibrachs, and first secundibrachs . 
Between these are a variable number of fainter radiating ridges, and there are 
several fainter ridges radiating to the interbrachials above. The surface of 
the tegmen is ornamented with numerous, small projecting tubercles. 

Horizon and locality. The specimen figured here is from the Onondaga 
limestone, Cherry Valley, N. Y. Holotype and types of Miller and Gurley 
are from the Onondaga, Columbus, Ohio. It is also doubtfully listed 
from the Hamilton, Beargrass creek, Ky. (Wood, 1904, p. 76). 

Types. Holotype not located. 1 

Remarks. Dolatocrinus ornatus was described by Meek 
(1871, p. 57) without an illustration. Miller and Gurley in 1894 (PP- I &> 
19, pi. II, figs. 7, 8, 9, no. 4) quoted Meek's description and illustrated 

1 In Columbia University, N. Y. Recently figured by Springer (1921, pi. 6, fig. 1). 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK I 73 

it with three views of a specimen from the typical locality, Onondaga 
formation, Columbus, Ohio. A few years later Wachsmuth and Springer 
(1897, p. 318) regarded this species as a synonym of Dolatocrinus 
g 1 y p t u s (Hall). 1 Wood (1904, p. 76) from a study of some specimens 
in the U. S. National Museum from the Onondaga, Columbus, Ohio, rein- 
states Dolatocrinus ornatus as a species. She figures no 
specimens, but states that her specimens agree with Meek's description 
and Miller and Gurley's figures and differ widely from Dolatocrinus 
g 1 y p t u s. The more mature specimens of g 1 y p t u s show short 
discontinuous ridges or " lines of nodes " and are distinctly different from 
ornatus. The ridges or lines ornamenting the dorsal cup are often more 
distinct and regular in younger forms ; but the younger forms ofglyptus 
with their 1 i r a t u s -like type of ornamentation are decidedly distinct 
from ornatus. 

The specimen figured here (plate 18, figures 13, 14) appears to have 
stronger carinae forming the basal pentagons and stronger radial ridges 
than Miller and Gurley's specimen; but the strength of ornamenting ridges 
varies so considerably within a species, especially in the different growth 
stages, that this can scarcely be considered an essential difference. 

Dolatocrinus marshi var. glaber nov. 

Plate 20, figures i , 2 

This specimen very much resembles marshi (Wachsmuth and 
Springer, 1897, pi. 26, fig. la, b, c, d, v. 1, pp. 312, 313), but shows enough 
differences to be given varietal value. The calyx of marshi var. 
glaber is more decidedly lobed than marshi, the arm bases are 
closer together, no interaxillary plates being present, and the interradii 
are slightly more convex and smooth. The plates of the radial series are 
without ornamentation except for the sharp keels. In marshi, the 
primary interbrachial is followed by a good-sized single plate, and this 
by two ranges of three plates each ; in marshi var. glaber the 

Regarded as a valid species by Springer, 192 1, p. 29. 



174 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



primary interbrachial is followed by a hexagonal plate which supports 
three others, two small ones on the sloping superior lateral faces, and a 
fairly large pentagonal plate on the upper face, which joins the two cunei- 
form plates in each of the interambulacral areas of the tegmen. A single 
cuneiform plate in the tegmen extends out between the arms of each pair. 
" Respiratory slits " not visible. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Cherry Valley, 
N ew York. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. See Remarks under Dolatocrinus lobatus. 



Dolatocrinus insignis sp. nov. 

Plate 19, figures 3-6; text figure 39 

A very large species, the largest well-preserved specimen observed 

measuring 55 mm in breadth by 
about 20 mm in height. Another, 
fragmentary, specimen would have 
measured fully 60 mm in breadth. 
Dorsal cup probably low, with the 
basal region flattened, or even some- 
what concave. Periphery decidedly 
lobate ; tegmen almost flat. 

Dorsal cup. Basals three, fused 
into a large pentagonal disk which 
projects considerably beyond the 
column ; center of disk deeply exca- 
vated. Radials hexagonal, averag- 
ing about twice as broad as high. 
First primibrachs quadrangular, 
narrower than the radials and not 




insignis 



Dia- 



Figure 39 Dolatocrinus 

grammatic restoration to show large size attained 
by this species. Basal view of the dorsal cup of 
the specimen figured on plate 19, figure 6. 



so high. Primaxils pentagonal, of about the same width as the first primi- 
brachs and higher, supporting 4x10 fixed secundibrachs. First two secundi- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK. 1 75 

brachs very large and massive; the third and fourth much smaller and 
wedge-shaped. 

Primary interbrachial nonagonal. Interbrachials of the second range 
may or may not be fused with the median plate of the third. In an adult 
specimen (plate 19, figure 3) fusion has taken place in all but one interradius. 
In the younger specimen (figure 5) the character of one interradius can not 
be determined. Of the remaining number, three are not fused. Inter- 
secundibrachs two. 

Tegmen composed of massive, irregularly granulose plates (plate 
19, figure 4). Interambulacral areas decidedly depressed; anal tube 
subcentral. 

Arms. Arm facets large, indicating massive arms, of which there are 
two to a ray. 

Column round, deeply inset in the basal disk. 

Ornamentation rather simple. Each plate of the radial series has a 
median, longitudinal elevation, a continuous ridge, however, never being 
formed. From the center of each radial and the other plates of the radial 
series radiate indefinite ridges, variable in number and length. Each 
primary interbrachial has a central node from which diverge strongly 
marked ridges, which, however, seldom pass over to the adjacent plates. 
Centers of the radials and primary interbrachials somewhat depressed 
longitudinally, giving a curious pinched appearance to the plates. 

Ontogeny. In the youngest specimen observed (plate 19, figure 5) 
the basal disk is quite small, scarcely extending beyond the column ; radials 
larger than in the older specimens, but this may well be due to individual 
variation. 

Ornamentation in this specimen of the same general character as that 
of the adult, except that the radiating ridges are prominently developed. 
Central depressions in the plates, noted above, perhaps more noticeable 
here, largely owing to the fact that the ornamentation tends to fill them 
up in the older specimen. 

In the largest, fragmentary, specimen (figure 6) the ridges in the inter- 



I76 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

radii form more or less complete patterns, somewhat resembling 1 i r a t u s ; 
the lines are, however, very indistinct. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds. 
Holotype (plate 19, figures 3, 4) from Bellona, N. Y. ; other specimens 
from Canandaigua lake, Bellona, and Livonia salt shaft (383-387 foot 
level). 

Types. Holotype and paratypes in the collection of the New York 
State Museum. 

Remarks. Dolatocrinus insignis does not particularly 
resemble any species hitherto described. It is one of the largest species of 
Dolatocrinus, the fragmentary specimen figured on plate 19, figure 
6 (text figure 39) , probably exceeding in size the specimen of Dolato- 
crinus magnificus figured by Miller and Gurley (1894, n0 - 4> 
pi. 1, figs. 1-3). This species differs from g 1 y p t u s , among other 
things, in size, number of secundibrachs, and the character of the ornamen- 
tation of the plates of the dorsal cup. 

Dolatocrinus lobatus sp. nov. 

Plate 20, figures 3-6 

This species is described from two specimens; one a very young indi- 
vidual (plate 20, figures 5, 6), the other an adult (figures 3, 4). 

Species of medium size and belonging to the fairly compact, ten- armed 
group of Onondaga Dolatocrini represented by such forms as 
speciosus and m a r s h i . Dorsal cup depressed, bowl-shaped, being 
nearly three times as broad as high. Basal region flattened in a very 
marked manner, all the plates up to the primaxil taking part in the trunca- 
tion. Tegmen subconical, as high or higher than the dorsal cup ; remarkable 
preponderance of the vault in the immature specimen. From an oral view 
the theca is seen to be decidedly lobed, strongly reminding one of certain 
Actinocrini from the Lower Carbonic. This lobation is almost 
entirely wanting in the young, and apparently was acquired during the 
development of the animal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 77 

Dorsal cup. Basals three, very small, forming the bottom of the quite 
deep basal pit in which they are completely concealed; sides of this basa] 
depression formed by the radials. Radials hexagonal, relatively smaller 
than in most species of Dolatocrinus. Especially is this true with 
regard to the width of the plates. In Dolatocrinus lobatus 
the radials widen but slightly distally, the proximal and distal faces giving 
very nearly the same measurements. In all the closely related species the 
widening of the radials is very marked. The following series of measure- 
ments gives the width of the proximal and distal faces, and the maximum 
width of the radials in the type of lobatus: 



Proximal face 


Distal 


face 


Ma 


ximum width 


4.3 mm 


5-2 


mm 




7. mm 


3-5 


5- 






7-3 


4-3 


5- 






7-5 


3,6 


5-3 






7-5 


3-8 


5- 






7-i 



The measurements are necessarily somewhat inaccurate owing to the 
fractured condition of the plates and the difficulty of exactly locating suture 
lines. 

First primibrachs quadrangular, larger than the radials and somewhat 
narrower. Average height 5 mm; average breadth 6 mm. Primaxils 
pentagonal, of about the same height as the first primibrach and slightly 
wider. Average height 5 mm; average breadth 7 mm. These plates, as in 
the case of the radials and first primibrachs, proportionally narrower than 
in related species. Secundibrachs 3 x 10, fixed. First secundibrach quite 
short in the median line of the radial series and widening rapidly toward the 
interradius, reaching a maximum height equal to that of the primaxil; 
second and third secundibrachs much smaller than the first. 

Primary interbrachial large, as in all the species of Dolato- 
crinus, and with either nine or ten sides. In the adult specimen, two 
of the interradii have two plates in the second range, and the other three 
only one. The small specimen has but one plate in the second series in all 
five interradii; probably the normal number. Supported by the single 



12 



I78 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

plate of the second series are either two or three plates in the third 
series, which in the adult specimen form the transition from the cup to the 
tegmen. 

Tegmen subcorneal; formed of large heavy plates which in the young 
specimen are papillose. Anal tube apparently fairly stout and subcentral. 
In the small specimen, " respiratory slits " two for each interradius; in the 
larger specimen slits not visible . 

Arms two to a ray, structure unknown. Arm openings diverge at a 
moderate angle, thus differing in a marked manner from the more globose 
speciosus. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the radial series are marked by lines of 
heavy nodes. The spaces between the individual nodes are tilled more or 
less completely with calcareous matter, differing from most of the allied 
species where the nodes are connected by narrow carinae or keels. At the 
second primibrachs the ridges bifurcate at a very small angle, averaging 
60 degrees or less. As a result of the small angle the limbs remain close 
together, thus bringing the arm bases practically in contact. The nodes 
are quite prominent on all the plates of the radial series except the radials 
themselves which are marked by a very slight central elevation. In the 
interrays, the primary interbrachials are highly nodose, and the other plates 
tend in the same direction. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Cherry Valley, 
Xew York. 

Types. Holotype (plate 20, figures 3, 4) and paratype in the New 
York State Museum. 

Remarks. Dolatocrinus lobatus differs from D . spe- 
ciosus in the relative size of the dorsal cups and tegmens, in the 
decidedly lobed character of the calyx, in the flattening of the basal area, in 
the nodose character of the plates, and in the character of the bifurcation of 
the radial ridge. In the typical speciosus the ridge upon the bifur- 
cation diverges at an angle as high as 100 degrees or over and the two limbs 
maintain this angle to the center of the secundibrachs. where they abruptly 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 79 

change and become parallel. This brings the arms quite far apart, about 
6 mm. 

L o b a t u s appears from the form of the vault and lobed character 
to approach Dolatocrinus marshi var. g 1 a b e r , but differs 
entirely in the structure of the dorsal cup. It seems to form a transitional 
form between Dolatocrinus speciosus and Dolatocri- 
nus marshi var. g 1 a b e r , as the latter does between Dolato- 
crinus marshi and Dolatocrinus lobatus. 

The specimen figured by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, plate 25, 
figures 4a, fr) as D. speciosus appears to belong here. 

Genus CLARKEOCRINUS nov. 

The specimens of this genus are of rather small size. 

Dorsal cup. Basals anchylosed into a pentagonal disk, the sutures 
occasionally visible. Radials hexagonal. First primibrachs quadrangular; 
the second primibrachs pentagonal, axillary. Secundibrachs 2 x 10. Pri- 
mary interbrachial large, reaching well up toward the top of the primaxil 
in mature specimens, ten- or eleven-sided, supporting two or three plates, 
as the case may be. 

Tegmen slightly crushed, composed of a number of small irregular 
plates. Anal tube very long, slender and nearly central. 

Arms long; provided with long, slender pinnules. 

Column round and divided into a series of nodes and internodes. Nodal 
joints, as far as observed in about 11 cm of the proximal portion of the 
stem of Clarkeocrinus troosti, all cirrus-bearing, each nodal 
having a verticil of five cirri. Largest cirri observed about 12.5 cm in 
length; all below the first two or three nodes extend above the tips of the 
arms. If the cirri became longer distally, they must have reached a 
great length. Cirri on the two or three proximal nodes comparatively 
short. The cirri near their extremities in one or two cases seem to be curved 
into a hooklike form, but whether they were fitted up as in the modern 
Pentacrinus cannot be determined (Agassiz, 1878, v. 5, p. 296; 



180 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Wachsmuth and Springer, 1897, v. 1, p. 42). They seem to have been 
quite mobile, and probably had properties quite similar to those of 
Pentacrinus. 

Horizon and locality. Clarkeocrinus troosti occurs as a 
colony in the Hamilton (Moscow) shales of Vincent, N. Y., and is also 
reported from the Hamilton of the Falls of the Ohio by Lyon (1869, v. 13, 
p. 443). His identification is, however, extremely doubtful. 

Genotype. Clarkeocrinus troosti. 

Remarks. The arm brachials of this genus have usually two, some- 
times four and six pinnules each — that is, one, two or three pinnules on 
each side. Bather (1893, p. 36; 1900, p. 116; 1897, pp. 337-345) states that 
the adjacent right and left ossicles of a biserial arm may fuse forming a 
compound brachial bearing two pinnules, and that two or more compound 
brachials may fuse, thus bearing two or three pinnules on a single side. 
That the two-pinnulid brachials in this genus are not due to fusion is the 
conclusion reached here: 

First. At no point in a perfect arm are there signs of biseriality, as in 
biserial arms one finds uniserial brachials. 

Second. There is no sign of biserial brachials in very young individuals 
throughout the length of the arms. 

Third. No signs of the compound character of the brachials were 
observed in a number of sections made from various parts of the arms of 
different specimens. 

All the ossicles near the tips of the arms bear two pinnules. Those 
bearing four have not been observed except in the lower portions of the arms. 
As one approaches the calyx, the four-pinnulid brachials become more 
frequent, the usual being two. At times, very near the calyx, there may be 
as man}' as two or three or even four out of five bearing four pinnules. 
The six-pinnulid brachials are very infrequent. In very young specimens 
the same conditions obtain in regard to the proportion of two- and four- 
pinnulid brachials as in the upper portions of the older arms. This shows 
that the four- and six-pinnulid brachials were formed either from the growth 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK l8l 

of the separate ossicles or, more probably, from the union of two or more 
ossicles bearing a pinnule on each side. 

This genus has been quite misunderstood, owing to the incompleteness 
of the original description and to the lack of illustration. Wachsmuth and 
Springer (1897, v. 1, p. 316) have even considered Clarkeocrinus 
troosti as a possible synonym of Dolatocrinus canadensis 
Whiteaves, an assignment not in accordance with Hall's description. Hall 
(1862, p. 138) states that the primary interbrachial supports two or three 
plates and that the arms are uniserial. 

This seems to be the only known genus of the Camerata provided with 
cirri of considerable development. The stems of the genera Dicho- 
crinus, Camptocrinus, Herpetocrinus, Lenneocri- 
nus (Jaekel 19 18) and others are cirriferous, but none compare with 
Clarkeocrinus in this regard. 

Analytic diagrams of the calyces of Clarkeocrinus (text figure 
41) and Dolatocrinus (text figure 40) have been added to the 
description for clearness and comparison. The secundibrachs in 
Dolatocrinus are two to four when there are two primary arms, 
one when there are additional bifurcations in the calyx. In Dolato- 
crinus the interbrachials have the succession 1, 1, variable, usually 3; 
in Clarkeocrinus, 1 , 2, or 3, usually 1 , 2. 

This genus has been called Clarkeocrinus in honor of Director 
John M. Clarke of the New York State Museum. 

Clarkeocrinus troosti (Hall) n. comb. 

Plates 21-24, figures 1-4; plate 25; text figure 41 

1862 Cacabocrinus troosti Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat- 
Hist., p. 138 

1868 Dolatocrinus troosti Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis. 2 : 367 

1869 Dolatocrinus (Cacabocrinus) troosti Lyon. Trans. Philos. Soc. 

Phila., 13:443 

1877 Dolatocrinus troosti S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

1878 Cacabocrinus troosti Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 



I 82 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



1881 Dolatocrinus troosti Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 
p. 125 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:300 
Dolatocrinus troosti S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 240 
Syn. Dolatocrinus canadensis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Grin. Cam., 1:316 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
Dolatocrinus troosti Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui . 
65, pp. 66-68 
1904 Dolatocrinus troosti Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, p. 52 



1889 
1897 

1903 





Figure 40 Analysis of calyx of 
Dolatocrinus. Compare 
with analyses of Clarkeo- 
crinus, figure 41, Coman- 
thocrinus, figure 44. 



Figure 41 Analysis of calyx of 
Clarkeocrinu s troosti, 
the genotype. 



Dorsal cup. Calyx of rather small size, an average dorsal cup measur- 
ing about 1.8 cm by 1.3 cm. Dorsal cup subrotund; distinctly, but not 
deeply, quinquepartite ; basal region somewhat flattened. 

Basals three, rather large, subequal, closely anchylosed, but generally 
showing sutures; together forming an irregularly pentagonal plate which is 
usually distinctly visible in a side view. Plate about one-third covered by 
the circular column. 

Radials hexagonal, large, more than one-third broader than long, the 
upper edge somewhat concave. Upper lateral edges shorter than the lower 
lateral, thus causing a pronounced flaring at the sides. 

First primibrach quadrangular, almost appearing pentangular from the 
convexity of the lower edge; about twice as wide as high. Second primi- 
brach, the primaxil, pentagonal. Secundibrachs 2 x 10. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 83 

Primary interbrachial very large, irregularly oval, extending upward 
to nearly the top of the primaxil; either ten- or eleven-sided, both forms 
being found in one specimen, depending upon whether there are two or 
three plates in the second range. The normal number seems to be two, in 
which case there are three plates in the third range. Intersecundibrachs one. 

Tegmen composed of numerous small, light plates, as a result of which 
no uncrushed examples have been found. Vault probably subcorneal, 
rising rather rapidly to the base of the anal tube which was nearly central. 

Anal tube long, straight, slender, in a medium-sized specimen measur- 
ing 7 cm in its entire length and extending far beyond the tips of the arms. 
In another specimen the tube, after rising straight upward for 2.3 cm curves 
outward and extends beyond the arms laterally for some distance (plate 
24, figures 2, 3) ; total length of this tube 6.5 cm. This tendency to curve 
outward has been observed in another individual, but is not of such a marked 
character. Tube composed of vertical rows of numerous small quadrangular 
or hexagonal plates most of which have a single strong tubercle. 

Arms four to the ray, uniserial, bifurcating once at about one-third 
of their length, then a second, and sometimes a third time at more irregular 
intervals. Pinnules quite long; usually one on each side of every brachial, 
but sometimes, by the fusion of two or more brachials, there are two and 
three on each side. 

Column rather stout, round and pierced by a circular canal. Columnals 
arranged in a series of nodes and internodes, the length of the internodes 
increasing from the calyx downward; greatest number of columnals 
enclosed by a pair of nodes in 8 cm of the proximal portion of a stem 
twenty-four. Nodes prominent ; each carrying a verticil of extremely long 
cirri which number five to the node. Cirri borne by the three or four 
proximal nodes in nearly every instance circinate, the convolutions 
lying in radial planes, and occasionally completely enveloping the dorsal 
cup; cirri of the lower nodes remarkably long, in one instance measuring 
12.5 cm. The ossicles of the cirri, the cirrals, seem to average about eighteen 
to 1 cm. The beauty and gracefulness of the crinoid must have been greatly 



184 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

enhanced by the presence of these long, mobile cirri, which were probably 
in constant motion. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are covered with tuber- 
culous granules, more or less regularly grouped. All the plates have them 
to some extent, but the radial ridges more particularly. In some cases, the 
ridges alone show signs of ornamentation. On the primary interbrachial 
there is a faint arrangement of the granules parallel to the edges of the plate. 
Besides the calyx plates, the arms, stem and cirri ossicles are granuliferous. 

Horizon and locality. The collection of the New York State Museum 
contains not less than seventy-five specimens of this species, most of them 
taken from a single locality in the soft shales of the Hamilton (Moscow 
shale) group, in the northern part of the town of Bristol, Ontario county, 
not far from the village of Muttonville — • now known as Vincent — ■ on 
land belonging to a Mr Sisson. The greater part of the material was 
collected in i860 by Dr C. A. White and Mr C. Van Deloo. Other speci- 
mens were found in 1862 at Bristol and Cheshire, not far from the first 
locality, by Professor R. P. Whitfield and Mr Van Deloo. Since that time 
no more specimens have been obtained or reported. 

The horizon of the Clarkeocrinus -bearing stratum is pretty 
well defined, lying directly at the base of the Moscow shale in the layer 
designated by Dr John M. Clarke as the Encrinal Band. For further 
details in regard to the stratigraphic relations of this layer, see Clarke and 
Luther, " Stratigraphic and Paleontologic Map of Canandaigua and Naples 
Quadrangle" (N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 1904). 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The confusion existing in regard to this species has been 
referred to under the generic description. The description is based upon 
the original material used by Hall, and many of the specimens have his 
manuscript label. These are the specimens indicated in the catalog as 
" types." There have, then, heretofore, been no specially designated type 
specimens; therefore the specimens utilized for illustration in the present 
work will hereafter serve as such. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 85 

A slab from Vincent, N. Y., shown in photographic reproduction, 
about one-half natural size (plate 25), is so fine that it deserves particular 
mention here. It is a fragment from the largest and finest colony of 
Devonian crinoids ever found, and shows the most species. Clarkeo- 
crinus troosti occurs most abundantly on this slab, being repre- 
sented by thirteen specimens. Other species represented are Acantho- 
crinus spinosus, Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus and 
Eleutherocrinus whitfieldi (blastoid) . 

Genus CRATEROCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. /.paTTjp, basin, cup; xptvov, lily] 

Calyx depressed. Dorsal cup broad and low, two or three times as 
broad as high ; the plates ornamented with low radiating wrinkles. Ventral 
disk slightly convex with the interambulacral areas slightly depressed. 
Basal disk pentagonal ; composed of three plates or the plates anchylosed 
showing no line of union. Radials hexagonal and narrow, being over twice 
as wide as long. Primibrachs two, the first but little narrower than the 
radials or second primibrachs and about twice as wide as long; the second 
pentangular, axillary. Secundibrachs two when the first bifurcation begins 
high up in the cup; followed by one or two tertibrachs. When the first 
bifurcation takes place low down in the cup, the number of secundibrachs 
is variable one, two, or three, usually two, and are followed by several 
series of tertibrachs. Interbrachials few, the primary interbrachial being 
the largest in the calyx and entirely enclosed by the brachials; higher 
interbrachials (intertertibrachs) separated from the primary interbrachials 
by one, two, or three ranks of tertibrachs. Arms biserial. 

Horizon and locality. The two species upon which this genus is based 
are represented in the New York State Museum by one specimen each. 
Craterocrinus ruedemanni is from the Onondaga limestone, 
Cherry Valley, N. Y. ; Craterocrinus schoharie is from the 
New Scotland limestone, Schoharie, N. Y. 

Genotype. Craterocrinus ruedemanni. 



1 86 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Remarks. Craterocrinus is somewhat similar to Dolato- 
crinus and Clarkeocrinus, but it differs from them in the 
shape of the theca and in the arrangement and character of the inter- 
brachials. Dolatocrinus has a greater number of interbrachials, 
one in the first rank — usually nine-sided — • one in the second, variable in 
the third, but usually three (see plates 17, 18, 19; plate 20, figures 1-4). 
Clarkeocrinus has one in the first rank, ten or eleven-sided, depend- 
ing upon whether there are two or three in the second rank (plates 21-25), 
two or three, usually two, in the second rank, etc. Craterocrinus 
(plate 20, figure 7) has a twelve- or fourteen- (usually twelve-) sided 
primary interbrachial, which is entirely enclosed by radials, primibrachs, 
secundibrachs and tertibrachs. This primary interbrachial is separated 
from the higher interbrachials (intertertibrachs) by one, two or three ranks 
of tertibrachs. There is usually one in this higher rank of interbrachials; 

two occur in one interradius, which may 
represent the posterior side. Clarkeo- 
crinus has uniserial arms and no terti- 
brachs in the calyx; Craterocrinus 
has biserial arms. Both Clarkeocri- 
nus and Dolatocrinus have an 
anal tube surmounting the ventral disk; 
Craterocrinus was probably not 
provided with such a tube. (See Remarks 
under the description of Craterocri- 
nus ruedemanni). 



LIS Br 




Figure 42 Analysis of calyx of Cratero- 
crinus ruedemanni, the genotype. 



Craterocrinus rudemanni sp. nov. 

Plate 20, figures 7, 8; text figure 42 



Calyx fairly large, broad and low, having the shape of a biconvex lens. 

Dorsal cup low and basin-shaped, over three and a half times as broad 
as high; breadth about 51 mm and height about 14 mm. Basal disk small, 
pentagonal, apparently composed of three pieces. Radials hexagonal, low 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 87 

and broad, about two and one-half times as wide as long. Primibrachs two, 
a little less long than the radials. First primibrach quadrangular, about 
twice as wide as long. Second primibrachs pentagonal and axillary, of the 
same length as the first primibrachs, but slightly wider in the center. 
Radials and primibrachs of considerably less height than the following 
brachials, which brings the primary interbrachial low in the cup and makes 
it smaller and narrower. Secundibrachs comparatively large, two to each 
bifurcation; except where a ray gives rise to five arms, in which case there 
will be three secundibrachs to one of the bifurcations. 

Second, exceptionally the third, secundibrachs axillary, giving rise 
to the tertibrachs; first three usually large and then giving place to small 
and narrow quadrangular or wedge-shaped plates (variable in number, 
usually four) which lead to the wedge-shaped plates of the biserial arms. 

Primary interbrachial comparatively small and narrow; situated low 
in the cup; entirely enclosed by the brachials and twelve or fourteen-sided. 
Twelve-sided plates bordered on each side by two secundibrachs and one 
tertibrach in addition to the primibrachs and radials. Two interradii 
(right posterolateral and left anterior) with a fourteen-sided primary 
interbrachial due to the fact that two tertibrachs of the ray on each side 
border them; interbrachials larger in these interradii. Two interterti- 
brachs in the right posterolateral interradius and apparently in the pos- 
terior; a single one in each of the others. These first intertertibrachs 
separated from the primary interbrachial by one, two or three ranks of 
tertibrachs; followed by one or two plates which merge into the plates of 
the ventral disk. Higher up in the cup, every pair of arms in each ray is 
separated by a single interbrachial, and where there are five arms to the 
ray the fifth arm is also separated from the other two pairs by an inter- 
brachial. 

Tegmen low, arched (plate 20, figure 8) ; interambulacral spaces slightly 
depressed. Orals rather large, all of about the same size and similar in 
form. Anal opening subcentral. Two large cuneiform plates to each 
interambulacral space; abutting upon the orals except on the anal side; 



1 88 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

bordered higher up by small plates Yrhich merge into the interbrachial 
plates. Between the arm bases from two to four " respirator}- " pores or 
slits piercing the sides of the small plates. 

Arms twenty-one, heavy and biserial. Probably four arms to the ray 
is the normal number; anterior ray has five. Only the bases of the arms 
preserved. 

Column small and round, as shown by the stem cicatrix. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are ornamented with 
discontinuous wavy wrinkles which roughly follow the axes of the rays. 
The primary interbrachials have longitudinal wrinkles in the center, with 
shorter, roughly radiate wrinkles near the periphery. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone. Cherry Yallev ; 
X. Y. 

Types. Genoholotype in the collection of the Xew York State 
Museum . 

Remarks. In the posterior region of the ventral disk is a peculiar 
bulge surrounded by a horseshoe-shaped groove. This marks the attach- 
ment of a parasitic gastropod, a Platyceras Keyes. 1888, pp. 8. 
9. plate, fig. 7). The anterior end of the Platyceras was attached over the 
anal opening and the growth of the shell continued posteriorly, the form of 
the shell conforming to the irregularities in the surface to which it was 
attached. Marks of the shell in the earlier stages are not visible. Only 
two cases have been noted (op. cit.. p. 9) in which a Platyceras 
has been attached to a erinoid with an anal tube. In one case the matrix 
was too compact to permit of the removal of the Platyceras and 
study of the attachment ; in the second case, the shell was attached at the 
base of the anal tube which had been injured. Keyes suggested the proba- 
bility in this case of an additional opening at the base of the anal tube on 
account of the deformity. The specimen of C. ruedemanni 
described above has no indication of an anal tube; but if the genus 
normally had one. the attachment of the Platyceras would most 
assuredly prevent its growth. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



I89 




Named in honor of Dr Rudolf Ruedemann of the New York State 
Museum. 

Craterocrinus schoharie sp. nov. 

Plate 20, figure 9; text figure 43 

This species is described from a single 
dorsal cup which, though imperfect, is suf- 
cient for purposes of identification. 

Dorsal cup broadly shallow, a little 
more than twice as broad as high. Basal 
disk pentagonal, slightly projecting at the 
base and forming a depression into which 
the column is rather deeply sunk. Plates 
of the basal disk so anchylosed that the 
lines of suture are not visible. Radials 

hexagonal, low and broad, about three Figure 43 Analysis of calyx of c r a t e r o - 

times as wide as long. Primibrachs two, crinus schoharie. 

a little narrower than the radials. First primibrachs quadrangular, about 
twice as wide as long. Second primibrachs axillary, of the same width as 
the first primibrachs but slightly higher. Secundibrachs two, large, the 
second axillary. Tertibrachs not readily distinguished, due to the weathered 
and broken character of the rim. One bifurcation, above the secundibrachs, 
shows two tertibrachs in the outer arm of the bifurcation and one in the 
inner; decided flaring of the rim in this region indicates that the arms begin 
here. 

Primary interbrachial large, entirely enclosed by the brachials and 
twelve-sided, being bordered on each side by one radial, two primibrachs, 
two secundibrachs, and one tertibrach. Higher interbrachials not 
distinguished. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms wanting; twenty, four to each ray, stout, and probably biserial. 

Column small and deeply set in the basal disk; known only from the 
cicatrix. 



190 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ornamentation. The plates of the dorsal cup are ornamented with 
discontinuous wavy wrinkles. On the rays they have a roughly longi- 
tudinal arrangement, following the ray axis. On the primary interbrachials 
there are longitudinal wrinkles in the center with shorter, roughly radiate 
wrinkles near the periphery. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone at Schoharie, 
N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 
Remarks. Craterocrinus schoharie differs from C r a - 
terocrinus ruedemanni in the smaller size of the dorsal cup 
and in the greater size of the proximal plates. The radials and primi- 

brachs are so much larger that the first interbrachial 
is correspondingly larger and reaches two-thirds of 
the way up in the cup. C. ruedemanni has 
three or four rows of tertibrachs incorporated in 
the cup ; C. schoharie, one or two. Because 
of the imperfect preservation of the specimen it 
can not be stated whether Craterocrinus 
schoharie has the variations seen in C . 

Figure 44 Analysis of _ calyx ruedemanni such as five arms to a ray 
ofComanthocrinus. J 

(After Springer 1921, x 2/3). and a fourteen-sided primary interbrachial. 
interpintuiarsr^plnnuS Named from the locality in which the specimen 

I Br = first primibrach. was found. 

Genus COMANTHOCRINUS Springer 1921 l 

I have had at hand, through the kindness of Doctor Springer, a pre- 
liminary copy of a paper on Dolatocrinus and allied forms which 
appeared in the Proceedings of the United States National Museum. In 
this paper are described a new genus, Comanthocrinus, and two 
species, one new, belonging to it. Since Springer's observations have been 

1 For full discussion, see paper on Dolatocrinus and allied forms, U. S. Nat. 
Mus. Bui. 115, 1921, pp. 4-6. 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK I91 

made upon better preserved and more complete series of specimens of 
both species (material from outside New York) , I have based the follow- 
ing generic description largely upon his diagnosis and have also made, 
from his observations, such additions to my specific description as seemed 
necessary. 

This genus was created to contain the Hamilton species described by 
Miller and Gurley as Stereocrinus indianensis and a new 
species, Comanthocrinus priscus, from the Onondaga lime- 
stone of New York and Kentucky. 

Genus characterized by a practically flat dorsal cup with depressed 
center, forming a fairly deep, well-defined pit. Composition of dorsal cup 
is similar to that of Dolatocrinus and Clarkeocrinus gen. 
nov. Basals fused to three elements, the small plate being in the left 
posterior position in both species, which is not only different from that of 
associated genera but is a departure from the rule in monocyclic crinoids 
generally. Primibrachs two, the first one reduced to a small lunate or 
elliptic plate occupying a curved socket cut out of the distal face of the 
radial (or also out of the plate above it) , usually less than the width of that 
plate, but sometimes extending entirely across it. 

Dorsal cup marked by sharply defined radiating ridges which follow 
the radial series, becoming strongly arched on the secundibrachs, which 
are incorporated into the calyx to a varying extent by means of fixed pin- 
nules, the bases of which are closely united by sutures. Interbrachials few 
in number. Primary interbrachial large, the posterior one being the largest ; 
followed by one or two (three?) in the succeeding ranges, which are flanked 
by other plates which resemble interbrachials but which are fixed pinnules. 

Tegmen highly arched and composed of a large number of small plates ; 
conspicuous posterior bulging to accommodate the hind gut. Anal side 
distinguished in the tegmen by a row of large plates, the largest in the 
tegmen, forming a well-defined median ridge extending to the base of the 
almost central anal tube. Ambulacral covering plates in double series 
extend to near the base of the anal tube, and pinnular ambulacra are also 



192 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

present. Incorporated pinnules give rise to the openings or pores through 
the calyx wall between the bases of the rays, such as are found in 
Dolatocrinus and other genera {see Springer 191 7, pp. 40-46). 

Arms ten, strong, uniserial; brachials with a pinnule on each side, 
sometimes even two on one or both sides. 

Genotype. "Stereocrinus' indianensis has been chosen 
by Springer as the genotype. The Onondaga form, C. priscus, in 
the specimens from the Falls of the Ohio at Louisville shows some structural 
details, especially the extreme of fixed pinnulation, better than the Hamilton 
form, but the tegmen is not preserved. 

Distribution. Devonian; Hamilton of Indiana and New York; Onon- 
daga of Kentucky and New York. 

Comanthocrinus indianensis (Miller & Gurley) 

Plate 24, figures 5-8 

1897 Stereocrinus indianensis Miller & Gurley. Bui. 111. State Mus. Nat . 

Hist., no. 12. p. 38, pi. 3, figs. 13-15 
1921 Comanthocrinus indianensis Springer. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , 

Bui. 115, pp. 6-7, pi. 1, figs. 1-6 

This species was originally described by Miller and Gurley from the 
Sellersburg (Hamilton) beds near Charlestown, Indiana. From this general 
region come silicified thecas which show the general proportions and super- 
ficial characters with great clearness. The plates can be made out only 
with considerable difficulty, owing to the preservation of the material, and 
this fact led Miller and Gurley into error as regards the number of plates 
of the radial series, as will hereafter be pointed out. In addition to this 
material we have specimens from the Hamilton of New York which appar- 
ently belong to this species. The best preserved of these (plate 24, figure 
5) is in the collection of Doctor Springer. This specimen comes from 
Canandaigua lake, and shows the structure of the dorsal cup and arms 
beautifully. A larger specimen from the same locality is in the collection 
of the New York State Museum, but it is in a badly crushed and fragmentary 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 93 

state; another, likewise poorly preserved, specimen (in the State Museum) 
comes from Cashong creek, Bellona. 

Species a relatively small one; the larger of Miller and Gurley's types, 
by all odds the largest specimen seen, measuring about 22 mm in diameter. 
Most of the specimens examined range from 15 mm to nearly 20 mm in 
diameter; the average specimen, according to Springer, being about 20 
mm. A theca about 20 mm in diameter has a height of 17 mm to the base 
of the anal tube. Almost all this height is that of the tegmen, as the dorsal 
cup is practically flat. The arms in a specimen of this size attain a probable 
length of not less than 50 mm, and probably considerably more as indicated 
by one of the New York specimens. 

Dorsal cup practically flat viewed from the side; center depressed, 
forming a fairly deep well-defined pit. Surface marked by sharply defined 
radiating ridges, which follow the radial series. Basals fused to three small 
elements concealed at the bottom of the central depression noted above; 
the small plate in the left posterior position. The lower portions of the 
radials form the sides of this pit, but above they reach well out beyond its 
margin. Radials large and much wider at the top than at the base ; one of 
them giving a maximum breadth of 4.8 mm, and an estimated height of 
about 2.8 mm. 

First primibrach low and considerably narrower than the radial. In 
the specimens figured here this plate extends entirely across the radials, 
but Springer has noted that the opposite is usually the case. One of these 
plates gives a height of 1.8 mm and a breadth of 3.5 mm. Upper face of 
the radial distinctly concave. In this crescentic margin the first primi- 
brach rests. Union between the two plates intimate, and may as a rule 
only be seen by careful observation. Fortunately the New York specimen 
has been somewhat distorted and in two or three rays the sutures between 
the plates may be clearly seen ; in one case the two plates are slightly sepa- 
rated. It was doubtless owing to the close union between these plates, 
combined with the deceptive preservation of the material, that Miller and 

Gurley described the species as having a radial immediately followed by the 
13 



194 NEW y O rk STATE MUSEUM 

primaxil. Considering this to be the structure they referred the species to 
Stereocrinus. As a matter of fact, I have been able to locate it in 
the few specimens that have come under my observation; and Springer has 
found it in a large series of specimens. In one or two cases there is a marked 
ridge of silica along the suture. 

Primaxil variable in size in the same specimens. In the same ray that 
furnished the measurements for the first primibrach, the primaxil is 2.1 
mm in height. Slightly wider than the first primibrach; uppsr sloping 
faces unusually long. 

In each half of the ray there are three or four low, broad, incorporated 

secundibrachs. In this respect Springer points out: 

The species represents a retrogression from the older form in the less 
extent of incorporation of brachials in the calyx, or a progression in the 
direction of greater freedom of the arms, whichever way one pleases to 
consider the case (1921, p. 7). 

In C. indianensis from Indiana the first secundibrachs are in 

lateral contact; in the New York specimen the first two of these plates 

are in lateral contact with the corresponding plates in the other half ray. 

Springer states: 

The second secundibrach has an incorporated pinnule on the outer 
side of the dichotom, the base of which also connects by suture with the 
third and fourth secundibrachs. The third secundibrach has a free pinnule 
at the inside of the dichotom, and the fourth bears two free pinnules, one 
from each side (ref. cit.). 

Interradii small and filled mainly by the large primary interbrachial 
which varies considerably in size in different interradii, the largest being 
more than twice the size of the smallest. Springer has found that the 
largest plate invariably occurs in the posterior interradius, which makes 
the orientation of the figure shown on plate 24, figure 5 incorrect. Primary 
interbrachial followed in the second range by from one to three plates. 
Springer gives the plates succeeding the first as one to two, but the New 
York specimen figured here also shows three. 

Tegmen. Owing to the fact that only silicified specimens showing the 
tegmen are available, it has been difficult to gain an accurate idea as to the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 195 

exact relationship of the constituent plates of the tegmen. The sutures 
are in large part obliterated and as a rule it is only when the plates bear 
short spinous processes that the individual plates can be located. Tegmen 
composed of a large number of small plates, many of which bear short, sharp 
spines which are located mainly along the lines of the ambulacra and about 
the base of the anal tube. Ambulacral covering plates have been found 
by Springer extending in a double series to near the base of the anal tube, 
and pinnular ambulacrals are also present. Passing up the middle of the 
posterior interambulacrum is a line of larger plates traversed by a low but 
sharply rounding ridge along which are occasional spines. _ 

Tegmen of this species presents unusual and notable characters. Inas- 
much as the dorsal cup is flat or even somewhat concave, it follows as a 
matter of course that in order to provide for the viscera there must be a 
highly arched tegmen. In a specimen measuring 19.5 mm in diameter 
the vault has a height of about 16 mm. Tegmen decidedly asymmetrical. 
Anal opening at the end of a short, stout tube slightly excentric in location. 
Vault considerably distended at the base of the tube on the posterior side; 
inflated area for the most part to the left of the median plane of the inter- 
radius. The ambulacral ridges running up from the posterolateral rays 
and bounding the swollen posterior interambulacrum follow a somewhat 
devious course. After their inception at the arm bases the two branches 
from each ray pass backward and upward around the swollen area and, 
uniting, take a more direct course to the base of the anal tube. The ambu- 
lacra of the other rays follow the most direct route to the base of the tube. 

As the coil of the intestine produces the inflation in the posterior 
portion of the tegmen, so also do the ambulacra show through the test. 
Thus the course of the ambulacra may easily be followed, showing as they 
do on the exterior as raised rounding ridges. From each arm opening a 
branch of the ambulacrum runs up to about one-half the height of the vault. 
Here it unites with its mate from the other arm. The main trunk then 
runs up to the base of the anal tube, where they undoubtedly unite in the 
circumoral ring. 



I96 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Pores or openings, formerly termed " respiratory slits ", apparently 
four to each interradius and two between the bases of the arms of each ray 
It is clearly shown on the surface that each is connected with the branch 
of the ambulacrum nearest it at from 3 to 4 mm above the arm-opening. 
These slits have derived their origin from incorporated pinnules, as has been 
previously proved from other forms by Springer (191 7, pp. 40-46). 

Arms two to a ray and nonbif urcating ; uniserial, stout and fairly 
long. The arms of the larger specimen in the State Museum measure at 
least 80 mm in length. Brachials long, only seven or eight in a space of 
10 mm. In spite of being uniserial the arms show a considerable degree 
of specialization; each side of a brachial bears at least one pinnule, and 
frequently two are borne on a side. Springer notes the occurrence of three 
and four pinnules to a brachial and that on bipinnulate brachials the outer 
pinnule is at a lower level than the inner. This multipinnulate condition 
of the brachials is undoubtedly due to fusion of ossicles. Pinnules fairly 
stout, and composed of long ossicles. The incorporation of the lower 
pinnules into the calyx has already been noted. 

Column. A few millimeters of column are preserved in two of the 
specimens. It is round and in its proximal portion measures 3 mm in 
diameter. Canal small and of indeterminate shape; in one of the type 
specimens from Indiana apparently pentalobate. Margins of the apposed 
faces of the columnals crenulate. Column in the proximal portion divided 
into fairly well-defined nodals, alternating with narrow inconspicuous 
internodals. In the two specimens in the New York State Museum one 
of the proximal nodals, about 5 mm from the base of the calyx, shows the 
bases of a whorl of five rather stout cirri. 

Ornamentation. Surface of the plates of the dorsal cup covered with 
irregularly disposed granules. Upward along the brachial series the granules 
coalesce, and in both fixed and free brachials form irregular, roughly parallel 
striae. Along each radial series runs a conspicuous rounding ridge. This 
has its inception at about one-half the height of the radial, at the rim of 
the basal depression. It ranges along the median line of the radial series, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 97 

and bifurcates on the primaxil. Above, the ridges grade insensibly into 
the rounded backs of the arms. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales of Canan- 
daigua lake and Cashong creek, Bellona, N. Y., and in the Sellersburg 
(Hamilton), Clark county, Ind. 

Types. Cotypes in the Walker Museum, Chicago University; the 
other specimens here figured are in the collection of Doctor Springer. 

Comanthocrinus priscus Springer 

Plate 24, figure 9 

1921 Comanthocrinus priscus Springer. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., Bui. 115, 
pp. 7-9, pi. 1, figs. 7-10 

The following description was obtained from a preliminary copy of 
Springer's manuscript description of the species. The description is based 
upon a series of specimens from the Onondaga of the Falls of the Ohio, 
Louisville, Ky., in better condition for study than the single, very frag- 
mentary representative from New York State which is referred to the same 
species. The New York specimen (plate 24, figure 9) loaned to me for 
study by Doctor Springer, was originally figured only for comparison 
with the Hamilton form; at the same time, however, though fragmentary, 
it was recognized as undoubtedly a new species. The general features 
of size and greater incorporation of the brachials are shown; but the fusion 
of plates has proceeded to such a degree that suture lines are difficult to 
distinguish and, therefore, the true nature of the interbrachial plates is 
not shown. 

Original description. 1 A species double the size of the type — an 
average of eight specimens being about 40 mm in width of calyx at arm 
bases. As the tegmen has not been found, the comparative height can not 
be given. The disparity in size evidenced by the wider spread of calyx 
in this species is correlated with a much greater extent of incorporation of 
brachials by means of the fixed pinnules. The broadly rounded secundi- 
brachs are transversely ridged exteriorly, and are deeply V-shaped on the 
ventral side, the wings of the " V " -being farther prolonged by the pinnules, 

1 In his recent paper (1921) Doctor Springer has given a fuller discussion o c this species. 



I98 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the lower ossicles of which form a continuous wall in the depressed inter- 
brachial areas. These give the appearance of numerous interbrachial plates 
above the very large first interbrachial, but in fact the interbrachials are 
limited to a single narrow plate following the first, while the other rather 
numerous plates in the area are all pinnulars. In this way secundibrachs 
to the height of the seventh are incorporated. The second secundibrach 
has a pinnule to the outside of the dichotom, not showing externally except 
at the margin, with three pinnule-ossicles incorporated. The third to the 
seventh secundibrachs have from two to four pinnules per brachial, with 
two pinnulars incorporated. The reduced first primibrach occupies an 
oval space between the radial and the axillary primibrach, both of which 
are more or less excavated for its reception. It is usually small, strongly 
protuberant, and the radial ridge following the rays begins with this plate. 
The anal side is scarcely differentiated, two narrow plates tandem succeed- 
ing the large first plate and passing toward the tegmen, which is not pre- 
served in any of our specimens. 

The inside of the dorsal cup is marked by an extraordinary complex 
of grooves and ridges from the radials up, some of which are for the lodg- 
ment of nerve cords, but the function of so many is not clear. They are 
comparable in number and position with the ridges seen upon the dorsal 
side of calyx plates in well-preserved specimens of Himerocrinus 
plenissimus, but nothing so intricate has been observed upon 
the inner surface in other forms. 

Except for the lack of the tegmen, the specimens in hand are remark- 
ably well preserved for exhibiting the leading characters of the species. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Falls of the 
Ohio, Louisville, Ky., and from the same formation, Le Roy, N. Y. 

Types in the collection of Doctor Springer. The New York representa- 
tive figured here is likewise in that collection. 

Genus HIMEROCRINUS Springer, 1921 

Springer, in his paper on Dolatocrinus and allied forms 
(1921), describes this new genus with Hadrocrinus plenis- 
simus Lyon as the type and suggests that Hall's Coronocrinus 
polydactylus may possibly belong to the same genus. The fol- 
lowing brief description of the genus is based upon Springer's diagnosis 
of the genus, obtained from a preliminary copy of the manuscript kindly 
placed at my disposal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 1 99 

The genus includes forms of very large size, the largest of the known 
Camerata. Calyx broad and shallow with a low tegmen composed of 
innumerable plates; base deeply concave forming an inverted cone. The 
two special characters upon which the genus is founded are the primibrachs 
and the enormous brachial extension of the calyx. Primibrachs two, instead 
of a single axillary plate as in Hadrocrinus. Axillary plate more or 
less reduced in size, and often singularly changed in shape and proportions; 
irregularity in the axillary reduplicated to some extent on the succeed- 
ing divisions. Arms normally 1 6 or 17 to the ray, making 80 or more in all; 
relatively small and biserial. Interbrachiae few and large. Column pri- 
marily rounded, but given a sharply pentagonal appearance by the addition 
of an outer sheath with projecting buttresses at the angles, which is usually 
broken away and probably does not extend the full length of the column. 

The specimen of 'Coronocrinus" polydactylus from 
the New Scotland limestone is only a fragment, showing one-fourth or 
probably less of the circumference of the calyx at the arm bases. It was 
listed by Schuchert ( 1 900) under the genus Hadrocrinus ; but 
Springer's recent definition of that genus (ref. cit.) eliminates that possi- 
bility. From the characters shown the species might well belong to this 
genus, and it has been here so placed provisionally. 

Genotype. 'Hadrocrinus' plenissimus Lyon. 

Distribution. Devonian. From the Upper Helderberg group of 
Indiana and the Falls of Ohio, near Louisville, Ky. ; (?) from Lower Helder- 
berg group (New Scotland beds) of New York. 

Himerocrinus(?) polydactylus (Hall) 

Plate 20, figure 1 1 

1859 Coronocrinus polydactylus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:124, pi. 6, figs. 4-6 
1877 Coronocrinus polydactylus S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 74 
1889 Coronocrinus polydactylus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 231 
1900 Hadrocrinus polydactylus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:280 
1903 Coronocrinus polydactylus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State 
Mus. Bui. 65, p. 66 



200 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



The specimen upon which Hall based this species is only a fragment, 
but enough characters are shown to make it distinctive. A portion of the 
circumference of the body is preserved, and this indicates that the crown 
at the arms must have had a diameter of nearly three inches. 

Dorsal cup. Base of the dorsal cup unknown. Near the base of the 
arms a few of the small plates of the higher brachial series are indistinctly 
seen and some of the interaxillary plates between the arm bases. 

Tegmen, from the portion preserved, appears to be composed of 

numerous small, irregularly hexagonal plates; slightly depressed just within 

the arms and from there slightly convex toward the center. This gives a 

nearly flat appearance to the tegmen. 

Arms proceed abruptly from the 

margin of the cup ; the bases of eleven 
arms are preserved. Since the frag- 
ment is scarcely more than one-fourth 
the circumference, it can be inferred 
that the specimen had at least forty 
40 4 arms. Arms biserial. 

Figure 45 Acacocrinus pentadactylus . . 

Left posterior view of the type, natural size. HonZOtl and locality. From the 

For the enlargement of this specimen, see New Scotland beds, Schoharie, N. Y. 
plate 26, figure 1. 

Figure 46 Analysis of calyx of Acacocrinus Types. Holotype in the collection 

pentadactylus. (After Grabau, 1899). f the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. See discussion under genus. 




Family batocrinidae W. & Sp. 
Subfamily PERIECHOCRININAE W. & Sp. 

Genus ACACOCRINUS W. & Sp. 1897 
Acacocrinus pentadactylus (Grabau) n. comb. 

Plate 26, figure i ; text figures 45, 46 

1898 Habrocrinus pentadactylus (nom. nud.) Grabau. 1 6th Ann. Rep't 

N. Y. State Geol. (1896), p. 285 

1899 Habrocrinus pentadactylus Grabau. Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., 

v. 6, nos. 2, 3, 4, pp. 143, 144, fig. 25 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 201 

Two specimens of this species were found by Professor Grabau in the 
Moscow shale. The figures and description have been made from the 
originals loaned by Columbia University. 

Dorsal cup obconical, uniformly enlarging from the base upward, hav- 
ing a height of about 5 mm and a width of 4.6 mm. Basal plates rather 
large, three, hexagonal, equal. Radials large, longer than wide; anterior 
and right and left posterior hexagonal; the right and left anterolateral 
heptagonal. 

First primibrach hexagonal, about half the size of the radial. Second 
primibrach, the primaxil, smaller than the first primibrach, pentagonal, 
giving rise to the arms. Primary interbrachial hexagonal, smaller than the 
first primibrach; plates in the second row not shown. In the anal inter- 
radius the heptagonal anal rests between the two posterior radials. It is 
followed by a second much smaller plate in the median line between two 
other interbrachials, giving three plates in the second row. No higher 
rows of interbrachials visible. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms two to the ray, ten to the calyx; long, heavy, and simple through- 
out; composed for the most part of wedge-shaped brachials each bearing 
a pinnule, the pinnules arranged alternately on each side of the arm. First 
few brachials of the arms may be more nearly quadrangular. 

Column missing. Stem cicatrix round and comparatively small. 

Ornamentation. Strong, rounded ridges extend from the base to the 
ten arms along the five rays. A less prominent ridge traverses the median 
line of plates of the anal interradius. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds (Moscow shale) of 
Eighteen Mile creek, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the Museum of Columbia University. 

Remarks. Professor Grabau (1899, p. 143) described this species as 
a Devonian representative of the Silurian genus Habrocrinus 
(D' Orb.) Angelin (Carpocrinus Muller). Each brachial of Car- 
p o c r i n u s bears two pinnules on the longer face, one on the shorter; 



202 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

so the species can not belong there. It has been placed here in the genus 
Acacocrinus W. & Sp., the requirements of which it appears to fulfil 
in quite a satisfactory manner. 

Genus COROCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. xopoq a broom of young trees; xptvov, lily] 

The only species of this genus is Corocrinus ornatus sp. 
nov., except for 'Actinocrinus' calypso Hall provisionally 
referred to this genus, hence the specific description will serve for the 
description of the genus. The radiating ridges on the plates of the dorsal 
cup stand out so prominently that the effect of the calyx with the attached 
stem is that of a broom of twigs, hence the name Corocrinus. 

The genera to which Corocrinus bears the most resemblance 
are Periechocrinus and Saccocrinus. In Periecho- 
c r i n u s the calyx is more elongate, more of the higher brachials are 
incorporated, and the brachial series bifurcate two or three times within 
the calyx. The arms are twenty-five to thirty, biserial beyond the calyx 
and do not branch after becoming free. In Corocrinus the brachials 
bifurcate once in the calyx — on the primaxil. Above the secundaxil 
only a couple of uniserial brachials are preserved in the genotype, and noth- 
ing is known of the upper part of the arms. There are twenty arms. 

Saccocrinus which was placed as a synonym of Periecho- 
crinus by Wachsmuth and Springer in 1897 (v. 2, p. 520) has been 
again separated by Springer (1913, p. 194). It is like Periecho- 
crinus ; but there are about twenty arms, biserial above and below 
the bifurcations, in this respect differing from Corocrinus. 

Genotype. Corocrinus ornatus. 

Distribution. Middle Devonian (Hamilton) of New York. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



20' 




Corocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 

Plate 26, figures 2, 3, 4; text figure 47 

This species is represented by five 
fairly well-preserved thecae. Two of 
these have about 10 mm of stem 
attached, and portions of the arms. As 
the specimens are embedded in soft 
shale their preservation is excellent. 
Owing to the thinness of the plates and 
the delicacy of the cup, all the speci- 
mens are more or less crushed. 

Dorsal cup urn-shaped; base nar- 
row. The sides extend outward and 

Upward at a low angle to the base of Figure 47 Analysis of calyx of Corocrinus 

the free arms, with a more or less pro- ornatus ' the genotype, 

nounced outward curvature. One cup somewhat crushed has a height of 
22 mm to the tops of the primaxils, and an estimated diameter of about 
18 mm at the same level. Basals large and fused to three elements which 
together form a deep conical cup. Radials hexagonal, large, an average 
one having a height of about 7 mm and a maximum breadth of about 
6 mm. First primibrach with a height of 6 mm and a breadth slightly 
less than the radial; variable in shape — hexagonal, heptagonal, octagonal. 
Primaxil slightly smaller than the first primibrach. First secundibrach 
incorporated and fairly large. 

Interradii narrow, with the exception of the posterior, which has about 
twice the breadth of any of the others. In one specimen examined, the 
posterior interradius measures about 18 mm in width at the level of the 
tops of the primaxils. Proximal anal heptagonal, large, being of practically 
the same size as the radials; three plates in the second range, the median 
plate being the smallest; in the third range five plates, and in the fourth 
five or six. Above this level the ranges not well aligned; plates small and 



204 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

numerous. Median line of anals unusually well marked; plates decrease 
gradually in size upward. Primary interbrachial in regular interradii 
large and followed in the second range by two relatively small plates; 
above this level interbrachials not known. Intersecundibrachs one, small. 

Tegmen unknown except for a portion of the posterior side; judging 
by this, composed of numerous small, thin plates. Anal opening situated 
at the top of a marked protuberance, or possibly a short stout tube. 

Arms. Structure of proximal portion alone known; extraordinarily 
slender, measuring but 1.4 mm in width immediately below the secundaxil. 
Apparently five secundibrachs to each half ray, the last of which is axil- 
lary; rami broken off just above the secundaxils. 

Column. Two of the specimens have a portion of the column attached, 
measuring in each case about 10 mm in length. Immediately below the 
cup one of these columns measures 3 mm in diameter. For the first 2 or 
3 mm it tapers rather rapidly and at a distance of 10 mm measures but 
2.2 mm in diameter. Column composed of nodals and internodals; nodals 
slightly annulate, and not conspicuous. In the proximal portion the nodals 
and internodals alternate; proceeding distad there is the customary inter- 
calation of secondary internodals. There is so little difference in size 
between the nodals and internodals that it is almost impossible definitely 
to fix the limits of the node. 

Ornamentation. The dorsal cup is covered with coarse radiating 
ridges that represent folds in the plates rather than superficial ornamenta- 
tion. One of these plications runs from the center of a plate to each face. 
The median elevation running up the radial series is strongly marked, form- 
ing a prominent rounding ridge that appears continuous with the free arms. 
Starting on the proximal anal is a lower but clearly denned ridge that 
continues up the median line of anals as far as they are preserved. In the 
interradii the ridges are but faintly developed above the level of the first 
primibrachs. In addition to the plications, there is a superficial orna- 
mentation consisting of granules which are irregularly and sparsely dis- 
tributed over the surface of the plates. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 205 

Horizon and locality. All the specimens known, three of which are 
grouped on a small piece of rock a few inches in length, come from the 
Hamilton (Ludlowville) shales, at Fall brook, near Geneseo, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species does not closely resemble the other species 
referred to the genus. 

Corocrinus (?) calypso (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 26, figure 5 

1862 Actinocrinus calypso Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 133 

1868 Actinocrinus calypso Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 1342 

1877 Actinocrinus calypso S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 66 

1878 Actinocrinus calypso Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1881 Gennaeocrinus calypso Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 161 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:334 
1889 Gennaeocrinus calypso S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 247 
1897 Syn. Aorocrinus cassedayi (Lyon) Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Crin. Cam., 2:483, pi. 42, figs. 11 a, b, 12 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. 

Zool., v. 21 
1900 Gennaeocrinus calypso Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 

Under the name "Actinocrinus" calypso Hall described 
an imperfect, badly crushed crinoid of doubtful affinities. 

Dorsal cup. Basals probably fused to three. Radials hexagonal, 
large, of nearly equal width and height. First primibrachs hexagonal, 
so far as observed, of about one-half the size of the radials. Primaxils 
smaller than the primibrachs, supporting 2 x 10 secundibrachs ; the second 
plate again axillary. The upper edges of the first primibrachs, the upper 
and lower edges of the primaxils and apparently all the edges of the secundi- 
brachs are crenulate. Primary interbrachial larger than the primibrachs, 
supporting two plates in the second rank, ? in the third. Anal interradius 
unknown. Intersecundibrachs one, small. 



206 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms twenty, long, somewhat slender, biserial, with rounded backs, 
length about 50 mm. Pinnules slender and in the proximal portion fully 
9 mm in length. There are three quadrangular plates in each arm, so far 
as shown, before the arms become biserial, and they have crenulate margins. 

Column comparatively small. 

Ornamentation. The radial series is traversed by a low rounded ridge, 
while the radials, basals, primibrachs and the plates of the interradii are 
marked by well-defined ridges which radiate from the centers of the plates. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, 
Jaycox's run, Genesee valley, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 



number 



5025 



1 

Remarks. This species which was referred to Gennaeocrinus 
by Wachsmuth and Springer in 1881 (p. 334), and later was referred to 
by the same authors (1897, v. 2, p. 483) as a synonym of Aorocrinus 
cassedayi (Lyon), does not belong to either of those genera. It is 
probably a Batocrinoid, however, and may belong to the genus C o r o - 
c r i n u s where it has been provisionally placed. 

Genus SACCOCRINUS Hall 1852 

Wachsmuth and Springer in their monograph on the North American 
Crinoidea Camerata placed Saccocrinus as a synonym of P e r i e - 
chocrinus (1897, v. 2, pp. 519, 520), and it is so given by Bather in 
Lankester's "Treatise on Zoology' (1900, p. 166); Springer separates 
the two genera (1913, p. 194). Periechocrinus is a Silurian form 
of England and Gotland. The brachial series bifurcates two or three times 
within the calyx, leading to twenty-five or thirty arms which are biserial 
beyond the calyx and do not branch after being free. Saccocrinus, 
Silurian to Lower Carboniferous (Upper Burlington), North America 
and (?) Gotland, is like the preceding except as regards the arms. They 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 20J 

branch from about twenty openings after becoming free, and are biserial 
both below and above the bifurcations. 

The following new species has been placed with a query under the 
genus Saccocrinus. 

Saccocrinus (?) hamiltonensis sp. nov. 

Plate 26, figures 6, 7 

This species is represented by a single specimen in a somewhat 
weathered, crushed and broken condition. The arms are missing, and of 
the calyx the tegmen and the most distal part of the dorsal cup is missing. 

Dorsal cup of medium size, somewhat elongate, urn-shaped; pentagonal 
in cross-section due to the slight depression of the interradii and the ridges 
extending up the brachial series. Basals three, hexagonal, comparatively 
large, forming a rather deep cup ; greatest width of each basal (about 7.4 mm) 
nearly twice the height (about 4 mm). Radials large, hexagonal or 
heptagonal, depending upon their relation to the basals; about equal in 
height and width, higher than the basals, but considerably less wide. An 
average one has a height of 5 mm and a width of 5.2 mm. 

Primibrachs much smaller than the radials. First primibrach hex- 
agonal, an average one having a height of 3.1 mm and a width of 4.1 mm. 
Primaxils heptagonal, a little smaller than the first primibrachs, and giving 
rise to two series of secundibrachs each. The first secundibrach and part 
of the second are preserved in two rays; nothing is known of the higher 
brachial series. First secundibrachs large and hexagonal, the second 
apparently nearly as large. 

Primary interbrachial in regular interradii hexagonal, usually as large 
or larger than the first primibrach, followed by two plates in the second 
row and two or three in the third. Above this plate not preserved. 
No intersecundibrachs preserved; first intersecundibrachs apparently large. 

Anal plate heptagonal, of nearly the same size as the radials, and 
followed by a median series of large plates, usually hexagonal, which 
gradually decrease in size upward and are bordered by smaller plates on 



20 8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

each side. Three plates in the second row, five in the third; above this 
rather irregular in arrangement. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms. The brachial series is not preserved above the proximal part 
of the second secundibrach. Nothing is known of the arms. 

Column missing. The base of the cup is in a fractured condition 
so that very little of the stem cicatrix can be seen. It apparently had 
a diameter of 3.9 mm. 

Ornamentation. A prominent rounded ridge extends up each radial 
series branching on the primaxil. Each interbrachial, so far as shown, 
has a small central node from which fine lines or ridges radiate out to the 
faces. Between these lines are shorter, more irregular lines or granules. 
There is a sort of granular or vermicular marking on the plates of the radial 
series on each side of the median ridge, which has been made rather obscure 
through weathering. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton group (upper Moscow 
shale), at Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of Doctor Springer, now deposited 
in the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C. 

Remarks. Since the arms and the higher brachials of the cup are 
unknown, this species is referred with a query to Saccocrinus, 
though so far as preserved it fulfils the requirements of the genus. The 
species is easily recognized by the large radials and basals together with 
the prominent ridges on the radial series and the ornamentation, particularly 
of the interbrachials. 

Named from the formation in which the species occurs. 

Genus GENNAEOCRINUS W. & Sp. 1881, 1897 
Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis (Shumard) 

Plate 31, figures 6, 7, 8 

1859 Actinocrinus cornigerus (not Hall, 1858) Lyon & Casseday. Amer. 
Jour. Sci., 2d Ser., 28:238 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 209 

1868 Actinocrinus kent uckiensis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci., St Louis. 

2:345 

1877 Actinocrinus kentuckiensis S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 67 

1878 Actinocrinus cornigerus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1881 Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. 

Palaeocr., pt. 2, p. 161 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:335 
1889 Gennaeocrinus cornigerus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 247 
1897 Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis (inch A. n y s s a Hall) Wachsmuth 

& Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 2:548, pi. 34, figs. 11, 12, 13 (authors' 

ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 
1904 Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., no. 1471, 

v. 47, p. 80 
1910 Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis (incl. G . n y s s a (Hall) Grabau & 

Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 2:540 

Calyx of medium size, wider than high, quite decidedly lobed in the 
region of the arm bases. Vault low and the interradial spaces broad and 
well-defined. 

Dorsal cup semi-globose. 

Basals three, pentagonal, thickened to form a projecting trilobate rim. 
Base of calyx flat due to the thickening of the basals. Radials five, hexa- 
gonal, about as long as wide, bearing 2x5 primibrachs which gradually 
decrease in size until the second primibrachs are about two-thirds or 
half the size of the radials. 

First primibrachs are hexagonal ; second primibrachs axillary, hexagonal 
or pentagonal, depending upon the number of interbrachial plates with 
which they come in contact. Secundibrachs 1 x 10, variable in shape, 
pentagonal, hexagonal, or heptagonal. 

Tertibrachs 8x5. Of the tertibrachs immediately following the 
secundaxils those nearest the median line are axillary; outer ones followed 
by two additional tertibrachs, giving 1 x 10 tertibrachs on the inner and 
3x10 tertibrachs on the outer side of the ray. The two axillary tertibrachs 
bear on the face near the median line of the ray a series of two quartibrachs 
14 



210 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

(brachials of the fourth order), on the other face an axillary quartibrach 
bearing a quintibrach (brachial of the fifth order) on each sloping face. 
In the two outer branches of the ray the third tertibrachs give rise to arms; 
in the two innermost, the second quartibrachs ; between these in each half 
ray the two quintibrachs. This makes eight arms to the ray (see plate 31, 
figure 7). 

Primary interbrachial hexagonal, followed by three in the second range, 
four or five in the third range. (According to Wachsmuth and Springer 
(1897, p. 548) the series may also run 1, 2, 4.) These are succeeded by one 
or two rows of small plates which merge into the plates of the interambulacral 
areas . 

Primary anal plate hexagonal or slightly heptagonal, smaller and 
narrower than the radials and followed by three large plates in the first 
row, five in the second and five or more in the third, one specimen showing 
seven. 

Interaxillaries (intersecundibrachs, intertertibrachs, etc.) arranged in 
a single row or show the series 1, 2, 2, etc. in typical specimens. 

Tegmen depressed convex, made up of small plates of nearly uniform 
size, each one covered with a small central tubercle. Orals small, not 
much larger than the other plates; ambulacrals in two alternating rows 
with a larger plate at each bifurcation. Interambulacral areas broad and 
depressed. Anus located half way between the summit and the periphery. 

Arms eight to each ray, close together forming clusters, the cluster? of 
each ray being far apart. This gives forty arms to the crown. Character 
of the arms not known. 

Column occupies two-thirds the width of the base and has a large 
pentalobate axial canal. 

Ornamentation varies considerably, and allowance should be made for 
variation in this character. It is elaborate, delicate, and sharply definsd. 
The carinae are thin and about one-half a millimeter or more high. A strong 
carina runs from center to center of the radials and primary anal forming 
a hexagonal figure. Extending up the middle of each radial series is a 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 2 I I 

strong carina which increases in prominence upward., until at the arm 
bases it is almost the width of the arms. The radials, primibrachs and the 
larger plates of the interradii have less strong, but pronounced, carinae 
running from the center of the plate to the middle of each face. In the 
angles between the coarser and finer carinae of the brachials and inter- 
brachials broken lines of tubercles of about the height of the carinae extend 
from the centers of the plates to each angle. On the primary interbrachials 
two parallel carinae run from the centers to the upper lateral faces and meet 
two similar carinae from the centers of the end plates of the second rang::. 
In older forms (plate 31, figure 8; the ornamentation becomes more elaborate 
due to increase in number and fineness of the carinae. There are small 
spines or tubercles on the interaxillaries and on the secundibrachs on the 
inner side of the carina. Tubercles are borne by the rows of small 
interbrachials which merge into the tegminal plates. Each plate of the 
tegmen bears a small central tubercle. In the original description by 
Lyon & Casseday (1859, p. 239) a long, nearly central spine is noted. This 
was not noted by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, p. 54S; in their description 
of the species, and our material is poorly preserved as regards the tegmen. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton group, Louisville, Ky., 
and from the Hamilton (Moscow; shale, Canandaigua lake, New York. 

Type figured here Opiate 31. figure 7) in the collection of Doctor 
Springer. 

Remarks. In the above description the secundibrachs have been given 
as 1 x 10. Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, p. 548; give the secundibrachs 
as 2 x 10, but none of our specimens show this. Kirk (manuscript notes) 
gives them as 1 x 10 or 2 x 10, stating that " the single secundibrach is 
probably the result of the fusion of two secundibrachs. In specimens 
having one, there is a break in the keel showing the position of the former 
suture." In the specimens in our possession the tegmen is poorly pre- 
served, so that some of the details have been filled in from the description 
by Lyon and Casseday and the description and figure used by Wachsmuth 
and Springer. 



212 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The species to which G. kentuckiensis bears most resem- 
blance is G . carinatus. It has eight arms instead of six, as in 
carinatus, and lacks the crescentic ridges on the radials and primary 
anal. Apparently kentuckiensis lacks the large tegminal spines 
so conspicuous in carinatus. 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis (Hall) 

Plates 27-30 

1862 Actinocrinus eucharis Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 130 

1868 Actinocrinus eucharis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:344 

1877 Actinocrinus eucharis S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 66 

1878 Actinocrinus eucharis Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1 881 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 161 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:335 
1889 Gennaeocrinus eucharis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 247 

1897 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 2:549, pi. 34, fig. 14 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 

1898 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Grabau. 16th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Geol. 

(1896), p. 285 

1899 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Grabau. Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., v. 6, 

nos. 2, 3. 4, p. 142, fig. 24, e-g 

1900 Gennaeocrinus eucharis (in err.) Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., v. u, pt. 3, p. 196 

1903 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 70 

1904 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bul. 

63, p. 52 
1910 Gennaeocrinus eucharis Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 
2 : 540 

A large species; dorsal cup broadly turbinate and a little inflated in 
the lower part. 

Dorsal cup. Basals pentagonal, a portion of them thickened into a 
pronounced trilobate rim. Radials hexagonal, broader than high, the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 21 3 

largest plates in the calyx. First primibrachs hexagonal, smaller than the 
radials and of relatively the same shape. Second primibrachs, the prim axils, 
in general very small compared with the first primibrachs; variable in shape, 
pentagonal, hexagonal or heptagonal, as they come in contact with a greater 
or less number of interbrachials. 

Secundibrachs i x 10, axillary. On the outer face each supports a 
series of three tertibrachs; on the inner, one tertibrach which in turn is 
axillary. 

Tertaxils support a variable number, usually three or four, quartibrachs 
on either face. Last plate of the quartibrachs of the outer series a quartaxil 
which supports two series; other series support one arm each, which gives 
eight arms to the ray. 

Primary interbrachial large, as large or larger than the first primibrachs; 
hexagonal, longer than wide, and followed by two plates in the second row, 
three in the third (in one case a small fourth plate is present) , two or three in 
the fourth and two (?) in the fifth. 

Primary anal hexagonal or slightly heptagonal, of about the same size 
as the radials; supports three plates in the second and five in the third 
row. Higher plates not observed. 

Between the half rays of each ray there is a vertical row of two 
interaxillaries, one intersecundibrach, one intertertibrach ; intersecundibrach 
not always present. Interaxillaries sometimes present higher up between 
the minor divisions of the ray. 

Tegmen in most of the specimens entirely unknown. In one fragmen- 
tary specimen from Cashong creek, just enough of the tegmen in two rays is 
preserved to show three strong spines (plate 28, figure 5), one, the largest, 
at the main branching of the ambulacral area and one on each side of 
this at each minor branching. 

Arms eight to the ray, forty to the calyx; biserial, long, slender and 
flatbacked; may remain simple or branch once again some distance above 
the calyx (plate 27, figure 1). Pinnules long and slender. On each brachial 
on the outer side above the place of attachment of the pinnule is a small 



214 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

node or tubercle. On the backs of the arms at irregular intervals are 
sharp spines, two or three millimeters long, which are either arranged 
singly or paired. The large, most completely preserved specimens from 
Vincent show this character of the arms (plate 27, figure 1 ; plate 28, 
figure 3; plates 29, 30). 

Column round with a large pentalobate canal. The large specimens 
from Vincent show almost the complete length of the column. Three 
specimens (plate 27 , figure 1 ; plates 29, 30) are figured with the entire 
length of the stem preserved; the distal portion of the column of one 
specimen is shown on plate 27, figure 2. A fourth specimen (plate 28, 
figure 3) shows very well the characters of the proximal portion. Column 
composed of thick projecting nodals with sharp edges, between which are 
thinner, nonprojecting internodals. 

The column shows a very peculiar and striking ornamentation. On 
every other nodal columnal is borne a circlet of three leaflike or petal-like 
appendages, giving three vertical rows which extend almost down the 
entire length of the column (plate 27, figures 1, 2; plate 28, figure 3). 
These appendages are solidly fixed. A thick line, resembling a midrib, 
extends from the nodal to the tip of the appendage, thinning out at the 
tip; and on either side are fainter veinlike lines. Each appendage meets, 
almost meets, or overlaps the appendage next above and below. A speci- 
men of column showing these appendages very beautifully has recently 
been collected in the Hamilton beds at Canandaigua lake by Roy E. 
Fowler of Niagara Falls. Natural sections also were found showing the 
circlet of three appendages. The function, if any, of these appendages 
has not been ascertained. It seems possible that the purpose might be 
to give stability to the long stems with their heavy crowns. The appendages 
certainly are so fixed that they must of necessity curtail the flexing of the 
stem in any direction. 

At the distal end of the column are a number of radical cirri of large 
diameter, apparently composed of cirrals all of the same size. 

Ornamentation of this species on the same plan as that of G . n y s s a . 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 215 

A strong ridge extends up the radial series to the bases of the arms at 
which place it is of about the width of the arms. Fainter ridges radiate 
from the center of each plate to the middle of each face. The centers of all 
the plates are raised into more or less angular elevations or nodes, these 
being stronger on the radial series, especially upon the primibrachs. Later, 
between these radiating ridges, numerous faint striae are developed (plate 
28, figure 1), and the radiating ridges have become fainter on the radials, 
first primibrachs and first interbrachials ; this gives a more delicate touch 
to the ornamentation. In more mature forms (plate 27, figure 1 ; plate 
28, figure 3) the ornamentation of all the plates is much fainter; even the 
ridges on the radial series are much less pronounced, being very faint or 
not visible on the radials. The radiating ridges, particularly on the lower 
plates of the cup, are represented by scattered tubercles and the central 
nodes are less strong. 

With the above ornamentation may also be included the sharp spines on 
the arms and the three vertical rows of leaflike appendages on the column. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales at Vincent, 
Cashong creek near Bellona, Bellona, Canandaigua lake, Fall brook near 
Geneseo, and at Skaneateles lake, three and a half miles below Borodino, 
N. Y. One specimen from Canandaigua lake, near Cottage City, is a 
portion of the column which is referred to this species because of the 
characteristic ornamentation. Also found in the Ludlowville shale, Eighteen 
Mile creek and Alden, Erie county. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum, numbers * , 

4220 4220 4220 4220 

j > > • 

2 3 4 5 

Remarks. Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, pp. 548, 549) suggested 
that G. eucharis and G . n y s s a might be synonymous. G . 
eucharis is a larger form than n y s s a and differs from it in the 
shape of the cup. The branching of the arms in eucharis takes 
place lower in the cup. The arms of eucharis are ornamented with 
numerous spines and the column of this species is also characteristically 



2l6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ornamented. Since the column is wanting in n y s s a , no weight can 
be given to this character. Only one specimen of n y s s a shows spines 
on the arms and here they are few and scattered. It might be argued that 
eucharis is an older form of n y s s a , but the forms studied seem 
to contradict this. In n y s s a maturity brings fainter radiating ridges, 
a strengthening of the ridges on the radial series and a strengthening of 
the central nodes on the plates, especially on the primibrachs, giving a 
very spinose effect to the calyx. In eucharis, at first fainter striae 
are developed between the radiating ridges which are fainter on the lower 
plates; older forms show the breaking up and disappearance of the radiating 
ridges and fainter ridges on the radial series. For a fuller discussion see 
Ornamentation under the description of n y s s a and eucharis. From 
a close study of the two species Hall appears to be justified in separating 
them. 

The specimen listed in the catalog of the American Museum of Natural 
History as the type of Gennaeocrinus eucharis, number 

, proves to belong to the genus Dimerocrinus ; nor does it 

fit Hall's description of eucharis. For the description of this 
species see Dimerocrinus whitfieldi, page 85. 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa (Hall) 

Plate 31, figures 1-5 

1862 Actinocrinus nyssa Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., 

p. 129 

1868 Actinocrinus nyssa Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 346 

1877 Actinocrinus nyssa S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 67 

1878 Actinocrinus nyssa Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1881 Gennaeocrinus nyssa Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2 , 

p. 161 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:335 
1889 Gennaeocrinus nyssa S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 247 
1897 Syn. Gennaeocrinus kentuckienns Wachsmuth & Springer. 

N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 2:548 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 21? 

1898 Gennaeocrinus nyssa Grabau. 16th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Geol. 

(1896), p. 285 

1899 Gennaeocrinus nyssa Grabau. Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., v. 6, nos. 2, 

3, 4, p. 141, text-fig. 23, a-d 

1903 Gennaeocrinus nyssa Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65, p. 70 

1904 Gennaeocrinus nyssa Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 5 2 
1910 Syn. Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis Grabau & Shinier. N. iVmer. 
Index Foss., 2 : 540 

Calyx of this species of medium size; dorsal cup globose. 

Dorsal cup. Basals pentagonal and thickened to form a prominent 
tripartite rim. Radials hexagonal, higher than wide. First primibrachs 
hexagonal, higher than wide and narrower than the radials. Second primi- 
brachs, the primaxils, much smaller than the first primibrachs and variable 
in shape ; more frequently pentagonal, but may be hexagonal or heptagonal 
according to the number of interbrachials which border upon them. 

Secundibrachs I x 10. The outer faces of these bear a series of two 
or three tertibrachs which give rise to a single arm ; the inner faces support 
2x5 tertaxils, which give rise to two arms, making six arms to the ray 
at the place where they become free. 

Primary interbrachial hexagonal, about as large or larger than the 
first primibrach; followed in the second row by two plates, in the third 
by three. One interradius shows three in the fourth and fifth. In one 
specimen (plate 31, figure 2) the left posterolateral interradius shows two 
plates in the third row. 

Primary anal hexagonal and slightly smaller than the radials; followed 
in the second row by three plates, in the third by five, in the fourth by 
five or more. 

Tegmen according to Hall, elevated, and each plate bears a spine at 
the center. No specimen in our possession shows the tegmen. 

Arms eight to the ray, forty to the crown, because of the bifurcation 
near the calyx of the middle arm of each half ray; biserial, long, slender, 



21 8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

with flattened backs, as is the case in all observed Gennaeocrinus 
arms. Brachials bear long, slender pinnules, and there is a small node 
on the outer surface of each brachial at the origin of the pinnule. A 
young specimen (plate 31, figure 5) shows the arms rather well. One ray 
(at the right in the figure) shows additional bifurcations higher up in two arms 
which do not become biserial until after this higher bifurcation. Another 
specimen, poorly preserved, shows traces of a few scattered spines on the 
arms. This is the only specimen of n y s s a in which any spines are shown. 

Column round and perforated by a pentalobate canal. No columns 
found attached to the calyces. 

Ornamentation. In this species the plates of the dorsal cup are 
marked by a faint series of low ridges which radiate from a small tubercle 
in the center of each plate to the middle of each face. A strong ridge 
extends up the radial series to the bases of the arms. Plates of the radial 
series up to the secundibrachs bear prominent nodes; those on the first 
primibrachs usually the most highly developed, being quite spinose. In 
more mature specimens (plate 31, figures 2, 3) the radiating ridges become 
much fainter, almost disappearing in some cases; there is a strengthening 
of the ridge on the radial series and the nodes at the centers of the plates, 
which resemble small spines. The spinose nodes are still the strongest 
on the first primibrachs and the primaxil. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales at Fall 
brook, North Bristol and Vincent, N. Y. ; from the Ludlowville shale at 
Eighteen Mile creek. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum, numbers - — -, 

4221 4221 4221 

i > • 

2 3 4 

Remarks. Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, p. 548) placed G . 
n y s s a as a synonym of G. kentuckiensis. It can readily 
be seen from the illustrations and description that n y s s a bears little 
resemblance to kentuckiensis. G. kentuckiensis has a 
less globose calyx which is decidedly lobed, the arms being arranged in 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 21 9 

clusters which are widely separated. The interradii are broader and have 
three plates in the second row and four or five in the third. The delicate 
ornamentation of kentuckiensis given by the numerous sharp 
carinae is quite distinctive. 

For comparison of this species with G. eucharis see Remarks 
under that species. 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood. 

Plate 32, figures 1-7 

1901 Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood. Amer. Jour. Sci., 12 1297, pi. 4 
1904 Gennaeocrinus carinatus Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., no. 1471, v. 47, 

p. 80 
1910 Gennaeocrinus carinatus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 

2:540 

The original description of this species by Miss Wood was based upon 
a beautifully preserved specimen from the Hamilton, Charlestown, Ind. 
There are in the New York State Museum three specimens of this species. 
One is a part of the dorsal cup which has been etched with acid to obtain 
a mold from which a squeeze could be made ; the second is in a fragmentary, 
crushed condition; the third is an entire specimen which has recently come 
into the possession of the State Museum. It is smaller and not so. well 
preserved as the type specimen which is also figured here (plate 32, 
figures 1-3). 

Calyx of medium size, subglobose, with a low vault; interradial spaces 
broad and well defined. Arm regions prominent and projecting due to 
the deep furrows between them. 

Dorsal cup. Basals three, pentagonal. A portion of the basal plates 
is thickened so as to form a projecting, thin-rimmed cup which is pierced 
by a quinquelobate canal. Radials five, hexagonal. Primibrachs two, 
smaller than the radials and decreasing in size upward. First primibrachs 
hexagonal. Second primibrachs, the primaxils, variable in shape; those 
of the right and left posterior rays heptagonal, those of the anterolateral 
rays pentagonal, that of the anterior hexagonal. 



220 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Secundibrachs i x 10 axillary. They vary in shape as do the primi- 
brachs upon which they rest; secundibrachs resting upon the heptagonal 
primibrachs are hexagonal; those resting upon the pentagonal primibrachs 
heptagonal. In the anterior ray, the secundibrach on one side is thus 
heptagonal, on the other hexagonal. 

Tertibrachs 8x5; those on the inner side of the ray heptagonal, on 
the outer side pentagonal. Of the tertibrachs immediately following the 
secundaxils those nearest the median line of the ray are axillary, giving 
rise to 3 x 20 radials of the fourth order, quartibrachs ; the outer ones are 
followed by two additional tertibrachs. This makes 1 x 10 tertibrachs on 
the inner side and 3 x 10 tertibrachs on the outer side of the ray. On the 
outer side of the ray the third tertibrachs give rise to arms; on the inner 
side, the third quartibrachs, making six arms to the ray. 

Primary interbrachial hexagonal; followed in the second row by two 
large, hexagonal or heptagonal, plates, in the third row by three smaller 
plates which are hexagonal or pentagonal. Above the third row the plates 
are variable in number; interbrachials pass directly into the interambu- 
lacrals. The New York specimens show a variation in the number of 
plates in the interradii. Some of the regular interradii have the succession 
1, 2, 3; others, 1, 3, 4 (see plate 32, figures 5, 6). The number of inter- 
brachials seems to depend somewhat upon the width of the interradius. 

Primary anal heptagonal, followed in the type by three plates in the 
second row, four in the third. Only the smallest New York specimen 
shows the anal interradius; primary anal here followed by three plates in 
the second row and five in the third. 

Interaxillaries (inter tertibrachs, interquartibrachs) three in number, 
arranged in a vertical row and decreasing in size upward. The first, the 
intertertibrach, pentagonal; the second and third (interquartibrachs) 
respectively hexagonal and roughly pentagonal in shape. 

Tegmen moderately elevated and composed of an irregular number 
of plates. Ambulacral areas elevated and separated by deep depressions 
which extend at least half way to the summit. At the bifurcation of the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 221 

ambulacrals is a strong spine which is surrounded by a variable number 
of low spines or nodes. Anus excentric. In the small New York specimen 
from Athol Springs there are minute spines scattered over the plates in 
the region of the anus. 

Arms unknown; six arm openings to the ray, giving thirty arms to 
the crown. 

Column wanting. It was circular and pierced by a quinquelobate 
canal having about one-third the diameter of the column. 

Ornamentation of this species perhaps its most striking characteristic. 
Basals thickened and projecting. Lower half of each radial and the 
primary anal provided with a crescentic ridge which is thickened at the 
center and thins out or is terminated with a spine at the sides. This whorl 
of crescentic ridges, as pointed out by Miss Wood, bears a resemblance 
to a six-petaled flower. There is a small spine in the center of each of 
three alternate petals. 

From the center of the outer curve of this crescentic ridge, strong, 
rather sharp, ridges or carinae pass to the centers of the first primibrachs 
and first interbrachials, and from the centers of these plates to the centers 
of the adjoining plates forming a series of triangles. Between these carinae 
are others less strong, directed from the centers of the plates toward the 
angles but not reaching them. The carinae following the median line of 
the radial series are the strongest. They increase in prominence up to 
the arm bases and branch on the primaxils, secundaxils and tertaxils. 
Sometimes there are minute spines in the angles between the finer and 
coarser carinae, some of them rather elongated and showing a tendency 
to form new carinae. Each primaxil bears a spine in the angle of the 
bifurcation of the median carina; small spines also present on the secund- 
axils. Interaxillaries bear larger spines, one at the center of each plate, 
decreasing in size upward. 

In the New York specimen showing the anal interradius there is a 
strong spine on each of the five plates of the third row and smaller spines 
on the plates of the row above. 



222 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

More mature specimens show an increase in the minor carinae between 
the main strong carinae, and they are better developed. This gives a 
much more beautiful ornamentation (see plate 32, figure 7). 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton of Charlestown, Indiana, 
and Falls of the Ohio, Louisville, Ky. ; from the Hamilton (Ludlowville) 
shale of Athol Springs, N. Y., and the Hamilton (Moscow) shale of 
Canandaigua lake, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the Boston Society of Natural 
History. 

Remarks. G. carinatus may be easily distinguished from G . 
kentuckiensis, which it most resembles, by the crescentic, petal- 
like ridges on the radials and primary anal, together with the numerous 
carinae. G. kentuckiensis has eight arms to a ray instead of six. 

Variations have been noted above in the New York forms as to the 
number of interbrachials in the interradii and as to the occurrence of 
spines. The variation in the number of interbrachials seems to depend 
on the width of the interradius, since the same specimen shows the regular 
number of the type and the increased number in different interradii. The 
variations are all of a minor character and are not sufficient to separate 
the New York forms from the type. 

The original figures of the holotype were loaned by Miss Wood for 
reproduction here. 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus var. crassicostatus nov. 

Plate 32, figure 8 

There is in the New York State Museum a specimen and a fragment 
of a specimen from the Hamilton (Moscow) shale of Cashong creek, 
Bellona, N. Y., which I have separated from G. carinatus as a 
variety. It shows the variation in the interradii as do the New York 
representatives of carinatus, but it also shows other variations. 
The form is more globose, the carinae are coarser, even the intermediate 
carinae are stronger and more fully developed. The thick, coarse carinae 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 227, 

make the crescentic ridges on the radials less prominent. The spines on 
the tegmen are longer and much stouter. 

At first it seemed as if the variations in the carinae and spines might 
be due to age. A mature specimen of carinatus is shown on plate 
32, figure 7. The delicacy of the ornamentation is not lost, though more 
carinae are developed, just as age brings on the " multilira " type of 
ornamentation in Dolatocrinus liratus. 

Gennaeocrinus decorus sp. nov. 

Plate 31, figure 9 

The general aspect of this specimen is that of a Gennaeocrinus. 
There is only a cast of a single specimen which is badly weathered and only 
fragmentary in preservation. One ray and parts of two others are shown, 
a complete interradius and part of another, the bases of the arms in two 
rays and in another ray several millimeters of two arms, and a few milli- 
meters of column. The specimen appears to have been large, though in 
its state of poor preservation no measurements can be made nor can the 
shape of the dorsal cup be determined. 

Dorsal cup. Basal disk much flattened and suture lines very difficult 
to distinguish ; apparently the disk characteristic of Gennaeocrinus. 
Radials large, hexagonal, of about equal breadth and height. Primibrachs 
smaller than the radials ; gradual decrease in size of the radial series upward. 
First primibrachs hexagonal, of about equal height and width ; only primaxil 
shown hept agonal and of about equal height and width. 

Secundibrachs 2 x 10, large. Second secundibrachs axillary, giving 
rise on the outer side in each half ray to two tertaxils, the second of which 
is axillary giving rise to two series of five or six quartibrachs which pass 
into the arms. On the inner side in each half ray the secundaxils give 
rise to a series of five or six tertibrachs which pass into the arms. Just 
at what point the arms become free can not be ascertained. 

Primary interbrachial hexagonal, of about the size of the first primi- 
brach, and followed by two plates in the second row, three in the third; 



224 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

above this, number of plates indeterminate. Interradii widest at about 
the top of the primaxils; anal interradius not preserved. Intersecundi- 
brachs and intertertibrachs are present, but can not be distinguished. 

Tegmen not preserved. 

Arms thirty, six to each ray. The two inner arms in each ray may. 
branch higher up, but this can not be determined. Arms above the fifth 
or sixth tertibrach (inner arm) and quartibrach (outer arm) biserial and 
composed of very short brachials. Pinnules appear to be rather long. 

Column. About 10 mm of column are preserved. In its crushed state 
the column has a diameter of about 5 mm which would be somewhat less 
in an uncrushed state. All the columnals are short. There are projecting 
nodals with shorter internodals between. 

Ornamentation. A low rounded ridge on the radial series which 
becomes as wide as the arms above the secundaxils. Plates of the radial 
series and the interbrachial plates all ornamented with rather strong rounded 
ridges or carinae which radiate from the centers of the plates to the middle 
of the faces. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds at Worcester, Otsego 
county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species bears some resemblance to G . n y s s a and, 
more especially, to G.eucharis; but from both it may be readily 
distinguished by the number of secundibrachs, which are 2 x 10 in 
G. d e c o r u s and 1 x 10 in G. nyssa and G. eucharis. 
The bifurcation of the higher brachial series likewise is different. In 
G. eucharis and G . nyssa the single series of tertibrachs is 
in the outer arm of each half ray and the tertaxils on the inner side, the 
middle arm bifurcating again ; in G. decorus the single series of 
tertibrachs is on the inner side of each half ray. There are no spines or 
nodes on the plates of the dorsal cup of G . decorus, or on the arms 
so far as preserved. The column in this species is not as large, apparently, 
as in G. eucharis, and there is no indication of ornamentation. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 225 

Gennaeocrinus peculiaris sp. nov. 

Plate 31, figure 10 

Calyx of medium size. Dorsal cup subturbinate, quite strongly 
lobed. Vault low with depressed interambulacral areas. 

Dorsal cup. Basals raised into a trilobate rim depressed in the center. 
Radials hexagonal, wider than high. First primibrachs hexagonal, a 
trifle narrower than the radials but higher. Primaxils are hept agonal, 
so far as observed. 

Higher brachials apparently irregular. In the left posterolateral ray 
the primaxil supports two secundibrachs on the left and one secundibrach 
on the right. Each secundaxil supports a tertaxil on the inner side, and a 
single arm on the outer, giving six arms to the ray. The left anterolateral 
ray apparently is the same as the left posterolateral. In the right antero- 
lateral ray, however, the primaxil supports two secundaxils. Of these, 
the right is the same as in the left posterolateral ray, the left supports 
two arms, giving five arms to the ray. The anterior ray has the appearance 
of a six- arm ray, but the primaxil supports two secundaxils as in the case 
of the right anterolateral. 

Primary interbrachials about as large as the radials and very low in 
the calyx, coming nearer the basals than in any other species observed. 
In the second range are two or three plates, and in the third, four. Anal 
interradius not preserved. Intersecundibrachs in the series 1, 2, 2. 

Tegmen composed of numerous small plates, the surfaces of which 
are slightly corrugated. At the bifurcation of each ambulacrum stands a 
rather stout spine. 

Arms. The normal number of arms seems to have been thirty, though 
one ray was noted with five arm bases. Arms wanting. 

Column missing; round, with a pentalobate canal, judging from the 
cicatrix. 

Ornamentation of this species quite peculiar and unlike that of any 

other species of Gennaeocrinus. Traversing the plates of the 
15 



226 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

radial series is a strong continuous carina which, differing from other species, 
does not rise into nodes at the centers of the plates. On each plate of the 
radial ring, formed by the radial ridge and the two lateral ridges connecting 
the center of the plate with the neighboring radials, is a concave faced, three- 
sided pyramid which attains such a height as to reach beyond the basals. 
From the center of the primary interbrachial strong ridges pass to the radials 
and primibrachs. Above the sharply defined lateral ridges to the primi- 
brachs, the ornamentation consists of granules and, exceptionally, incipient 
vermiculose markings. There is a small node at the center of each plate 
of the third row of interbrachials. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales near 
Moscow, New York. 

Types. Holotype and only known specimen in the New York State 
Museum. 

Remarks. This species may be readily recognized by the peculiar 
ornamentation, by the proximity of the primary interbrachial to the basals, 
by the relative size and proportion of the radials and primibrachs, and by 
the obscurity of the basals. 

The name pecularis is here proposed for this species because 
of the peculiar character of the ornamentation. 

Genus MEGISTOCRINUS Owen & Shumard 1852 (W. & Sp. 1897) 

Megistocrinus depressus Hall 

Plate 33 

1862 Megistocrinus depressus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't State Cab. Nat. 
Hist., p. 134 

Actinocrinus pocillum. Op. cit., p. 134 
1868 Megistocrinus depressus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 380 

Actinocrinus pocillum. Op. cit., p. 347 

1877 Megistocrinus depressus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 

1878 Megistocrinus depressus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 18 
Actinocrinus pocillum. Op. cit., p. 15 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 22~j 

1 88 1 Megistocrinus depressus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 
pt. 2, p. 137 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:311 
Gennaeocrinus pocillum. Op. cit. (authors' ed.), p. 137; v. 33, 

P- 3ii 
1889 Megistocrinus depressus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 260 

Gennaeocrinus pocillum Op. cit., p. 247 
1895 Megistocrinus ornatus Miller & Gurley. 111. State Mus. Nat. Hist. 

Bui., no. 7, p. 42, pi. 2, figs. 15, 16, 17 
1897 Megistocrinus depressus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 2:540 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 
1900 Megistocrinus depressus (in err.) Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., v. n, pt. 3, p. 198 

1903 Megistocrinus depressus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 63, pp. 73, 74 
Aorocrinus ? pocillum. Op. cit., p. 64 

1904 Megistocrinus depressus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

63, P- 52 
Aorocrinus pocillum. Op. cit., p. 52 
1904 Megistocrinus depressus Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., v. 47, no. 1471, 

p. 64 
1910 Megistocrinus depressus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 

2:538 

This is an extremely variable form as regards shape of theca, spinosity 
of vault, and surface ornamentation. After examining with care a large 
number of specimens which I refer to this species, I have come to the con- 
clusion that it is impossible to give specific names to the many variations 
shown by different individuals. It is necessary either to combine all 
the variants under one specific designation or recognize several distinct 
species. As any given set of characters that may be chosen varies con- 
siderably even within the narrow limits of these greatly restricted species, 
and are in part held in common by several of the other groups, it has been 
thought best to recognize but the one species. Wherever possible, closely 
related species that have sufficiently diagnostic characters are held valid, 
even though their close affinities to depressus are apparent. Among 



228 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the large number of specimens examined are many immature individu- 
als which are of great interest as throwing light on the ontogeny of the 
species. 

All parts of the crown have been found in an excellent state of 
preservation. 

The species is a large one, uncrushed dorsal cups 52 mm in diameter 
having been examined. Undoubtedly the species attains a much greater 
size, judging by the fragmentary material in the collection. With a pro- 
portion of 4 or 5 to 1 expressing the length of the arms to the height of the 
cup, it will be seen that the crowns were of imposing dimensions. The 
tegmen is as a rule low, being about one-third the height of the cup. 

Dorsal cup. Outline varies considerably. Base always more or less 
flattened, the flattened area reaching to the tops of the radials; rarely 
somewhat excavated. Above the level of the radials the average cup 
rounds outward to the tops of the first primibrachs, above which the sides 
diverge at a low angle to about the tops of the first secundibrachs where 
the cup begins to flare outward. Variations from this mean tend on the 
one hand toward globosity, and on the other, to a low bowl-shaped cup. 
Many of the specimens have been flattened through vertical pressure and 
it is such forms that Hall chose as his types. These compressed 
M. depressus resemble M . abnormis, which is a very closely 
related species. The fixed secundibrachs and tertibrachs (if present) are 
laterally produced, forming well-defined lobes. This lob ate character is 
greatly accentuated in specimens that have been subjected to crushing. 
It is a characteristic and well-marked feature in all the specimens examined, 
and is very pronounced in immature individuals. With age the lobation 
becomes less marked. 

Basals fused to three elements, the sutures between which are as a 
rule closely anchylosed; generally covered by the column, but at times 
extend slightly beyond. In the latter case the basals frequently show their 
tripartite character, being produced into a trilobate rim. Radials large, 
having a maximum width slightly greater than the height. First primi- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 229 

brachs of about the same width as the radials and shorter. Primaxils 
considerably narrower and lower than the first primibrachs. 

First secundibrachs large, occasionally comparable in size to the prim- 
axil. In the case of two-arm rays, as a rule, three secundibrachs of fairly 
large size are incorporated in the cup. In four-arm rays the first secundi- 
brach is nearly always axillary and supports two or three large incorporated 
tertaxils. Occasionally a variant is seen where the second secundibrach 
is axillary. 

Interradii relatively narrow; posterior the widest, the greatest width 
being at about the level of the third range. Above this level the area 
becomes narrower; at the level of the arm bases only slightly wider than 
the others. Proximal anal as a rule somewhat narrower than the radials, 
and of the same height; followed by three plates of large size, one or more 
of them frequently being as high as the proximal anal. The posterior inter- 
radius usually attains its maximum breadth at the level of the next range 
or the one above. Plates in the higher ranges variable in number, depend- 
ing in large part apparently on the size of the specimen ; decreasing gradually 
in size upward. In the third range four to six plates, four being the usual 
number, and in the fourth five to seven plates; above this level plates 
small, irregular in arrangement, gradually merging into inter ambulacrals. 
In the regular interradii proximal interbrachial large, frequently exceeding 
the radials in height; followed by two large plates in the second range, two 
or three in the third, three or four in the fourth, and two to four in the 
fifth. This last range lies at the level of the arm bases, and above connects 
with the inter ambulacrals. 

Intersecundibrachs two or three. Where there are three, two of them 
rest on the upper sloping faces of the first. In four arm rays a single inter- 
tertibrach appears in each half of the ray. 

Tegmen well shown in a number of individuals; as a rule low and 
arching. Interambulacral areas depressed, a character strongly marked 
in some individuals that have not been subjected to crushing. Tegmen 
composed of a great number of fairly large, heavy plates. Along the 



23O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ambulacral ridge there is a more or less regular arrangement of two rows of 
plates. This biserial arrangement is clearly shown in young specimens, 
but is more or less broken up in the older crinoids. Anal opening high up 
in the tegmen, close to the central spine; occasionally lower, approaching 
the condition found in Megistocrinus abnormis. Anal tube 
short made up of numerous small plates. As a rule only six spines are 
borne on the tegmen. One of these is subcentral, and each of the other 
five lies at the main bifurcation of an ambulacral ridge. Occasionally 
smaller secondary spines appear, particularly at the points of bifurcation 
of the ambulacra. 

Arms. No adult individual is known in which the arms are preserved. 
The arms figured by Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, pi. 49, fig. 4c) not 
only do not pertain to this species but are not referable to Megisto- 
crinus. A few of the higher interbrachials are preserved in this indi- 
vidual, and these almost conclusively point to Rhodocrinus nodu- 
1 o s u s as the form to which the arms belong. Three young individuals 
have the arms preserved. Considering the size of the theca, the arms are 
comparatively slender; compactly biserial with rounding backs and sides. 
Pinnules long, slender and closely crowded. Branching of arms isotomous. 
After becoming free there is but a single bifurcation of the arms of these 
young crinoids. At maturity there are undoubtedly many more, as in 
the closely allied M . Ontario as many as five have been counted. 
As a rule the species has sixteen free arms, the anterolateral rays bearing 
two each and the others four. Exceptionally, three free arms are to be 
found in one of the anterolateral rays. 

Column round, stout, and with a pentalobate axial canal. Curiously 
enough no part of the column has been preserved in all the specimens 
examined. 

Ornamentation. Surfaces of plates of dorsal cup vary from concave 
through practically flat to decidedly convex; last type probably the result 
of secondary deposition of stereom, representing gerontic conditions. In 
one of the specimens here figured (plate 33, figure 1), one of Hall's types, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 23 1 

the center of a plate is raised in a sort of tablet which roughly conforms 
in shape to the outline of the plate, and is separated from the edges of the 
plate by a narrow beveled area. This condition suggests a cessation of 
peripheral growth which after a time was resumed. It can not be con- 
sidered normal for the species as it is the only case observed. A character 
that shows distinctly in rather old individuals and appears frequently in the 
material from New York is a rounding elevation along the suture between 
adjacent radials, (plate 33, figures 12, 13). This is a sort of rounding hump 
that is highest at about one-half the height of the apposed faces and slopes 
off in all directions. The radials are somewhat concave and these six 
radiating ridges give the base of the cup a distinctive and characteristic 
lobate appearance. Superficial ornamentation of this species very variable 
within certain limits; in some individuals expressed by fine discrete papillae, 
with little or no evidence of linear arrangement ; in other cases the granules 
coalesce in places, forming a sort of shagreen ornamentation. Granules 
may be aligned, particularly in lines near the margins of the plates and paral- 
lel to the faces; again, the lines may radiate from the center of a plate, 
running perpendicular to the faces. The ornamentation of the young will 
be discussed under the heading Ontogeny. 

Ontogeny. A very complete series of specimens belonging to the 
species has been collected, which exhibits a number of interesting develop- 
mental features. The dorsal cup of the smallest specimen observed (plate 
33, figure 6), one of the types of Hall's Actinoc rinus cauli- 
culus , measures only about 4.5 mm in breadth by 2.6 mm in height, 
while the largest that could be measured with any degree of accuracy 
measures 52 mm in breadth by 22 mm in height. Much larger specimens 
occur, however. Four of the most perfect young specimens give the 

following measurements of the dorsal cup: 

Height of cup Breadth of cup 

1 2.6 mm 4.5 mm 

2 4.4 mm 9 . 2 mm 

3 4. 5 mm 9.6 mm 

4 7. mm 14. mm 



232 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The breadth in all cases is taken from the anal interradius to the base 
of the free arms of the anterior radius. 

In the smallest specimen, number i (plate 33, figure 6), dorsal cup 
subglobose; arms free from the primaxil up. Radial series marked by a low 
rounded ridge. Otherwise there appears to be no ornamentation. Basals 
comparatively large, and extending beyond the stem in a well-defined 
trilobate rim. Primary interbrachials large; together with the second 
range of interbrachials filling the interradii. Anal interradius remarkably 

wide. This specimen, marked * in the type catalog, was one of the 

2 

types of Hall's Actinocrinus cauliculus. 

Specimen number 2 (plate 33, figure 7) shows the vault, which is low, 
in fact almost flat. Interambulacral areas slightly depressed. Tegminal 
spines represented by nodes, a fraction of a millimeter in height. Arms 
slender, biserial, about 28 mm in length, probably bifurcating only once. 

Specimen number 3 (plate 33, figure 8), although measuring only 
slightly larger than the preceding specimen, is more globose, and appears 
to be a considerably later stage. Free arms stouter, and bifurcate twice. 
Interradii with a third range of plates, and interbrachials comparatively 
smaller. Anal interradius more constricted at the periphery, and con- 
taining more plates. Radial ridge not so well marked; the other plates 
seem to have an obscure ornamentation. This specimen, number 

4 02 and the following, number 4 1 were Hall's types of Act in o- 

2 1 

crinus pocillum. 

Specimen number 4 (plate 33, figure 9) has stouter arms, the groups 
of which are much nearer together, comparatively. The dorsal cup is 
flattened in the basal region, and has assumed a more characteristic 
depressus outline. 

A fifth young specimen, while not preserving the arms, shows the 
characters of the theca excellently. This specimen is figured on plate 33, 
figures 3-5. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 233 

Horizon and locality. Found in the Hamilton group (Moscow shale), 
and has a very extended range. In New York State it has been found most 
abundantly perhaps on the. shores of Canandaigua lake, near Menteth's 
point. Other localities are Vincent and North Bristol, Ontario county; 
Geneseo and York, Livingston county; Bellona and Cashong creek near 
Bellona, Yates county; Livonia salt shaft (385 foot level), Livingston 
county ; and Eighteen Mile creek, Erie county. Also found in the Ludlow- 
ville shale at Alden, Erie county. Types from Canandaigua lake. Other 
localities are Charlestown, Ind.; Louisville, Ky. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum numbers ^2 — f 

^ — , ^ — . Number ^3 — - is probably aRhodocrinus nodulosus. 
2 3 4 

Remarks. The specimen of depressus marked "type" in the 
American Museum of Natural History, number 3 — z f could scarcely have 

been used by Hall in his description, as it does not show the vault, nor 
does Hall mention the remarkably excavated character of the plates which 
is so marked in this specimen (plate 34, figures 6, 7). The specimen has 
been referred to M. Ontario. 

M. ornatus Miller and Gurley is regarded as a synonym of 
depressus (Wood, 1904, p. 64). The differences pointed out are only 
minor variations that may occur within a species. The ornamentation 
described as so characteristic of ornatus is shown very beautifully 
on one of the smaller New York specimens (plate 33, figures 10, 11), and 
is also well shown on one of the crushed dorsal cups used by Hall as a cotype, 

number 43^2 i n the Museum type catalog. I have considered the 
2 

possibility of making this form M. depressus var. ornatus, 

but there does not seem to be enough difference even for this as the types 

of ornamentation in depressus grade into this more elaborate type. 

M. depressus undoubtedly is a close ally of two other described 

species, M. abnormis Lyon and M . Ontario Hall. The 



234 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

reasons for keeping depressus and Ontario distinct will be given 
under the description of the latter. The specific distinctions shown between 
abnormis and depressus appear to be valid. Abnormis is 
a lower form with much exaggerated lobation of the theca. The anal 
opening is low, appearing at the level of the arm bases. There is another 
species intermediate in certain particulars between depressus and 
abnormis — M. expansus Miller and Gurley. It resembles 
abnormis in height of cup, but differs from it in the rounded, arched 
tegmen and the slightly lobate character of the theca. The width of the 
posterior interradius at the level of the arm bases is narrow. From 
depressus it differs to a less marked degree. The wide flattening 
of the level portion of the cup, the less distinct lobation and the character 
of the tegmen should serve to distinguish it however. 

Megistocrinus Ontario Hall 

Plate 34 

1862 Megistocrinus Ontario Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 136 

1868 Megistocrinus Ontario Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 380 

1877 Megistocrinus Ontario S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 83 

1878 Megistocrinus Ontario Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 18 

188 1 Megistocrinus Ontario Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 137 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci: Phila., 33:312 
1889 Megistocrinus Ontario S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 260 
1897 Syn. Megistocrinus depressus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Crin. Cam., 2:540 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 

1903 Megistocrinus Ontario Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65. P- 74 

1904 Megistocrinus Ontario Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

pp. 48, 52 

Megistocrinus Ontario I was at first inclined to place as 
a synonym of Megistocrinus depressus Hall. After study- 
ing a series oFM egistocrinus depressus, however, I came to 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 235 

the conclusion that Ontario should be held distinct. But three well- 
preserved adult specimens of this species have been examined. Two of 
them are the specimens used by Hall as his types. Another, probably to 
be referred to this species, is a crushed and imperfect cup that is listed by the 
American Museum of Natural History as a type of M. depressus 
(plate 34, figures 6, 7). Of Hall's cotypes, one is an uncrushed theca of 
which a portion has been broken away. The other is an almost complete 
crown, the theca of which is somewhat crushed, and the arms in part 
broken off. 

Species large, the specimen preserving the arms probably of average 
size. With arms expanded this crown would have a height of about 120 mm. 
Of this amount the dorsal cup contributes about 20 mm. In the theca 
the vault has a height about one-half that of the cup. 

Theca. Dorsal cup low, with strongly rounding sides. Basal region 
flattened, the flattening extending to the tops of the radials. From this 
level the sides curve upward gently to the level of the primaxils, above 
which the sides ascend more steeply to the first secundibrachs where the 
brachials flare outward rather abruptly. In the interradial areas above 
the level of the primaxil the cup constricts slightly. Width and length 
of the posterior interradius greatly exceeds that of the other interradii 
and gives the cup a distinctly asymmetrical outline. The arm bases do not 
project strongly and as the interradii at this level are narrow, the theca 
does not show the marked lobate character characteristic of M . depres- 
sus. Tegmen low; interambulacral areas only slightly depressed. Two 
fairly complete specimens give the following measurements: 

Height of theca Height of cup Breadth of cup 

33 ? mm 21.8 mm 50 mm 

31 mm 19 mm 47 mm 

The height of the cup is taken to the bases of the free arms, and the breadth 
taken at this level from the posterior interradius to the anterior radius. 
In the larger specimen the tegmen is not shown, so the height of the theca 
can only be estimated. 



236 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dorsal cup. Basals entirely concealed by the column. Radials large 
with a width as a rule in excess of the height. First primibrach higher than 
the radial and somewhat narrower. Primaxil shorter than the first primi- 
brach but of nearly the size of the radial. 

First secundibrach large, and in the case of a four-arm ray axillary. 
In a two-arm ray the first two secundibrachs large. Above them in adult 
specimens a third brachial is incorporated in the cup. In the four-arm 
rays two fairly large tertibrachs are incorporated in each division of the ray. 

Proximal anal plate of about the size of the adjacent radials. It 
supports three plates of which the central is the smallest. Lateral plates 
very large, one or both exceeding the radials in size. Median line of anals 
distinct to the fourth range, above which the plates are irregularly disposed. 
In the third range there are five plates; those lying next the radial series 
the largest, the plates decreasing in size toward the median line. In the 
fourth range there are seven plates, averaging considerably smaller in 
size than those of the third range. At the level of the third or fourth 
range the posterior interradius attains its greatest breadth. Above this 
level plates smaller in size and fewer in number. 

In the regular interradii proximal interbrachial very large, considerably 
exceeding the radials in size; followed in the second range by three large 
plates of which the median is the smallest; in the third range four smaller 
plates, and in the fourth, four or five still smaller. Above this level plates 
smaller and fewer in number. At the level of the arm bases interradii 
narrow and of approximately the same breadth ; below, interradii unusually 
wide for the genus, the posterior being notably so. Greatest breadth in 
interradii at about the level of the primaxils. 

In the four-arm rays there is a single large intersecundibrach, followed 
in the second range by two smaller plates. The same arrangement probably 
obtains in the two-arm rays. In each half of the four-arm ray is a fairly 
large intertertibrach, followed by two small plates. 

Tegtnen relatively low and rather smoothly arched (plate 34, figure 5) . 
Ambulacral areas somewhat elevated, but not conspicuously so; the deep 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 237 

interambulacral depressions so characteristic of many specimens of 
depressus wanting in this species. Anal tube fairly stout and sub- 
central. Tegmen bears a number of spines which are much smaller than in 
the case of depressus and more numerous than is usual in the latter 
species. There is one nearly central spine just anterior to the base of the 
anal tube. At each four-arm ray there are three spines, one at the main 
bifurcation of the ambulacrum, and one at each of the secondary bifurcations. 
Only one spine at a two-arm ray. Plates of tegmen small and numerous; 
no regularity of arrangement except occasionally along the ambulacra, 
where in places there is a more or less well-defined alignment. 

Arms four to a ray, except in the anterolateral rays, where there are 
two to each ray. This gives the species sixteen free arms. Arms long 
and fairly stout; divisions isotomous. As many as five bifurcations may 
occur above the point where the arms become free. Rami compactly 
biserial, with slightly flattened back; sides rounding. Pinnules long and 
slender. 

Column. Only one or two of the proximal columnals are preserved 
in an adult form. Column stout, having a diameter of nearly 7 mm; 
circular and perforated by a large obscurely pentalobate canal. Two 
young forms (plate 34, figures 8, 9) show the column very well, especially 
the smaller one. The column here is composed of nodals and internodals, 
the nodals being much thicker and projecting in a striking manner. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the cup have concave surfaces. There 
is a superficial ornamentation of fairly strong ridges of intricate pattern, 
which varies in different portions of the cup of the same individual. In a 
general way the ridges radiate from the center of the plate, running per- 
pendicular to the faces. They are more or less wavy, and broken up into 
dots and dashes. Frequently there are series of irregular ridges which run 
parallel to the faces of the plate and nest one within the other. This pro- 
duces a network similar to a spider web (plate 34, figure 2). 

Ontogeny. Three young specimens of Ontario are figured here 
(plate 34, figures 8-10). Two of them show the column attached, and one 



238 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

shows the arms branching at least twice. They show in general the char- 
acteristics of the adult forms. The dorsal cup is wider in comparison 
with the height than in the young of depressus, and there are 
more plates in the interradii. The ornamentation as shown in the smallest 
specimen is that of the more strictly Ontario type. 

One of these specimens (plate 34, figure 10) is doubtfully referred 
here to Ontario. In one anterolateral ray showing the bases of the 
free arms, there are three of these. If the other anterolateral ray were 
furnished with an equal number this specimen might constitute a new 
species, as in these forms the number of free arms is remarkably constant. 
In a large number of specimens of depressus only one specimen was 
found which varied from the normal, and that in only one ray. 

Anal interradius in this specimen constricted at the periphery much 
more than in the young of depressus at a similar stage. Dorsal 
cup wider in comparison with the height, and ornamentation differing 
essentially from that of the young depressus. 

There seems to be little to distinguish this specimen from Ontario, 
other than the possible difference in the arm formula. The ornamenta- 
tion, though differing considerably from that of the adult Ontario, 
is much as one would expect to find in the young of this species. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow) shale. Types from Dres- 
den, Yates county, and Canandaigua lake, N. Y. ; specimen in the Ameri- 
can Museum, number ^ — ^, from Seneca lake; young specimens from 

the Livonia salt shaft and North Bristol, Ontario county. Species also 
found in the Ludlowville shale in the vicinity of Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum, numbers 22 — 43 — ^ 

12 

Remarks. The arm bases of the specimen figured on plate 34, figure 

1 , appear to be widely separated and to form a continuous ring about the 

periphery. As a matter of fact the specimen was probably quite as lobate 

as the specimen figured on plate 34, figures 3, 5. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 239 

In the young specimens (plate 34, figures 8-10) the plates are slightly- 
convex. In both adult specimens, however, they are concave. 

The width of the anal interradius at the periphery is comparatively 
much wider in the young than in the adult, as in the case of depressus . 

This species most closely resembles M. depressus from which 
it might well have been derived. It differs from depressus in a 
number of characters which may well serve to separate the species. The 
surface ornamentation in the two species may be very similar. In 
depressus the ornamentation consists more frequently of fine granules 
which may or may not have a linear arrangement; but some specimens, 
otherwise showing all the characters of depressus, have the radiating 
lines so characteristic of Ontario. In the latter, these lines are often 
so strong as to appear like well-marked ridges, and the ornamentation 
of the plates sometimes has a spider-web effect. The theca is much lower 
and broader in Ontario with more bulging sides. The disproportion 
between the posterior interradius and the other interradii in height and 
inflation is much more marked in Ontario. Also the dorsal cup is 
less distinctly lobed and the corresponding interambulacral depressions 
much less pronounced. In Ontario, however, the interradii are 
proportionally much wider, particularly the posterior, and contain many 
more plates than in the case of depressus. The spines in the tegmen 
are much larger in depressus and as a rule fewer in number. A 
glance at a dorsal cup is as a rule enough to identify M . Ontario- 
The plates are more numerous and proportionally smaller; instead of being 
relatively short and broad the plates are relatively long and narrow. This 
character is particularly well marked in the plates of the radial series. 

Genus THAMNOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. 0<ZfJivo<;, thicket, bush; xpivov, lily] 

This remarkable Batocrinoid is represented by two known species 
in the American Middle Devonian. One species has already been described 
by Springer (191 1) as Dorycrinus devonicus. Of this species 



24O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the theca alone is known. The new species here described, Thamno- 
crinus springeri (plate 26, figures 8-10), which has been chosen 
as the genotype, shows the characters of the arms and stem as well. 
Thamnocrinus devonicus (Springer) resembles springeri 
closely, but may be distinguished without difficulty. 

The genus contains species of fair size, the crowns so far as known 
attaining a height of over 70 mm. Arms in length and abundance show 
a remarkable preponderance over the theca. Dorsal cup subturbinate. 
Tegmen highly arched and greatly inflated in T. devonicus; 
interradially sharply depressed. 

Dorsal cup. Thamnocrinus is monocyclic. Basals fused to 
three elements of subequal size. Radials of medium size. The succeeding 
plates of the radial series gradually decrease in width and height upward. 
Plates of the radial series incorporated in the rigid cup to the level of the 
secundaxils or a brachial or so beyond. In the case of T. springeri 
a lateral union of the main arm trunks, and their incorporation in the theca 
up to the level of their last bifurcation, is brought about by a large number 
of small interbrachial plates continuous with those of the cup. In the 
posterior interradius proximal anal of about the size of the adjacent radials; 
followed in the second range by the three plates characteristic of the 
Batocrinidae. Median series of anal plates well marked. Other inter- 
radii fairly wide; each with interbrachials ranging in number from six to 
eleven, to the level of the secundaxils. 

Tegmen as known in T. devonicus highly arched and inflated ; 
height approximately that of the dorsal cup; sharply and deeply depressed 
in the interambulacral areas, giving a strongly lobate appearance; composed 
of a large number of small plates having for the most part a very irregular 
arrangement. Plates crossing the ambulacra roughly aligned. Anal open- 
ing situated high up in the tegmen. Heavy spines borne on the tegmen. 
The base of a spine is raised above the general level of the tegmen, arising 
at the apex of a subcorneal protuberance made up of a number of small 
plates. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 24 1 

Arms long, stout and compactly biserial. They divide by unilateral 
heterotomy, the undivided branches being given off to the inside. Main 
arm trunk short, uniserial and very heavy. Pinnules long, and lie in 
apposition. 

Column large with a fairly large circular axial canal. Nodals annulate, 
but not conspicuously so; in the proximal portion of the column some of 
the internodals slightly annulate. 

Ornamentation. The plates of the theca are, so far as known, smoothly 
rounded with but traces of fine granulation ; or they show delicate granulose 
striae which have a somewhat radial arrangement at the periphery of the 
plates, particularly the interbrachials. The tegmen bears sixteen heavy 
spines. One of these is subcentral and situated just above the anal opening. 
The others are disposed three to the ray ; one at the main bifurcation of the 
ambulacral series; each of the others a short distance from the first, on each 
fork of the ambulacrum. 

Horizon and locality. So far as definitely known, this genus is restricted 
to the Middle Devonian of North America, being found in the Sellersburg 
(Hamilton) of Clark county, Indiana, and the Moscow shales (Hamilton) 
of New York. 

Genotype. Thamnocrinus springeri sp. nov. 

Remarks. It is possible that Actinocrinus prumiensis 

Wirtgen and Zeiler is referable to this genus. The structure of the arms is 

not known in the case of A. prumiensis. The general appearance 

of the dorsal cup and its structure are strikingly similar to the American 

species; however, the tegmen is quite different. In A. prumiensis 

it is low, composed of relatively few and larger plates, and does not bear 

spines. There is a subcentral node and at times a group of nodose plates at 

the apex of the tegmen. The differences in tegmen alone would, it seems, be 

enough to separate the form. Were it considered advisable later to place 

A. prumiensis in the same genus with the American species, a 

question would at one arise as to the validity of Thamnocrinus as 

opposed to Pyxidocrinus Muller. 
16 



242 . NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Wirtgen and Zeiler (1855, p. 82) state in regard to their new species 
Actinocrinus prumiensis: " Diese devonische Art kann auch 
zur Aufstellung einer Gattung noch benutzt werden, fur welche der name 
Pyxidocrinus Miiller schon in Bereitschaft ist." (" This Devonian 
form can also be used for the erection of a genus for which the name 
Pyxidocrinus Miiller is already in readiness. ") Pyxidocrinus 
as here mentioned must be taken as a nomen nudum. On the following 
page Ceramocrinus Miiller is defined as a new genus, and a species 
C. eifelensis W. & Z. described under it. So on page 84, E p a c - 
tocrinus Miiller is defined, and on the following page a new species 
described by Wirtgen and Zeiler. There is obviously no intent here to 
establish the genus Pyxidocrinus, and the casual reference does not 
warrant the taking of A. prumiensis W. & Z. as the genotype of 
Pyxidocrinus. In 1857 Miiller himself, under the discussion of the 
genus Actinocrinus practically repeats the remarks of Wirtgen and 
Zeiler. On page 254 he states: " Es wiirden also Pradocrinus 
und Pyxidocrinus identisch sein." ("Therefore, we consider 
Pradocrinus and Pyxidocrinus identical.") When he men- 
tions the species prumiensis it is always as Actinocrinus 
prumiensis. It seems then that Pyxidocrinus should be rele- 
gated to the limbo of nomina nuda. I can see no reason for following 
Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, p. 519) in recognizing the genus and quot- 
ing it as a synonym of Periechocrinus (in part). It is either a 
valid genus with Actinocrinus prumiensis as genotype, or a 
nomen nudum. 

Thamnocrinus differs from Dorycrinus Wachsmuth 
and Springer: 1897, p. 454) in several respects. The plates of Dory- 
crinus are frequently nodose while they are smooth, granulose, or granu- 
lose striate in Thamnocrinus and the radial series is ornamented with 
a low, broad ridge. In the former the first primibrachs are quadrangular, 
the second usually pentangular, exceptionally hexagonal or heptagonal; in 
the latter the first primibrachs are hexagonal, the second heptagonal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



243 



The number of interbrachials in Dorycrinus is limited, being 
rarely more than three in the dorsal cup, the two upper ones at the level 
of the arm bases. They are more numerous in Thamnocrinus, the 
species springeri having six rows of interbrachials up to the terti- 
brachs and a number of small irregularly arranged ones beyond that point. 
The anus is excentric in Dorycrinus and opens high up in the teg- 
men. Both genera bear spines on the tegmen — -in Dorycrinus the 
posterior oral and frequently the first radial plates above the ambulacra 
bear spines; in Thamnocrinus there are sixteen spines, one sub- 
central and situated just above the anal opening, the others disposed three 
to the ray. 

In Dorycrinus the arms 
are in groups, rather short, two to 
four arms to a ray, and more or less 
spinous ; in Thamnocrinus 
the arms are long and not spinous. 
There are two main arm trunks to 
each ray, short, uniserial and very 
heavy, which divide (four times) 
by unilateral heterotomy, the un- 
divided branches being given off 
to the inside. 

The Column in both is round, Figure 48 Analysis of calyx of Thamnocr: 
-r^. • 1 11 springeri, the genotvpe. 

m Dorycrinus having a small 

pentangular axial canal, in Thamnocrinus a fairly large round one. 




1 n u s 



Thamnocrinus springeri sp. nov. 

Plate 26, figures 8-10; text figure 48 

This handsome species is represented in the collections of the New York 
State Museum by two splendid specimens. One lying on a block of lime- 
stone shows the dorsal cup and the lower portion of the arms. Originally 
there were some 65 mm of column attached, but most of this has been 



244 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

broken away, leaving but a fragment about 45 mm from the theca. From 
the impression in the rock, however, it is possible to gain an approximate 
idea as to the character of the columnals. The other specimen which has 
been freed from the matrix shows the dorsal cup and arms. 

Crown of relatively large size, measuring not less than 6*5 mm in 
height with the arms extended. The two specimens show considerable 
divergence in regard to the relative attitude of the arms and theca. In 
one specimen (plate 26, figures 9, 10) the arms proceed outward and 
somewhat downward until the last bifurcation is reached; here they flex 
abruptly upward. In the other specimen (plate 26, figure 8) the rami, 
so far as preserved, are directed upward with no indication of lateral 
extension in a horizontal direction. It appears that the arms were capable 
of movement at the base to this considerable amount. The two attitudes 
give widely divergent profiles to the crown. 

Dorsal cup. Structure of the dorsal cup alone known in detail; 
subturbinate in outline. The free specimen with arms is somewhat crushed, 
and the other partially buried in limestone, so the figures here given are 
somewhat deceptive as to the true proportions and outline. With a 
height of 17 mm the cup has an approximate breadth of 20 mm. Cross- 
section subpentagonal in outline. Interradii narrow, the greatest width 
coming at the level of the tops of the primaxils; above this level becoming 
narrower. 

Basals fused to three hexagonal and nearly equal elements; slightly 
excavated for the reception of the column. Radials large, an average 
plate giving a height of 5.4 mm and a maximum breadth of 6 mm. 

First primibrachs considerably smaller than the radials, an average 
plate having a height of 3.7 mm and a maximum breadth of 4.7 mm. 
Primaxil slightly smaller than the first primibrach, having a height of 
3.6 mm and a breadth of 4.1 mm; heptagonal, coming in contact with two 
interradials on each side. It bears on its upper sloping face 2x2 secundi- 
brachs of which the second two are axillaries. 

First secundibrachs fairly large, having a height of 2.3 mm; secundaxil 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 245 

2 mm high. Secundibrachs as well as the immediately following tertibrach 
on each side firmly incorporated in the cup. Above this level is a type 
of incorporation apparently peculiar to this species which is described in 
detail under the discussion of the interradii. 

Proximal anal of about the size of the radials; followed in the second 
range by three relatively small plates of which the median is the smallest ; 
higher ranges not known. In the regular interradii, primary interbrachial 
large; followed by two somewhat smaller plates in the second range; in 
the third range either three or four plates; in the fourth three or four; in 
the fifth three; and in the sixth two. Above this level interradial plates 
irregular in number and arrangement; in one ray no clear alignment 
beyond the fourth range. Plates of the second range laterally abut against 
the first primibrach and primaxil, fitting in the angles between the two 
plates of the radial series. Terminal plates of the third range fit between 
the primaxils and first secundibrachs; those of the fourth between the 
first secundibrachs and secundaxils; those of the fifth between the secund- 
axils and first tertibrachs; while, finally, those of the sixth abut against 
the sides of the first tertibrachs. An arbitrary line is drawn between the 
plates of the sixth range and those following. In the specimen in which 
the arms assume a horizontal position the point of flexure lies at the level 
of the first tertibrachs. Above this level also the interbrachials are irregular 
in number and arrangement and apparently form a part of a formerly 
pliant integument. The space between adjacent arms filled by this integu- 
ment lies between the first tertibrach and the last bifurcation of the arms. 
As the main arm trunks of adjacent rays converge until they come in 
contact, or practically so, the area thus filled has the form of an isosceles 
triangle. The width of the triangle at the base is about 5 mm and the 
height 10 mm. Within this area lie a large number of small plates, 
irregular in size and shape. Their number is not less than sixty in one 
space where an approximate computation could be made. These series of 
small plates obviously are continuous with the interbrachial series below. 
Laterally they abut against and fit into the angles between the higher 



246 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

series of brachials. That the integument of which these plates formed 
a part was flexible is clearly shown by the two specimens where there 
is clear evidence of infolding. The ability on the part of the crinoid to 
change the attitude of the arms to such a marked degree in itself indicates 
great flexibility and adaptability on the part of this interbrachial series. 
It is evident that when expanded, that is, in a procumbent position, the 
triangular area between adjacent rays would be of maximum size. When 
the arms assumed a semivertical position the area would become narrower. 
In the specimen with the arms closed the main trunks of adjacent rays when 
undisturbed lie in contact below the quintaxil. In the specimen with 
expanded arms we find the interbrachial integument well stretched with 
a shallow median depression running down to about the level of the tertaxil. 
In the other specimen up to the level of the tertaxil the interbrachials 
form a smooth slightly concave surface. Above this level the arm trunks 
come closely together and the interbrachial integument practically dis- 
appears in a deep infold. In each ray the brachials toward the inner side 
of the ray are incorporated by interaxillaries (intersecundibrachs and 
intertertibrachs) . The first of these plates is large, reaching practically 
to the tops of the secundaxils. It supports two small plates which are 
followed by at least two ranges of irregularly disposed plates. Above the 
first, the interaxillaries seem to connect laterally the rami first given off 
from the main arm trunk. 

Tegmen unknown except for the remarkably heavy spines, described 
later. 

Arms, as noted under the description of the genus, a most character- 
istic and remarkable feature. Each secundaxil bears a free ramus on the 
sloping face toward the inner portion of the ray. On the other face it 
supports a series of four tertibrachs, the fourth being an axillary. To the 
inner side the axillary again gives off a ramus, and on the outer face rests 
a series of three quartibrachs, the last of which is axillary. This again 
gives off a ramus to the inner side and a series of three brachials to the 
outer; the last of these being an axillary gives the final normal division. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 247 

In one case the last ramus given off bifurcates about 12 mm above its 
point of inception. The heterotomous type of arm -branching may clearly 
be seen in plate 26, figure 9, and the interrelations of the ossicles taking 
part in the division in figure 8, plate 26. Rami with smoothly rounding 
backs and sides, compactly biserial and tapering gradually distad. Pinnules 
long and slender and in close lateral contact. 

Column. One of the specimens originally had some 65 mm of column 
attached. Unfortunately all of this has been broken away except about 
20 mm which represent the distal portion of that originally preserved. It 
is possible to make a squeeze of the impression left in the rock, however, 
and gain a fair idea as to the structure of the column. At its point of 
union with the cup it measures (somewhat flattened) 5.5 mm in diameter. 
At about 10 mm from the cup an internodal has a diameter of 3.5 mm, 
while in the most distal portion preserved the diameter is about 3.2 mm. 
Column divided up into nodes and internodes. Nodals not conspicuous, 
being but slightly greater in diameter than the internodals; internodals 
slightly annulate. Length of internodes increases rapidly proceeding distad. 
The first internode that can clearly be distinguished, lying about 3 mm from 
the cup, is about 4 mm in length; the next 5 mm, the next 11 mm and the 
next 16 mm. Length of the succeeding internode not ascertained as no 
nodal appears in the portion preserved. Length of the columnals increases 
considerably proceeding distad. In the fragment of column preserved the 
columnals are slightly arched and smooth. Axial canal fairly large, and 
seems to be circular. 

Ornamentation. Plates of dorsal cup covered with fine granules; in 
places more or less confluent. Toward the periphery of the plate may be 
noted a general alignment of the granules, forming fine parallel lines 
perpendicular to each face and running over on the adjacent plate. 
Traversing the radial series and passing up to the secundaxil is a rounding 
ridge. This ridge on each plate really involves the entire breadth of the 
plate, the slope being gradual in the case of the radials and gradually 
increasing in intensity upward. In the lower part of the cup, therefore, 



248 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the ridge is broad, narrowing distad until at the secundaxil it has the 
contour and size of the main arm trunk above. It is the elevation of the 
plates of the radial series that gives the cup the subpentagonal cross-section. 

The tegmen, as noted above, bears heavy spines; probably sixteen 
in number, three to each ray and one subcentral in location. Spines stout, 
measuring nearly 4 mm in diameter at the base. They taper but slightly, 
a spine probably not over 2 mm or 3 mm from the tip measuring 2 mm 
in diameter. It is difficult to compute the length of the spines, but the 
marginal ones probably run from 15 mm to 20 mm in length. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shales), Cashong 
creek, near Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Thamnocrinus springeri differs in several 
important particulars from T. devonicus. The dorsal cup in 
devonicus is narrower and more bell-shaped. The radials and first 
primibrachs are comparatively longer and narrower. The basals are 
narrower and comparatively smaller. The space between the secundaxils 
of adjacent rays is much wider in devonicus. In springeri 
the interradii become narrower proceeding upward ; in devonicus 
they become broader. In devonicus the remarkable interbrachial 
integument reaching up to the last bifurcation of the arms is absent. In 
this species the incorporation of the brachials scarcely extends above the 
secundaxil; the intersecundibrach alone firmly incorporates the adjacent 
brachials. 

This beautiful species has been named in honor of Dr Frank Springer 
of the United States National Museum. 

Subfamily BATOCRIXIXA.E W. &: S?. 

Genus AOROCRINUS W. & Sp. 1897 

This genus is considered by Bather (1899, p. 922; 1900, p. 167) as 
synonymous with Coelocrinus Meek and Worthen. Coelo- 
c r i n u s antedates Aorocrinus and hence would stand . 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 249 

Springer (191 3, p. 196) separates the two genera. They are very 
similar, but differ in the character of the base. 

Aorocrinus cauliculus (Hall) 

Plate 35, figures 1-3 

1862 Actinocrinus cauliculus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 132 

1868 Actinocrinus cauliculus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 342 

1877 Actinocrinus cauliculus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 66 

1878 Actinocrinus cauliculus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1881 Gennaeocrinus cauliculus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 161 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:335 
1889 Gennaeocrinus cauliculus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. &Pal., p. 247 
1897 ? Syn. Aorocrinus cassedayi Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 
Cam., 2:483 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp Zool., v. 21 

1903 Aorocrinus (?) cauliculus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 64 

1904 Aorocrinus cauliculus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

In the New York State Museum are three specimens listed as cotypes 

of this species. One of these, number -t of the type catalog is, I think, 

2 

a very young Megistocrinus depressus. Of the other two, 

one is a young individual, the specific relationships of which are uncertain 

at best. The other is a badly crushed more mature specimen. Both 

these specimens show the dorsal cup and arms. Another specimen acquired 

by the Museum, subsequent to Hall's original description is here referred 

to the species. This specimen is badly crushed and a portion of the dorsal 

cup broken away. It varies in certain respects from Hall's type, but such 

differences as appear may, I think, be explained as due to growth changes. 

With such poor material it is impossible to give an adequate description of 

the species. There are, however, certain features by which the species 

probably can be recognized in the future when more perfect material is 



25O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

a\ailable. The description of the species is based in the main on the 
larger type specimen which is here chosen as the lectotype. Such differences 
as are to be seen in the largest specimen examined will be noted, and the 
structure of the young individual will be described under the heading 
Ontogeny. 

The species is a small one. A striking feature of the crown is the 
relatively great length of the arms. With a crown measuring about 40 
mm over all, with the arms extended, the dorsal cup has a height of less 
than 5 mm to the base of the free arms. As the species has twenty arms 
the preponderance of the arms over the theca is marked. In the largest 
specimen, the observed length of arms is but slightly greater than that 
just given. However, the arms are strongly incurved in their distal portion, 
and their actual length is, therefore, considerably greater. In this specimen 
the cup has a height of about 7 mm. 

Dorsal cup uncrushed, probably rather narrowly obpyramidal; in cross- 
section pentagonal outline given by the elevated character of the radial 
series. Interradial areas not flattened; without the strong radial ridges 
the cup would be distinctly more rounding. Width of uncrushed cup at 
the base of the free arms would be not far from 8.5 mm, with a height of 
about 4.5 mm. Thecal plates remarkably thin, which accounts for the 
crushing of the dorsal cup. It is the most delicate theca in the genus, 
as far as I know. 

Basals, so far as may be seen, relatively large and projecting well 
beyond the stem in a sharply trilobate rim. Radials large and either 
hexagonal or heptagonal, depending upon their relations to the basals; 
wider than high. First primibrach hexagonal and of about one-half the 
height of the radial. Primaxil a trifle lower than the first primibrach. 
Upon the shoulders of the primaxil are borne 2x2 small secundibrachs, 
the second of which in each case is an axillary. Brachials incorporated at 
least to and including the secundaxils. 

Of the interradial plates nothing can be determined other than that 
the proximal interbrachial is of fairly large size; followed by two plates 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 25 I 

in the second range, above which level the plates are tegminal. In the 
posterior interradius anal undoubtedly followed by three plates in the 
second range. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms four to a ray. It is in the arms that the greatest differences 
are to be noted between the lectotype and what is here considered the 
mature specimen. In the smaller specimen arms long and relatively slender; 
broad and almost flat with a barely perceptible rounding; sides flat. Arms 
become biserial within five or six ossicles of the secundaxils ; biserial ossicles 
rather wide for the genus. In their distal portions the arms curve inward 
and their backs become broader, tending toward spatulation. In the 
larger specimen arms proportionally somewhat heavier than in the other 
individual; fairly narrow at the base, the increase in breadth taking place 
rapidly; in their distal portions strongly incurved, and distinctly spatulate. 
At a distance of about 20 mm above the cup, pairs of spinous processes 
are borne by the arms at intervals of about 4 mm. Spines sharp, slender, 
with a maximum length of about 2 mm. Pinnules very long and slender, 
as in the smaller specimen. 

Column not known. 

Ornamentation of the species seems to be very simple. Along the 
radial series runs a carina which culminates at the center of each plate 
in a laterally flattened node. Above the primaxil each of the fixed brachials 
marked by a similar but less conspicuous node. Surface of all plates of 
the cup marked by irregularly dispersed granules. On the arms are similar 
granules and irregular wavy lines apparently formed by the coalescence 
of numerous granules; lines roughly parallel and running parallel to the 
long axis of the arm; as a rule confined to the dorsal surface. 

Ontogeny. The small specimen constituting one of the types of A . 
cauliculus may well belong to the same species as the lectotype. Both 
specimens come from the same locality, and there is enough resemblance 
between the two to warrant placing the younger specimen in the species. 
The preservation of the older individual is so poor that detailed comparisons 



252 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

are out of the question. In the young individual brachials apparently 
incorporated only to and including the primaxil; secundibrachs relatively 
much larger, being approximately the size of the corresponding primibrachs. 
It is interesting to note that the sutures between the radial and the first 
primibrach, and the first primibrach and primaxil, have the same crenulate 
character shown by the free brachials. Pinnules relatively much stouter, 
as are the arms. Proximal brachials of the arms long and quadrangular; 
above, arms biserial. In the cup interradial spaces probably more depressed, 
the radial series standing out very prominently and giving a distinctly 
pentalobate cross-section. There is a hint of low radiating ridges con- 
necting the radials and the plates of the interradii. Surface of the plates 
irregularly granulose with some fusion of the granules. 

The differences to be noted between the lectotype and the large specimen 
referred to this species may well be due to ontogenetic changes. As noted 
above, the chief differences lie in the character of the arms. The arms of 
the larger specimen differ in being relatively stouter, spatulate, and spinif- 
erous. All these characters are such as might well be acquired with age, 
and indeed are just the characters one would expect to develop. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shale. Types 
from Vincent, Ontario county; the third specimen from Canandaigua 
lake, N. Y. 

Types. Lectotype and cotype in the New York State Museum, 

numbers and ; third specimen in the same collection. 

1 3 

Remarks. As noted above there are three specimens in the New York 
State Museum which are listed as cotypes of Aorocrinus cauli- 

cuius. Number i I consider the young of a Megistocrinus, 

2 

probably M. depressus. This specimen bears a manuscript label, 

apparently in Whitfield's writing, of "Actinocrinus cauliculus." 

It was, therefore, probably part of the originally described material. 

Aorocrinus cauliculus may be distinguished from the other 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 253 

known species of the genus by the marked preponderance of the arms over 

the theca, the simple ornamentation, the fragility of the cup, due to the 

thinness of the plates, and the shape of the cup. I believe it to be a good 

species. 

Aorocrinus praecursor (Hall) 

Plate 35, figure 4 

1862 Actinocrinus praecursor Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. 

Nat Hist., p. 131 
1868 Actinocrinus praecursor Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:347 
1878 Actinocrinus praecursor Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 
1889 Dorycrinus praecursor S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 241 

1903 Aorocrinus (?) praecursor Clarke &>Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 64 

1904 Aorocrinus praecursor Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

The species described by Hall as Actinocrinus praecursor 
falls within the genus Aorocrinus. The species is represented by 
a single specimen, the holotype, which has the dorsal cup and a portion of 
the arms well preserved. It lies on a slab of rock with the dorsal cup up 
and the arms passing down into the rock. The surface of the cup, either 
as the result of cleaning or weathering, has been considerably damaged. 

Species of medium size and with remarkably stout arms for the size 
of the cup. Unfortunately, the greater portion of the arms lies buried 
and it is impossible to gain an idea as to the relative proportions of the 
crown. 

Dorsal cup low, having a height to the primaxil of only about 5 mm. 
At the same level the cup has a diameter of about 13 mm measuring from 
the top of the primaxil of the anterior radius to the posterior interradius. 
Basal portion of the cup up to about the center of the radials flattened. 
Above this level the sides of the cup diverge widely, with the suggestion 
of a rounding contour. Basals relatively inconspicuous and probably 
extended but little beyond the stem. Radials large, one of them having 



254 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

a height of 3.4 mm and a maximum breadth of 3.8 mm; either hexagonal 
or heptagonal, depending on their attitude with respect to the basals. 

First primibrachs quadrangular, one of them having a height of 1 .4 mm 
and a width of about 3 mm. Primaxils low and pentagonal. They vary- 
in size but the average height seems to be only about 1.3 mm. On one 
side the primaxil bears two secundibrachs, the second of which is axillary; 
on the other side an undivided ramus is given off. Abnormally, apparently, 
but two free rami are borne by the right anterolateral ray. 

Anal plate narrower but of about the same height as the radials ; three 
relatively large plates in the second range. Plates of the third range can 
not be distinguished. Primary interbrachial large, reaching at least to the 
top of the first primibrach ; apparently followed by two plates in the second 
range, but the structure can not be made out with certainty. 

Tegmen buried; impossible to determine its structure. 

Arms. Free rami, as noted above, three to a ray, except in the right 
anterolateral ray where there are only two; probably a sporadic variation, 
the normal number being three. If two is the normal number, the other 
anterolateral ray is the variant, and should have but two rami. Rami 
remarkably stout. A short distance above the primaxil they begin to curve 
upward. Change in direction gradual; rami do not assume their final 
vertical direction until about 10 mm from the primaxil. Arms of this 
species probably more spreading than in any other known species of the 
genus ; so far as observed with rounding backs and sides ; compactly biserial 
a short distance above the last bifurcation. Pinnules unknown. 

Column not preserved. 

Ornamentation. Owing to the fractured condition of the plates, and 
their poor preservation, it is impossible to give an accurate idea as to the 
ornamentation of the dorsal cup. The plates are roughly nodose, and there 
seems to be a complete lack of radiating series of ridges. Over the surface 
of the plates of the cup, and extending up on the arms, is a coarse ver- 
micular marking apparently not unlike that found in A . a r m a t u s to 
which this species seems nearly related. The back of each biserial arm 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 255 

ossicle is pinched up in an irregular ridge which culminates in an irregular 
node near the point of contact with the opposed ossicles. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Moscow shales (Hamilton 
group) on the shore of Canandaigua lake, probably near Tichenor's point, 
south of Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Type. Holotype and only known specimen in the New York State 

Museum, number ± — -. 

1 

Aorocrinus armatus sp. nov. 

Plate 35, figures 11-12 

This beautiful little species is represented by the greater portion of 
a crown and some 50 mm of stem. Unfortunately the side of the crown 
lying uppermost on the rock surface has been badly weathered and practically 
all structure obliterated so far as the dorsal cup is concerned. The specimen 
as here figured shows the stem in its normal position, while the crown has 
been freed from the matrix and turned over. As a result of the weathering 
some of the structural characters can not be made out with certainty. 

Species a small one, the crown having a height over all of but 26 mm. 
This measurement does not take in the entire length of the arms, the tips 
of which are deeply incurved. Of the height as given the. dorsal cup con- 
stitutes not more than 4 mm. 

Dorsal cup the only part of the calyx known. It possesses characters 
which sharply distinguish the species from all other known members of the 
genus. Cup remarkably low and broad; height 4 mm and breadth 11 mm. 
Base of the cup nearly flat. Above the flattened area to the level of the 
primaxil the sides of the cup diverge rapidly. Above this level the superior 
brachials abruptly change direction, standing out at practically right 
angles to the longitudinal axis of the cup. This gives the cup a general 
aspect quite at variance with that shown by any other species of the genus. 
Next to this character the most notable features of the cup are the very 
large size of the radials and the insignificance of the interradii. 

Basals small and inconspicuous extending slightly beyond the column 



256 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

in a low trilobate rim. Radials, as noted above, proportionally large; in 
one case height of 2.7 mm, maximum breadth of 3.8 mm. Line of contact 
of two adjacent radials 2.4 mm in length. With a breadth of 2.5 mm 
at the base the sides of the radial diverge at a low angle to the level at 
which the plate attains its greatest breadth. From here the sides of the 
plate converge sharply, the line of contact of the first primibrach being 
but 2.2 mm in length. 

First primibrach quadrangular, having a maximum breadth of about 
2.6 mm and a height of about 1 mm. Primaxil apparently with about 
the same breadth as the first primibrach. and a maximum height of 1.3 mm. 

Higher ranges of brachials fairly well shown in the anterior radius. 
In this ray two secundibrachs are borne on each face of the primaxil, 
the second plate being an axillary in each instance, thus giving four arms 
to the ray. Secundibrachs somewhat smaller than the primibrachs. In 
the right and left anterolateral rays only three free arms. It is impossible 
definitely to state the degree of incorporation of the higher order of brachials. 
It seems certain that the secundaxils at least form a part of the cup, and 
it may be that one or two brachials of the higher series are more or less 
loosely incorporated. This is suggested by the way in which the arms 
in the anterior ray bend abruptly upward at about the level of the second 
tertibrachs. 

Anal plate somewhat smaller than the radials and followed by three 
plates in the second range; impossible to determine the character of the 
posterior interradius above these plates. 

Interradii inconspicuous; only part of the primary interbrachial seen 
in each interradius. The outward inclination of the secundibrachs brings 
the base of the free arms only slightly above the level of the base of the 
primary interbrachial, and the remainder of the interradius is concealed 
when the arms are preserved as in the present case. So far as ma}* be 
seen, the primary interbrachial is relatively large and must practically 
fill the entire interradius in the dorsal cup. In one interradius where 
the arms have been broken away it seems to reach a level well up on the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 257 

primaxil, almost at the top of the plate. Apparently two plates in the 
second range in this interradius; of fairly large size and probably serve 
to incorporate the adjacent secundibrachs. Structure of the interradius 
can not be made out with certainty as the plates are weathered and some- 
what fractured. 

Tegmen. Structure unknown. 

Arms. According to the evidence of the rays as preserved the species 
has eighteen free arms; of these three lie in the right and left anterolateral 
rays, respectively, while the other rays have four each. Arms at first 
have the horizontal position given by the higher orders of brachials, 
but about the second tertibrach they bend abruptly upward. Arms stout 
and strongly incurved in their distal portions; compactly biserial, with 
a well-defined furrow down the median line where the two series imbricate ; 
in their proximal portions with rounding backs and sides. Proceeding 
distad the arms tend to flatten out. At the point where the arm curves 
inward the flattening is quite marked, while farther on a spatulate character 
seems to be assumed. Beginning at from 8 to 10 mm above the point 
where the arms bend upward a pair of unusually heavy spines is borne. 
These paired spines are repeated at intervals of about 5 mm proceeding 
distad. They are lateral prolongations of arm ossicles, and attain an 
average length of about 3 mm. Pinnules known only from dissociated 
ossicles; relatively slender judging by these. 

Column preserved to a length of some 50 mm. The most striking 
feature of the column is the strongly marked nodals which in the proximal 
portion of the stem have a diameter of 3 mm. Proceeding distad the 
nodals gradually increase in diameter reaching a maximum of 3.4 mm in 
the portion of the column preserved. Next the crown two nodals are sepa- 
rated by a single columnal; proceeding distad the usual course of columnal 
intercalation may be observed. In the last unit shown one nodal of the 
second order, two of the third, and four columnals of the fourth order are 
to be found between a pair of primary nodals. Nodals relatively thin and 

with smoothly rounded edges. There is a marked disparity in diameter 

17 



258 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

between the nodals and the columnals of the internodes. For instance, a 
nodal with a diameter of 3 mm has an internodal of but 2.3 mm in diameter 
lying adjacent. Sutures between the columnals finely crenulate. Axial 
canal small and round. 

Ornamentation. Radials, which are notable for their large size, made 
more prominent by being strongly nodose; whole plate highly elevated; 
slight indentations at the corners of the plates. The high elevation attained 
by the radial is continued in one ray across the first primibrach in a broad 
smoothly rounded ridge. In the other rays examined a furrow separates 
the first primibrach from the radial. Similar furrows separate the brachials 
so far as incorporated. The center of the primary interbrachial rises in 
a peak from which sharply defined ridges run perpendicular to the faces of 
the plate. Surface of all the plates of the theca as well as the arm ossicles 
coarsely pustulose; pustules either separate or coalesced, forming an irregular 
vermicular ornamentation. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Moscow shales (Hamilton 
group), Cashong creek near Bellona, New York. 

Type. Holotype and only known specimen in the collection of Doctor 
Springer, now deposited in the United States National Museum. 

Remarks. Although small for the genus, this is, I believe, an adult 
individual. There are no signs of immaturity, while the length of the 
spines on the arms and the ornamentation of the cup seem to be adult 
characters. The nodosity of the radials is not due to a simple central 
node, or a general elevation of the plate, but rather to a fusion of radiating 
ridges with the intervening spaces filled by a secondary deposit of stereom. 
This seems to be indicated by the notches or indentations at the angles 
of the plates. 

The short, stout, sharply infolded arms with their long spines are 
characteristic of the species. Even more striking is the depressed dorsal 
cup with its large radials. unimportant interradii, and horizontally expanding 
brachials. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 259 

Aorocrinus formosus sp. nov. 

Plate 35, figures 5-9 

This species is represented by two well-preserved specimens showing 
the theca and arms. The larger and more perfect crinoid has been broken 
but fortunately the break enhances rather than impairs the value of the 
specimen as it permits the theca to be separated from the arms and adherent 
shale matrix, thereby exposing the tegmen. The description is based on 
the larger specimen which is taken as the holotype. The smaller individual 
adds little to our knowledge of the species, and is of interest chiefly in show- 
ing the more youthful character of the form. A discussion of this specimen 
will be found under the heading Ontogeny. 

Theca. Dorsal cup broadly turbinate with its greatest diameter con- 
siderably in excess of its height. Tegmen low with sharply depressed 
areas in the interambulacra. The theca is slightly crushed but, making 
allowance for this, it gives the following measurements: total height, 
about 1 6 mm ; height of cup to base of free arms about 1 1 mm ; diameter 
of cup at base of free arms about 16 mm. Interradii in this species 
relatively narrower, even in the case of the posterior. A notable feature 
is the decided narrowing and closing in of the areas at the arm bases. 
Posterior interradius gives a measurement of n.6 mm from point to point 
of adjacent primaxils, and a breadth between the last incorporated brachials 
of 4.3 mm. Corresponding measurements of an ordinary interradius (rt. 
post, interradius) follow: breadth at primaxil 9 mm; breadth at second 
tertibrach 2.2 mm. 

Dorsal cup. Basals fused to three elements which are large and pro- 
ject beyond the stem, forming a thick tripartite base. Radials hexagonal 
or heptagonal in shape, depending upon their relation to the basals; of 
medium size and with a width greater than their height. First primi- 
brach considerably lower and narrower than the radial, and with but a 
single exception hexagonal in outline; odd plate pentagonal. Primaxils 
pentagonal as a rule ; slightly lower and considerably narrower than the first 



260 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

primibrachs ; supporting 2 x 10 secundibrachs, each of which supports 
in turn two series of tertibrachs, thus giving four arms to the ray. 
Brachials become progressively smaller distad; incorporated in the cup at 
least to and including the second tertibrach. 

Anal plate slightly smaller than the adjacent radials and heptagonal 
in outline. Above it supports three subequal plates, the central one of 
which is considerably narrower than the flanking plates. In the third 
range five plates; in the fourth apparently only four; and in the fifth 
three plates, above which the plates are poorly shown and are perhaps 
better classed as pertaining to the tegmen. Above the second range 
plates small and in the main irregular as to shape. Central median line 
of anal plates clearly differentiated from the other plates in the area ; uni- 
formly hexagonal in outline, higher than broad, and decreasing progressively 
in size upward. 

In the other interradii primary interbrachial somewhat smaller than 
the anal; followed by two smaller plates in the second range; in the third 
range three plates, which together have a width slightly less than that of 
the combined plates of the second range. The three plates of the fourth 
range very small ; followed by two plates in the next range, which may be 
referred either to the cup or tegmen. At this level fixed tertibrachs sepa- 
rated by a space of not more than 2 mm. 

Intersecundibrachs in each ray one, very small. 

Tegmen very well shown; no essential features which cannot be readily 
seen in spite of a slight amount of crushing. As noted elsewhere, inter- 
ambulacral areas sharply depressed, giving the vault a decidedly lobate 
appearance. Tegmen composed of a large number of small, sharply nodose 
plates, which must have formed a somewhat pliant structure judging by 
the way it has folded and bulged as a result of slight crushing of the speci- 
men. Anal opening small and situated at the summit of a protuberance 
made up of numerous small plates; faces laterally. 

Arms. The incorporation of the brachials up to and including the 
second tertibrachs results in the giving off of four free arms from the theca 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 26 1 

in each radius. Arms moderately stout and closely biserial ; not preserved 
to their full length, but probably relatively short. Dorsal surfaces rounded; 
sides practically flat and vertical. In the more distal portion of the arms, so 
far as preserved, a slight flattening is to be observed indicating that near 
the tips the arms are spatulate, or approach that form. Pinnules long and 
slender; ossicles long and, so far as observed, nonspiniferous. Beginning 
at about 1 8 to 20 mm from the incorporated brachials, pairs of spines are 
borne by the arms. They are laterally produced brachials and attain a 
length in some cases of not less than 2 mm. Pairs of spines continue as 
far distad as the arms are preserved, being spaced at intervals of approxi- 
mately 5 mm. 

Column unknown; fairly small, however, having a diameter at its 
junction with the theca of but 3 mm. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup strongly nodose; radiating 
ridges connecting the nodes poorly developed. As noted above basals 
produced into three petaloid lobes which project for some distance beyond 
the stem; a strong central node on each radial. The tendency seems to be 
to connect these nodes laterally by means of ridges. Ridges low and incon- 
spicuous where present; in places represented merely by subsidiary nodes. 
Running up along the radial series is an equally variable ridge. In one ray 
it is continuous with no nodes rising above the general level; in another ray 
practically obsolete. Other rays present gradations between these two 
extremes. Ridges better developed among the fixed brachials above the 
primaxil ; interradial plates marked by simple sharp nodes, with no evidence 
of radiating ridges except in the posterior interradius. Here from the 
primary anal diverges a series of low ridges, one running perpendicular to 
each face and passing to the center of the apposed plate. This system of 
inconspicuous radiating ridges continues toward the upper portion of the 
posterior interradius, progressively becoming more obscure. Each of the 
tegminal plates produced into a sharp node; at the points of division and 
subdivision of an ambulacral ridge nodes larger and more prominent than 
the average on the tegmen. At the center and apex of the vault is a spine 



262 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

or large node. Unfortunately in this specimen the process is broken off 
near the base, so it is impossible to give an idea as to its height. 

Ontogeny. The younger specimen mentioned above does not differ 
widely from the adult. Dorsal cup proportionally somewhat lower and 
the outline more bowl-shaped. Interradial areas proportionally broader, 
and the spaces between the bases of the free arms proportionally wider. 
The most striking difference in the cup is to be found in the ornamentation. 
In the younger specimen there is a well-defined series of radiating ridges 
in the interradii; in the older crinoid these ridges are much less prominent, 
and in places have become obsolete. The ridge connecting the centers of 
the radials and anal is a sort of casual affair in the older specimen, while 
in the other it is a strongly marked character. The same may also be said 
in regard to the ridges running from the centers of the radials and anal to 
the basals. In the small specimen the radial and incorporated brachials 
of each ray are traversed by a practically unbroken ridge. In the adult, 
one ray is like this; in the others, however, each plate is nodose, and the 
connecting ridge is largely lost sight of. In the arms of the young individual 
the spines which are not strongly developed in the adult show as slight 
excrescences. They would not be noticed if not specially looked for. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, Cashong 
creek, near Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype and paratype in the New York State Museum. 

Aorocrinus longidactylus sp. nov. 

Plate 35, figure 10 

This species is represented by one well-preserved specimen that shows 
the dorsal cup, a portion of the tegmen, and portions of the arms. Two 
of the arms are preserved almost to their distal extremities. It is a large 
species, the crown measuring more than 70 mm in height. Of this height 
the arms contribute in the neighborhood of 60 mm. 

Theca. Dorsal cup broadly turbinate. Tegmen low, smoothly arch- 
ing, with well-marked interambulacral depressions. Height of the cup to 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 263 

the base of the free arms only n mm; average breadth nearly 20 mm. 
Interradial areas wide, as might be expected with a dorsal cup so low and 
broad; wide space between the arm clusters of adjacent rays particularly 
notable. Posterior interradius with a breadth of 13.5 mm from primaxil 
(center) to primaxil, and a breadth of 6.5 mm at the base of the free arms. 
An ordinary interradius gives 10.5 mm and 6 mm for the same measurements 
respectively. 

Dorsal cup. Basals fused to three elements and apparently projected 
beyond the stem in a pronounced tripartite rim; lobes broken off in this 
specimen. 

Radials large and averaging somewhat wider than high; hexagonal 
or heptagonal, depending on their relation to the basals. 

First primibrachs hexagonal, relatively low and broad; as a rule, con- 
siderably narrower than the radials. Primaxil pentagonal; as a rule lower 
than the first primibrach and appreciably narrower. On each of its sloping 
surfaces it bears two secundibrachs, the second of which is axillary. 

From the preservation of the specimen it is somewhat difficult to 
judge the degree of fixation of the higher ranks of brachials. One can be 
certain only of the incorporation of the secundibrachs. It is possible that 
there is a certain amount of fixation in the case of the first tertibrachs, 
but if so it is but a casual occurrence and of no special significance. 

Anal plate heptagonal, only slightly smaller than the adjacent radials; 
followed by three plates in the second range, five in the third, and five or 
six in the fourth. Above this level the plates can not be distinguished clearly 
and may well be considered as belonging to the tegmen. 

In the other interradii primary interbrachial followed by two plates 
in the second range, three or four in the third. Above this the plates are 
tegminal. Intersecundibrachs to each ray one, small. 

Tegmen, so far as observed, composed of numerous small, irregular, 
smooth plates. 

Arms. Free arms four to each ray. At the base the ramus is relatively 
slender; proceeding distad it widens until it becomes comparatively stout, 



264 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

and having reached its maximum thickness at about one-half the length 
of the arms, it gradually becomes smaller again. Although one of the arms 
is preserved for a length of 55 mm it is still fairly thick, indicating that the 
break is still some distance from the tip. No evidence of flattening near 
the distal portion of the arms as is commonly observed in other species of 
the genus. Throughout the length as seen, arms with flat, vertical sides 
and low rounded backs; beginning about 5 mm above the secundaxil com- 
pactly biserial. No spinous processes borne by the arms. Pinnules long 
and slender, composed of long ossicles. Arms of this species remarkable 
for the genus in their length and apparent lack of spatulation. 

Column unknown; judging from the cicatrix somewhat small for the 
crown, the cicatrix having a diameter of only a trifle over 3 mm. 

Ornamentation of this species very simple, consisting chiefly of nodes. 
Each of the plates in the dorsal cup is produced into a node, those of the 
radial series being particularly high and prominent. Nodes rise sharply 
from the center of the plates; particularly marked in the case of the plates 
of the radial series, where the portion of the plate surrounding the node 
rises slightly from the margin toward the base of the node. Cross-section 
of the node on a radial oval in outline, with the long axis coinciding with the 
line of the radial series. Node on the primaxil of approximately the same 
shape as that on the radial, but with the long axis at right angles to the 
vertical; node on the first primibrach round in cross-section. Strongly 
produced nodes on the secundibrachs. Higher up first tertibrachs alone 
show any evidence of nodosity, and in their case it is merely a slightly 
more pronounced convexity than is shown by succeeding brachials. Plates 
of the tegmen smooth, so far as observed. Entire surface of dorsal cup 
papillose. This ornamentation is much coarser than ordinary, and may 
even be seen with the naked eye. In places papillae coalesce and form 
irregular, subvermicular markings. On the arms papillae much smaller 
and more scattered. In places, particularly on the upper third of the arms, 
there are crenulations or crinklings along and perpendicular to the apposed 
margins of the ossicles. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 265 

Horizon and locality. From the top of the Moscow shales (Hamilton 
group) near Cascade Mills, three miles west of Dundee, N. Y. 

Type. Holotype and only known specimen in the collection of Doctor 
Springer, now deposited in the United States National Museum. 

Remarks. The species to which A. longidactylus bears the 
closest resemblance is A. formosus from the Hamilton, Cashong 
creek, Bellona, N. Y. It is a larger form than A. formosus with 
longer arms which are not flattened and lack spines. The plates of the dorsal 
cup show no radiating ridges. 

Family platychinidae Roemer 

Genus CYTTAROCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. xuTtapoq a hollow cavity, a cup; xpivov, lily] 

This genus is established to include certain small Devonian crinoids 
of the family Platycrinidae. It is based primarily on Platycrinus 
eriensis Hall, inasmuch as the holotype of that species is in a splendid 
state of preservation, and clearly shows the characters differentiating the 
genus from other members of the family. A new species, based upon the 
specimen erroneously used by Hall (1872) to illustrate his previously 
described species Platycrinus eboraceus, is doubtfully referred 
to the new genus, although the confirmatory evidence of arm structure is 
wanting. 

Dorsal cup. Basals fused to three elements, the simple basal lying in 
the left anterolateral interradius. Stem cicatrix as observed in C . (?) 
jewetti sp. nov. peculiar and distinctive; circular with coarsely crenu- 
late periphery. Inasmuch as the cicatrix is obscured in the case of C. 
eriensis it is impossible to determine whether it has a crenate margin 
or not. 

Radials spade-shaped, longer than wide, and notched in the interradii 
for the reception of a single interradial tegminal plate. This plate does not 
abut against the proximal brachials. Posterior interradius more deeply 
notched than the others. 



266 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen unknown. From such evidence as we have it seems probable 
that the interradial tegminal plates form a considerable portion, of the vault, 
agreeing well with the more primitive genera of the Platycrinidae 
where the five orals play a role of great importance. It is probable however 
that the tegmen is not rigid or very strong, as shown by its destruction in 
the case ofC.eriensis. In this specimen, although preserved in 
soft shale under the most favorable conditions, the tegmen is missing. 
Lack of stability in the tegmen points, I think, to the presence of a number 
of small interambulacrals. 

Arms. Primibrachs two; the first relatively large and quadrangular; 
the second pentangular, supporting two rami neither of which bifurcates. 
Arms relatively short, stout, uniserial and composed of long stout ossicles 
which bear pinnules on alternate sides. Apposed surfaces of brachials with 
sharply crenate margins reminding one of the structure noted in the case 
of the stem cicatrix of C. (?) jewetti sp. nov. Pinnules stout, 
composed of remarkably long ossicles. From the radial up the arm is 
entirely free from the theca, there being no beveling or other evidence on 
the sides of the brachials of lateral union with tegminal plates. 

Column unknown. Cicatrix on basals round; but it is also round in 
species of Platycrinus with elliptic columnals in the greater portion 
of the stem. The entire absence of oval columnals in the Hamilton, 
or elsewhere in the Devonian, argues strongly for the possession of cir- 
cular columns by members of the Platycrinidae antedating the 
Mississippian. 

Horizon and locality. Only known as yet from the Middle Devonian 
(Hamilton) of New York. It is possible that the genus may be represented 
in the Mississippian by Platycrinus truncatulus Hall. 

Genotype. "Platycrinus" eriensis Hall. 

Remarks. The peculiar and diagnostic characters of Cyttaro- 
c r i n u s so far as known are those shown by the arms. Cyttaor- 
c r i n u s differs from all known Platycrini except P . trun- 
catulus Hall in normally possessing two primibrachs. Wachsmuth 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 267 

and Springer (1897, v. 2, p. 676) state that if they were sure the charactre 
of the stem and relation of interradial tegminal plates to radials in 
e r i e n s i s agreed with P. truncatulus, they would propose a new 
genus for the reception of the two species. As a matter of fact C . 
e r i e n s i s apparently has a circular column, and has but one tegminal 
plate in contact with the radials in any given interradius, agreeing perfectly 
with P. truncatulus in these particulars. Although agreeing in these 
characters I should not go so far as to make e r i e n s i s and trunca- 
tulus congeneric. P. truncatulus probably is not a true 
Platycrinus, but until the arm structure is known I should be equally 
hesitant in referring it to Cyttarocrinus, a genus that precedes it 
by such a considerable period of time. It probably will be found that the 
arms of P. truncatulus are biserial. 

Cyttarocrinus in the possession of uniserial arms with but a 
single bifurcation is in a sense more primitive than the earlier forms, as 
Cylicocrinus and Hapalocrinus. At the same time the arms 
with their curiously modified brachials show a degree of differentiation and 
specialization that is quite comparable with these types. There is but one 
genus with which Cyttarocrinus may prove to have close affinities. 
That is Coccocrinus. Unfortunately, the arms of the latter genus 
are unknown except in the most proximal part, and anything but a general 
comparison is impossible. It is probable that the tegmen of Cocco- 
crinus differs widely from that of Cyttarocrinus. In the former 
genus the vault is rigid and firmly bound together, while in the latter, as 
argued above, the tegmen is probably much less strong, and has a different 
type of structure. 

Cyttarocrinus (?) jewetti sp. nov. has been placed in this 
genus provisionally, largely for want of a better place for its reception. It 
has, however, a certain unity of structure with C. eriensis, and it 
may well prove that the two species are congeneric when better material 
is available for study. 

Cyttarocrinus with its curiously specialized arms, may, like 



268 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Cordylocrinus, be considered a divergent off-shoot from the main 
platycrinoid stock. The two primibrachs found regularly in C . 
eriensis and Platycrinus (?) truncatulus occur as a 
sporadic character in one or more rays of various species of Platy- 
crinus. InCyttarocrinus and P. (?) truncatulus the 
two primibrachs probably indicate the retention of a primitive character, 
while in the case of the sporadic occurrences a partial reversion to type is 

probably indicated. 

Cyttarocrinus eriensis (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 36, figures 1,2: text figure 49 

1862 Platycrinus eriensis Hall. 15th Ann. 
Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 119, 

pi. 1, fig- 1 
1868 Platycrinus eriensis Shumard. Trans. 

Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:388 
1877 Platycrinus eriensis S.A.Miller. Amer. 
Pal. Foss., p. 87 

Figure 49 Analysis of calyx of l8 78 Hexacrinus eriensis Bigsby. Thesaurus 
Cyttarocrinus eriensis, Dev.-Carb., p. 18 

e geno ype. ^^ Platycrinus (Cordylocrinus?) eri- 

ensis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, p. 71 (authors' ed.); 
Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:245 
Platycrinus eriensis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 2 70 
Platycrinus eriensis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 

Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., v. 6, nos. 2, 
26 (after Hall) 




1889 
1897 

1899 



1900 



2:676 (authors' ed.); 
Platycrinus eriensis Grabau. 

3, 4, p. 144, text fig. 
Platycrinus eriensis Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.,. 

v. ii, pt. 3, p. 198 



The type and only known specimen of the species though imperfect 
is in a remarkably fine state of preservation, so far as it goes. The specimen 
apparently lay on the surface of a piece of limestone, and in freeing the 
crinoid that portion of the crown embedded in the rock was lost. Half of 
the basal cup, two whole radials, the greater part of a third, and a small 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 269 

portion of a fourth are shown. The remainder of the cup and the tips of 
the arms have been broken off. Portions of the arms are shown in all 
five rays being especially well preserved in three of them. 

Species a small one, judging from the type which appears to be an 
adult individual. Crown when complete probably measured little more 
than 10 mm in height. 

Dorsal cup somewhat narrowly bowl-shaped; height to the radial 
facets 3 mm, breadth at the base of the arms 3.5 mm. The cup is asym- 
metrical in that the posterior interradius is appreciably swollen. This inter- 
radius is considerably wider than any of the others. Basals forming a low 
broadly expanding cup with a height of about one-third that of the dorsal cup ; 
probably fused to three elements. Only one of the sutures may be seen which 
apparently marks one side of a large segment. The suture limiting the seg- 
ment on the other side perhaps is coincident with the line of fracture which 
divides the dorsal cup. Along the suture shown is a low rounded ridge. 

Radials spade-shaped, little difference in the width of the plate at the 
top and bottom except in the case of the right and left posterior radials. 
What is here considered the left anterolateral radial has a height of 2.6 
mm to the facet; width at the top 2.5 mm, at the bottom 2.2 mm; radial 
facet in this plate with a breadth of approximately 1.5 mm and centrally 
located. Left posterior radial with a height to the facet of 2.8 mm; breadth 
at the top 3.3 mm, at the base 2.3 mm; radial facet of approximately the 
same breadth as in the other plates. • Here, however, it is excentric in 
location, lying considerably nearer the left margin of the plate. The facet 
of the right posterior radial lies toward the right margin of the radial. 
The result is to give the included interradius nearly twice the width of the 
others. On this account it is assumed that this represents the posterior 
interradius, a supposition that is strengthened by the relative degree of 
notching of the radials for the reception of the interradial tegminal plates. 
Interradii, with the exception of the posterior, slightly notched for the 
reception of the interradial tegminal plates; posterior interradius more 
deeply and widely incised. Radials smoothly rounded, the right and left 



27O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

posterior radials being more highly arched in the posterior interradius, 
giving the cup an asymmetrical outline as noted above. The radial facet 
projects in a narrow rim and slopes but slightly from the horizontal; 
articulating surface nearly on the level with the upper surface of the plate. 

Tegmen. Structure unknown. Judging from the size of the tegmen, 
however, and the interradial notches, it would appear that a considerable 
portion of the tegmen is made up of five large oral plates. 

A rms. Tips of the arms wanting but the remaining portions in a splendid 
state of preservation; relatively short and stout, uniserial and bifurcating 
only once. Primibrachs two; the first rectangular with a height but slightly 
in excess of one-half its breadth. Brachials stand out sharply from the 
radials. Primaxil wider and higher than the first primibrach, although 
owing to a curious wrinkling of its surface it appears much lower on casual 
inspection. This wrinkling, or constriction of the plate, on either side 
makes the ossicle appear to consist of a low axillary to which on each upper 
sloping face is fused a low secundibrach. Secundibrachs remarkable and, 
so far as I know, unique in aspect among crinoid arms. Ossicles long and 
roughly hour-glass shaped on the back although the outline of the entire 
brachial is approximately rectangular. A very good idea of the secundi- 
brachs may be had from an examination of plate 36, figure 2, which shows 
several ossicles enlarged fifteen times. This figure gives a better idea of 
the character of the ossicles than any description. The attachment of the 
pinnule is peculiar. It will be noted that the portion of the brachial sup- 
porting the pinnule is considerably produced upward and outward. The 
round ridge which is continuous and of equal width with the pinnule is 
actually separated at the top from the main body of the brachial by a 
sharply incised notch. First pinnules borne by the second secundibrachs; 
given off at the outer side of the arms; stout with rounded backs, and com- 
posed of ossicles of remarkable length. Articulating faces of the brachials 
marked on the margin by a coarse crenulation. 

Column not preserved. As noted in the description of the genus, it 
is inferred that the column of this genus is round. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 27 1 

Ornamentation. The surface of the plates of the dorsal cup under a 
lens of low power appears to be covered with an exceedingly fine ornamenta- 
tion. Under a higher power lens the nature of this ornamentation may 
clearly be seen. The surface is thickly covered with papillae of minute 
size, these becoming confluent in a surface covered with innumerable pits 
of polygonal or nearly round outline. Seen at certain angles the plates 
appear pitted, at others finely granulated. This type of ornamentation is 
to be found on brachials and pinnules as well, though in the latter case the 
pitting is somewhat less obvious and the granules tend to align themselves 
in irregular rows. 

Horizon and locality given by Hall as Hamilton group, near Hamburg, 
Erie county, N. Y. Judging from the preservation it seems reasonably 
certain that the specimen was found on the surface of the Encrinal limestone 
band of that region. It is somewhat pyritized and seems to have been 
embedded in a dense, impure limestone. The upper surface of the crinoid 
is covered by a dark soft calcareous shale. This preservation is precisely 
that characteristic of the upper surface of the Encrinal band. 

Type. Holotype and only known specimen of this species in the 

American Museum of Natural History, number 2 — £" 

Cyttarocrinus (?) jewetti sp. nov. 

Plate 36, figures 3-5 

1872 Platycrinus eboraceus (in err.) Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, 
figs. 16, 17. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 

The description of this species is based upon a specimen formerly in 
the Jewett collection and now in the museum of Cornell University. The 
specimen is a complete, but badly crushed, dorsal cup. Tegmen, arms and 
stem of the species unknown. 

Dorsal cup has a somewhat broadly expanding sharply conical base 
formed by the basal plates; radials diverge but slightly from the vertical 



272 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

as evidenced by their practically parallel sides. Height of cup 13 mm; 
breadth at arm bases about 12 mm. 

Basals fused to form three elements, the sutures between which are 
clearly marked. Two of the basal elements subequal, hexagonal; the third 
and smallest plate pentagonal. Stem cicatrix round and somewhat excavate, 
with a peripheral ring of fine notches or ridges; crenate character clearly 
shown. 

Radials long and comparatively narrow. One of them gives the 
following measurements: height to the facet, 8 mm; breadth at the top, 
6.5 mm; breadth at the base, 6 mm; breadth of the facet, 3.7 mm. One of 
the radials has the appearance of being slightly wider at the base than at 
the top. Surface of a radial almost flat along the lower margin, becoming 
more elevated and rounded toward the upper portion. This makes the 
center of the facet rim the most elevated portion of the plate, from which 
point the surface of the plate slopes gradually to the sides and bottom 
giving a smooth rounded contour. Radials sharply notched interradially 
for the reception of the interradial tegminal plates; one interradius more 
broadly and deeply notched than either of the others shown, probably 
indicating the posterior interradius. According to this the small unfused 
basal lies in the left anterior interradius. Arm facet sharply produced into 
a sort of lip in its median portion. This part of the facet is practically 
flat and lies at a low angle to the horizontal, giving but a slight outward 
inclination to the arms. Laterally the sides of the facet rise somewhat 
abruptly, a character that must have let the first primibrach well down into 
the radial. As shown by the measurements given above, the arm facet 
occupies nearly two-thirds of the upper face of the radial. 

Column round judging from the cicatrix. Diameter of cicatrix 2.7 mm. 

Ornamentation. Surface of the plates upon superficial examination 
apparently smooth, but under a high magnification found to be finely 
granular. 

Locality and horizon. From the Hamilton at Bloomfield, N. Y. ; 
probably collected by Jewett in 1885. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 273 

Type. Holotype in the Jewett collection, Cornell University Museum, 
number 7329. 

Remarks. Hall in 1862 (p. 119) described the species Platy- 
crinus eboraceus. This species was founded on isolated radials 
and a basal disk. The original specimens used by Hall and bearing his 
manuscript label are extant and are described under Arthracantha 
eboracea. In 1872 a figure was published by Hall of the specimen 
forming the type of the present species under the name Platycrinus 
eboraceus Hall. There can be no doubt but that the material orig- 
inally used by Hall for his description of Platycrinus eboraceus 
differs not only specifically but generically from the specimen which he 
subsequently figured and which is here used as the type of Cyttaro- 
crinus (?) jewetti sp. nov. 

The species is referred to Cyttarocrinus with some degree of 
doubt inasmuch as so little of the form is known. It agrees ho-vever with 
the type species in a number of minor characters and may well fall within 
the genus. It might of course be referred to Platycrinus, bat 
such a reference would involve as much uncertainty as that here made. 

Genus CORDYLOCRINUS Angelin 1878 
Cordylocrinus plumosus (Hall) 

Plate 36, figures 6-13 

1859 Platycrinus plumosus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3 : 113, pi. 4, figs. 1-5 

Platycrinus parvus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:114, pi. 4, figs. 6-9 

1868 Platycrinus plumosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, p. 388 

Platycrinus parvus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, p. 388 

1881 Cordylocrinus plumosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 61 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:235 

Cordylocrinus parvus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2, 

p. 60 (authors' ed.) ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:234 

1889 Cordylocrinus plumosus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 234 

Cordylocrinus parvus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 234 
18 



274 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

1S97 Cordylocrinus plumosus (syn. Cordylocrinus parvus) Wachsmuth & 

Springer. X. Amer. Crin. Cam.. 2:737. pi. 75. fig. 20 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., v. 21 

1S99 Cordylocrinus plumosus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Xat ■ 
Hist., v. 11. pt. 2. p. 88 

Cordylocrinus parvus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Xat. 

Hist., v. 11. pt. 2. p. 88 

1900 Cordylocrinus plumosus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer.. 11:279 

1905 Cordylocrinus plumosus Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci.. 20:28-30. pi. 3, 

figs. 2. 4. 

1911 Cordylocrinus plumosus Kirk. Proc. U. S. Xat. Mus.. v. 41. no. 
1S46, p. 58 

This is a small species, which appears to have been very abundant at 
the Litchfield localities. The species described by Hall as parvus is here 
treated as synonymous with plumosus (^discussed under Remarks). 

Dorsal cup, cup- or bowl-shaped, rounded at the base, expanding to 
the arm bases and subpent angular. Basals three, two hexagonal, one (the 
left anterior) pentagonal, broader than high, with a small column facet. 
Radials broader than high; two. the left posterior and right anterolateral, 
hexagonal with nearly straight lower edge; the other three heptagonal. 
meeting an interbasal suture. Radial facet curved, sometimes rather 
deeply indented for the reception of the first primibrach, and occupying a 
little more than half the width of the radial. The upper faces of the right 
and left posterior radials form a deep notch into which fits the first plate 
of the anal series. 

Tegmen composed of numerous plates and prolonged into a proboscis- 
like anal tube or sac (plate 36. figure 9). First anal plate pentagonal, 
resting in the notch formed by the upper faces of the right and left posterior 
radials; succeeded by a quadrangular plate. Plates of the anal sac hexago- 
nal and irregular; smaller towards the summit. Length of the sac a little 
over that of the crown. 

-4 rms. Two primibrachs, both short ; the first very short, quadrangular ; 
the second, the primaxil, pentagonal giving rise to two arms to the ray, 



DEVONIAN CKINOIDS OF NEW YORK 275 

ten for the calyx. Arms simple; composed of quadrangular brachials, 
wider than long, giving off long, strong pinnules, a pair to each brachial. 
Pinnules angular and made up of long ossicles. Syzygies have not been 
found in the New York State Museum material; but their occurrence has 
been noted in several of the specimens in the Yale University Museum by 
both myself and Miss Talbot (1905, p. 29), giving brachials bearing two 
pinnules on each side (plate 36, figure 7). In such Cases the brachials are 
longer. This fusion was found to occur as frequently as every other joint 
in parts of the arm; in other places every third joint showed this character- 
istic. Joints near the base normal, one-pinnuled on each side. 

Column round, made up of nodes and internodes. Internodes lengthen 
proceeding distad. Nodal columnals provided with whorls of unusually 
long cirri which are arranged interradially. Cirri composed of short ossicles, 
the cirrals. Frequently the most proximal cirri are so long that they extend 
to or beyond the tips of the arms. 

Ornamentation. Surface of dorsal cup finely granulated. 

Horizon and locality. Upper third of the Coeymans limestone at 
Jerusalem hill, Litchfield; Days Corners near Litchfield, North Litchfield; 
and Schoharie, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History. 

Remarks. Wachsmuth and Springer in their Revision of the Palaeo- 
crinoidea (1 881 , p. 234) retained Cordylocrinus plumosus 
and Cordylocrinus parvus as separate species. In their later 
work (1897, v. 2, p. -j^j) they regard the two species as synonymous. 
C . parvus appears to be a younger form of plumosus. In the 
Yale University Museum there are many hundreds of specimens of this 
species (Talbot, 1905, p. 29). The North Litchfield material shows large 
and small forms, the large forms being confined to the lower beds and the 
small ones to the upper, a few of these latter having the calyx gibbous, 
not flattened. The Jerusalem hill specimens are uncompressed and small. 
Miss Talbot suggests that these small uncompressed specimens from the 
upper crinoid bed might be the forms Hall had under observation when he 



276 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

described C . parvus; and, if so, since they occur at a slightly higher 
geological horizon, C . parvus might well be regarded as a variety 
of C. plumosus. The form, is here included with C. plumosus. 
The types ofC. parvus have been refigured on plate 36, figures 12, 13. 

Cordylocrinus (?) ramulosus (Hall) 

Plate 36, figures 14-17 

1859 Platycrinus ramulosus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:115, pi. 4, figs. 10-13 
186S Platycrinus ramulosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, p. 388 
1 88 1 (?) Cordylocrinus ramulosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. 

Palaeocr., pt. 2, pi. 61 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:235 
1889 (?) Cordylocrinus ramulosus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal.. 

P- 234 
1 897 (?) Cordylocrinus ramulosus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Crin. Cam., 2:737 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 
1900 (?) Cordylocrinus ramulosus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 

11:279 

Types not located. The original figures are repeated here, and the 
description is based upon the original description. 

Dorsal cup small. Basals wider than long. Radials comparatively 
large, wider than long, very prominent below the facets, and contracted 
towards the upper lateral angles. Radial facets rather deeply curved; 
appear to occupy about one-third the width of the radial. Upper lateral 
faces of the right and left posterior radials fo*m a deep notch for the recep- 
tion of the first anal plate. 

Tegmen. First few plates of the anal tube visible; the first pentagonal, 
followed by two or three quadrangular plates. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, both fairly short. The first quadrangular; 
the second, the primaxil, pentangular, giving rise to two main arms which 
bifurcate again on the ninth brachial above the primaxil. Brachials in 
general quadrangular, except the axillaries; rounded on the back, wider 
than long; each bearing a pair of pinnules, one on each side. Pinnule 
ossicles longer than wide. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 2*]*J 

Column round, rather long, consisting near the body of very thin plates 
which become thicker at a greater distance. Cirri not observed. 

Horizon and locality. From the shaly layers associated with the 
Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill and Litchfield, Herkimer county, N. Y. 

Remarks. Hall figured a specimen (plate 36, figure 15) showing an 
irregularity in the bifurcation of the arms. There is apparently no reason 
why such an irregularity should not occur in the same species. 

Genus MARSIPOCRINUS Bather 1889 

(nom. nov. pro Marsupiocrinus Phillips 1839) 

Marsipocrinus tentaculatus (Hall) 

Plate 36, figure 18; text figure 50 

1858 Platycrinus tentaculatus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:116, pi. 5, figs. 1-4 
1868 Platycrinus tentaculatus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:390 
1881 Marsupiocrinus tentaculatus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. 

Palaeocr., pt. 2, p. 65 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:239 
1889 Marsupiocrinus tentaculatus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 260 
1897 Marsupiocrinus tentaculatus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. 

Crin. Cam., 2:733, pi. 75, figs. 19 a, b (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 

v. 21 

1899 Marsupiocrinus tentaculatus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 94 

1900 Marsupiocrinus tentaculatus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 

11:279 

Dorsal cup 1 1 mm broad by about 5 mm high. Basals fused, forming 
a pentagonal disk. Owing to the fractured condition of the base no sutures 
can be observed. 

Radials hexagonal with slightly concave upper margins. An average 
radial is 5 mm broad by 2.8 mm high. 

Primaxils trigonal, supporting 1 x 10 large axillary plates which in 
turn support two arms each. 



278 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

These secundaxils either extend down to the radials or not — both 
conditions occurring in the same ray; pentagonal with their contiguous 
margins joining and their outer edges resting upon the interbrachial 
plates. 

One large interbrachial; hexagonal, reaching to the top of the first 
arm plate and incorporating it with the calyx. 
Tegmen. Structure unknown. 

Arms flat -backed, with a length of not more than 18 mm. First four 
or five proximal brachials wedge-shaped and arranged in a single series; 

above, arms biserial. Pinnules slender and of medium 
length; composed of long ossicles, thickened at the two 
ends and slightly constricted in the middle. First pin- 
nules found on the tertibrachs. 

Column, according to Hall, round (1858, p. 117), 
consisting of alternately thicker and thinner annulations 
in the small portion at that time attached to the 
specimen. 

Ornamentation . Radials marked by coarse radiating 
ridges which pass to the adjoining radials, basals, and 

Figure 50 Marsipo- . 

crinus tentacu- mterbrachials. 

1 a t u s . Enlargement Horizon and locality. From the calcareous layers of 

of amis and pinnules. 

(After Hall, 1859). See the shaly limestone of the Lower Helderberg group (New 

plate 36. figure 18. g^^ Schoharie( N . y. 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 
number 2303. 

Remarks. The specimen figured apparently had a portion of its 
stem attached at one time, and was so figured by Hall. This fragment is 
now missing. Hall (1858, p. 117) notes the occurrence of another speci- 
men apparently belonging to this species. It was enclosed in the solid 
stone and broken through the middle showing a long, slender anal tube. 

M.--.- tentaculatus differs from the other species of Marsi- 
pocrinus in the comparatively large size of the primaxils, the smaller 




DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 279 

size of the secundibrachs, and in the fact that these either do not meet 
the radials or else rest upon them by a small face. 

Family hexacrinidae W. & Sp. 

Genus ARTHRACANTHA Williams 1883 
Arthracantha eboracea (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 37, figures 1-4; text figure 51 

1862 Platycrinus eboraceus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep' t'N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 119 
1868 Platycrinus eboraceus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 :38s 
1872 Platycrinus eboraceus (in err.) Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, p. 1, 

figs. 16, 17. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 

1877 Platycrinus eboraceus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 86 

1878 Hexacrinus eboraceus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 18 

1 88 1 Platycrinus eboraceus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 2 t 

p. 71 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:245 
1889 Platycrinus eboraceus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 270 
1897 Platycrinus eboraceus (discarded as unrecognizable, insufficient preser- 
vation) Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 2:650 (authors' ed.); 
Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 

1903 Platycrinus eboraceus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65, pp. 76, 77 

1904 Platycrinus eboraceus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

PP- 48, 55 

Judging from Hall's original description, this species was founded 
chiefly on a set of basal plates. In the New York State Museum is the 
basal disk used by Hall in his description and bearing his manuscript label. 
It is in a rather poor state of preservation; the plates have in part been 
replaced by iron and show few characters of any particular value. Large 
pieces are gone and the edges have apparently been broken off since Hall's 
day. In the same collection there is also an isolated radial labeled by 
Hall. From other material examined it seems probable that this base 
and this radial are referable to the same species. " These specimens there- 
fore will be taken as the types of the species, setting aside the specimen 



280 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

figured by Hall in 1872 (plate 1, figures 16, 17) for reasons given hereafter. 
In addition to the type material isolated plates referable to this species 
have been found at various points in the Hamilton of western New York. 
Two dorsal cups in a fair state of preservation have also been obtained. 
One of these in the American Museum of Natural History is an internal 
cast which in addition to the dorsal cup shows portions of the tegmen; 
the other is a crushed but fairly good dorsal cup. These specimens permit 
the characters of the theca to be made out with a fair degree of accuracy. 
The stem and arms of the species are unknown. It is a large species, the 
base used by Hall in his original description indicating a size only comparable 
to that of Arthracantha splendens sp. nov. described in this work. 

Dorsal cup subturbinate with gently curving sides; broader than high, 
one specimen giving a height of 19 mm and a breadth at the arm bases of 
25 mm. 

Basals fused to three elements, the sutures between which are plainly 
marked. Two of the plates practically equal in size; the third slightly 
smaller. Three basal elements no more closely united than are the other 
plates of the cup as is shown by plate 37, figure 3. In this specimen the 
smallest plate as the result of crushing and shearing has been separated 
from its companions and pushed a considerable distance down past them. 
The sutural margins of this plate and those with which it was in contact 
are clean and true showing that there had been little or no anchylosis. Cup 
formed by the basals has a height nearly one-half that of the dorsal cup. 
Basals smoothly rounded and arched somewhat along the median longi- 
tudinal axis. Immediately above the stem cicatrix plates slightly but 
sharply constricted. Stem cicatrix round and surrounded by a slightly 
raised rim. 

Radials of nearly equal height and breadth, the type specimens giv- 
ing the following measurements: height to facet 14.6 mm; height to upper 
surface 16.2 mm; breadth at top 15.8 mm; breadth at base 15.2 mm. 
Relative proportions of the radials vary in the same specimen; outline of 
the plate somewhat irregular and the faces not straight. Radial facet 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 28 1 

occupies about one-third of the upper face of a plate and lies to one 
side of the longitudinal median line of the radial. For the reception 
of the facet there is an excavation in the radial to a depth of 1.6 mm. 
This notch narrows from in the neighborhood of 5 mm in breadth at the 
top to 4 mm at the base. The articulating base proper is a practically 
flat platform standing out sharply from the radial and tilting slightly from 
the horizontal. This gives a slight outward inclination to the arms at their 
inception. The type of articulation together with the fact, as hereafter 
noted, that the proximal elements of the arms are incorporated to a certain 
extent in the theca make it evident that there could be but slight movement 
of the arms in the proximal portion. The point of greatest elevation on 
the radial is the middle of the facet rim. From this point the surface of 
the plate slopes more gently until it merges into the general marginal 
level. Upper faces of the plates only slightly notched 
interradially for the reception of the interradial tegminal J£x_3— X 

plates; in some cases the notch is scarcely perceptible. ' 

On the inner surface of the theca, as may be observed Tha^eboracTa^A 
in plate 37, figure 4, which shows a natural cast of the radius (left posterior) of 

the specimen shown on 

interior, interradial tegminal plates rest upon the radials p i a t e 37, figure 4. This 
in clearly marked notches. ! hows J . the brachials, 

including the second 

Anal plate not clearly shown by any of the speci- secundibrach, uniting 

Tj y1 . 11-1, • , 1 1 laterally with the plates 

mens. It appears to be of equal height with and some- of the te gmen. 
what narrower than the radials. 

Tegmen appears to be low and arching; composed of rather small 
plates, so far as observed. In every interradius except the posterior, 
apparently, three tegminal plates rest upon the radials. The central 
plate rests in a slight interradial notch between each pair of radials. The 
plates adjoining the central plate unite laterally with the proximal brachials 
incorporating the latter into the tegmen. Plates of the posterior inter- 
radius can not clearly be made out but there seem to be more plates than 
in the other interradii. 

Arms. The internal cast figured on plate 37, figure 4, gives us all 



282 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the information we have regarding the arm structure of the species. From 
this specimen it appears that the primaxil immediately succeeded the 
radial without the intervention of a first primibrach. The presence of a 
primibrach in addition to the primaxil has been noted without an exception 
in all specimens of Arthracantha. It seems probable then that 
in Arthracantha eboracea the plate is present. The con- 
dition observed is no doubt due to the preservation of the specimen and 
may be explained in either of two ways. On the one hand, the first primi- 
brach may be so reduced as only to appear externally, being overlapped 
by the primaxil on the inner side of the cup. What seems a more probable 
explanation is that the first primibrach, resting in the deeply incised radial 
facet, can not show in an internal mold. It is interesting to note that the 
brachials at least up to and including the second secundibrachs unite 
laterally with plates of the tegmen, thus becoming fixed. This feature 
is shown by plate 37, figure 4, and even better by a diagram of the left 
posterior radius, text figure 51. 

Column not preserved, but judging by the cicatrix, it must have been 
comparatively large. Cicatrix in one specimen (plate 37, figure 3) measures 
5 mm in diameter. In the type specimen it has a diameter of not less 
than 6.5 mm. 

Ornamentation. The plates when the surface is well preserved have 
an irregular shagreen ornamentation. Irregularly dispersed over the surface 
are small rounded papillae which range upward in size to the pitted tubercles 
that bear the spines. The papillae apparently are incipient stages of the 
latter. The spine-bearing tubercles are crateriform, having a round shallow 
pit or socket in the summit for the reception of the spine. They have a 
somewhat irregular distribution on the surface of the radials and are more 
widely spaced than is usual in the genus. The arrangement of tubercles 
seems to vary within the species. They have not been observed on the 
basal plates and may be absent. In figure 2, plate 37, it will be noted that 
there is a rough alignment of tubercles into two rows. These start 
immediately beneath the radial facet and run toward the lower corners 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 283 

of the plate. Other spiniferous tubercles are indiscriminately scattered 
over the surface of the plate, becoming progressively less frequent toward 
the margins or newer portions of the plates. In the oldest portion of the 
plate, or immediately beneath the facet, the tubercles scarcely project 
above the surface, a result brought about by thickening of the plate through 
a superficial deposition of stereom. Some of the tubercles apparently 
have become nonfunctional, as the pits are partially filled and irregular 
in outline. It would appear in a few cases that the tubercles have become 
entirely buried and smoothed over. Whether spines were borne by the 
arms and tegmen can not be ascertained. 

Horizon and locality. Hamilton (Moscow) shales. Type specimens 
from York, Livingston county ; specimen belonging to the American Museum 
of Natural History (plate 37, figure 4) from Hamilton; locality of other 
figured specimen, Moscow, N. Y. Species reported by Clarke and Luther 
(1904, pp. 48, 55) from the upper Moscow shales and the Centerfield 
limestone (Ludlowville) near Canandaigua, New York. There is in the 
New York State Museum a very much crushed specimen, apparently 
belonging to this species, from the Moscow shale, Livonia salt shaft, 
225-350 foot level. 

Types, to which are attached Hall's manuscript labels, in the New 

York State Museum, numbers — — and — — . Specimen figured on plate 

1 2 

37, figure 4, in the American Museum of Natural History, number ^ . 

2 

Fourth specimen figured (plate 37, figure 3) in the New York State 
Museum. 

Remarks. This species was first described by Hall in 1862 (p. 119); 
no figure was given. Subsequently in 1872 in the so-called Bulletin 1 
of the New York State Museum of Natural History, Hall figured the 
dorsal cup of a crinoid under the name Platycrinus eboraceus. 
This specimen evidently was not the one originally described by Hall, as 
it in no wise fits the description. Upon examination the figured specimen 
has been found to possess the dorsal cup of the Platycrinidae and does not 



284 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

even fall in the same family as the original types of Arthracantha 
eboracea. For a more detailed account of the figured specimen see 
description of Cyttarocrinus (?) jewetti sp. nov. 

Bigsby (1878, p. 18) lists eboracea as Hexacrinus, evi- 
dently going on the assumption that all Devonian forms of this type are 
referable to Hexacrinus, inasmuch as he likewise refers P 1 a t v - 
crinus eriensis Hall to the same genus. Wachsmuth and Springer 
list eboracea in their Revision (1881, p. 245, pt. 2, p. 71) as a valid 
species, but later in their more extensive work (1897, p. 650) they reject 
it as being insufficiently described. 

The species may be distinguished from the other known Hamilton 
species by its large size and general form. The relative paucity of the 
spine-bearing . tubercles and their size, which is above the average, are 
useful characters aiding in its recognition. Another feature which may 
be used in the case of isolated radials is their almost equilateral and 
rectangular outline. As noted under the description of Arthracantha 
punctobrachiata (Hall) Williams, it seems probable that these two 
species are distinct. The other Hamilton species Arthracantha 
carpenteri (Hinde) (1885, p. 157) is, I think, a valid species, more 
closely approaching the present one perhaps than it does Arthra- 
cantha punctobrachiata (Hall) Williams, to which it has been 
referred as a synonym by Wachsmuth and Springer, Whiteaves, and others. 
In A . carpenteri, as in the present species, the radials are prac- 
tically equilateral. The species averages considerably smaller in size and 
there is a marked difference in the size and distribution of spine-bearing 
tubercles. In carpenteri these tubercles are irregularly but uni- 
versally distributed over the surface of the radials. The surface of the 
plates between the tubercles is practically smooth, being marked only by 
the finest of the granules. The tubercles themselves are relatively much 
smaller in size. In this regard and in their spacing A . carpenteri 
more nearly approaches punctobrachiata, from which it differs 
in other characters, however. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 285 

Arthracantha punctobrachiata (Hall) 

Plate 37, figure 5 

1872 Platycrinus ? punctobrachiatus Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, 

pi. 1, fig. 15. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 
1883 Arthroacantha punctobrachiata Williams. Proc. Amer. Philos . 

Soc, 21 183 
1885 Arthroacantha punctobrachiata Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. 

Palaeocr., pt. 3, p. 119 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 37:341 
1889 Arthracantha punctobrachiata S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & 

Pal., p. 225 

The only specimen known of this species is the holotype figured by 
Hall in Bulletin i of the New York State Museum. It is in a poor state 
of preservation, enough characters being shown however to afford a 
reasonably accurate conception of the species. The specimen consists of 
a badly crushed dorsal cup and portions of the arms. The plates of the 
dorsal cup which are remarkably thin have in large part become detached 
from the shale and lost. It is evident that the species is quite distinct 
from Arthracantha carpenteri (Hinde) , from the Hamilton 
of Ontario, which has been cited as a synonym, and because of its better 
state of preservation has been figured as A. punctobrachiata. 
The species is a small one, the crown measuring not more than 40 mm over all. 

Dorsal cup. It is impossible accurately to judge the former shape 
of the dorsal cup. It seems probable however that it was more broadly 
turbinate than either A. eboracea or A. carpenteri. The 
dorsal cup had a height not in excess of 14 mm. The breadth can not 
be estimated- with any degree of certainty. Basals form a low cup, 
apparently of proportionally much less height than in A. eboracea. 

Radials spade-shaped with the greatest breadth slightly in excess of 
the greatest height. The following measurements are taken from an 
impression left on the shale by the right posterior radial, representing 
therefore the inside dimensions of the plate. Greatest breadth lies slightly 
below the level of the radial facet. Measurements are: greatest height 



286 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

9 mm; height to facet 8 mm; greatest breadth 9.5 mm; breadth at base 
4.5 mm. As in A . e b o r a c e a the radial facet stands out strongly, 
the plate sloping away steeply to the sides and more gradually to the 
base. Radials rather strongly notched interradially for the reception of 
the interradial tegminal plates. 

Anal plate appears to be somewhat narrower than the radials; appar- 
ently succeeded by a number of small plates, but as the plates themselves 
are not preserved it is a matter of very great difficulty to distinguish 
the sutures. 

Tegmen not known aside from the marginal interradial plates. These 
apparently have the same arrangement as in the case of A . eboracea 
and A. carpenteri. In each interradius except the posterior there 
is a median interradial tegminal plate with a smaller plate on each side. 
This plate abuts against the proximal brachials, incorporating them into 
the theca. Tegminal plates of the posterior interradius, as noted above, 
apparently numerous, but in this specimen they can not be distinguished 
clearly. 

Arms relatively short and fairly stout, branching at least twice in a 
regular dichotomy. First primibrach rises well above the top of the radial 
and is somewhat shorter then the primaxil. Both primibrachs incorporated 
into the theca by lateral union with tegminal plates. Arms rounded on 
the back and loosely biserial, the ossicles being comparatively wide and 
tending toward a wedge-shape. Pinnules not observed. 

Column. No part preserved. Owing to the poor preservation of the 
cup, stem cicatrix can not be seen. 

Ornamentation. Surface of the radials covered with small papillae. 
Spine-bearing tubercles scattered rather evenly over the surface with the 
exception of a small area in the lower median portion of the plate. Tubercles 
small, and fairly uniform in size, the largest ones lying nearest the radial 
facet. A fragment of one basal shows tubercles, but how abundant they 
are can not be ascertained in the poor state of preservation of the specimen. 
Pitted tubercles which evidently bore spines range along the arms. One 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 28 J 

such tubercle is borne by each arm ossicle, and is found at the point where 
the rounded back gives way to the vertical side of the arm. This gives two 
lateral rows of spines along each arm. Tubercles extend as far distad 
as the arms are preserved. 

Horizon and locality. All that is known of the type is that it comes 
from the Hamilton of western New York. Collected by Colonel E. Jewett. 

Types. Holotype and only known specimen of the species, formerly 
in the Jewett collection, now in the Museum of Cornell University, 
number 2214. 

Remarks. A . punctobrachiata is clearly distinct from, either 
A. eboracea or A. carpenteri, the other known Hamilton 
species. A. punctobrachiata seems to have had a relatively 
broader cup than A. eboracea, and judging fr.om the known material 
is a much smaller form. The more uniform size and distribution of the 
spine-bearing tubercles is a character of some importance in distinguishing 
the species. Of greater value is the shape of the radials. In A. 
punctobrachiata these are spade-shaped as opposed to the prac- 
tically rectangular outline shown by the radials of A. eboracea. 
The plates of A. punctobrachiata are very thin while those 
of A. eboracea are unusually heavy for the genus. As the arms are 
not preserved in the case of A. eboracea it is not possible to make 
comparisons of these characters that might prove of considerable value. 
The arms of A. punctobrachiata and A. carpenteri 
differ to a marked degree. In A. punctobrachiata the arms 
are comparatively shorter and heavier, and bifurcate less frequently. The 
dorsal surfaces of the arms of A. punctobrachiata, as noted 
above, are rounded and bear lateral rows of tubercles which were probably 
spiniferous. In the case of A. carpenteri the dorsal surfaces of 
the arms are flattened and no spine-bearing tubercles are present. Again, 
the arm ossicles in the two species differ widely. In A. carpenteri 
they are compactly biserial, as against the looser, more wedgelike form 
shown by A. punctobrachiata. 



288 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arthracantha carpenteri (Hinde) 

Plate 60, figures 1-3: text figure 52 

1885 Hystricrinus carpenteri Hinde. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 15: 162, pi. 6 

1885 Arthroacantha carpenteri ? (Probably syn. of A. puncto- 
brachiata.) Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr.. pt. 3. p. 119 (authors' 
ed.); Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Phila., 37, 341 

1889 Arthroacantha punctobrachiata Whit eaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, 
pt. 2, no. 2, p. 96, pi. 13, figs. 1. 1a 

1889. Arthracantha carpenteri (Probably syn. of A. puncto- 
brachiata.) S. A. Miller. X. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 225 

1897 Arthracantha punctobrachiata Wachsmuth & Springer. X. Amer. 
Crin. Cam., 2:750. pi. 76, figs. 2a, 2b (authors' ed.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
v. 21 

1903 Arthroacantha' punctobrachiata Shimer & Grabau. Bui. Geol. Soc. 

Amer., 13 : 184 

1904 Arthracantha punctobrachiata Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., 47:8^ 

pi. 16, fig. 4 
1910 Arthracantha punctobrachiata Grabau & Shimer. X. Amer. Index 
Foss.. 2:520, fig. 1844 

Arthracantha carpenteri (Hinde) from the Hamilton of 
Ontario, Canada, is. I believe, a valid species. It has been cited as a 
synonym of and, because of its better state of preservation, has been figured 
as A. punctobrachiata. The Canadian species is here figured 
and described for comparison with the New York form. It is on the whole 
a larger and stronger species, composed of heavier plates. 

Dorsal cup sub turbinate with gently curving sides, more rapidly 
spreading at the basals, slightly incurving at the distal margins of the 
radials; broader than high, a fairly well-preserved specimen having a height 
of 15.3 mm and a breadth at the radials of 21.2 mm. Other specimens 
give heights of 17 mm and 17.2 mm respectively, but they are crushed 
so that no accurate measurements of the breadth can be obtained. 

Basals large and of almost uniform size; sutures between the three 
elements of the basal cup clearly marked. Cup formed by the basals 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 289 

broadly conical and low, about one-third the height of the dorsal cup. In 
two specimens typical basals give the following measurements : height 9 mm, 
greatest breadth 17 mm; height 7 mm, greatest breadth 14.5 mm. 

Radials vary in shape and proportions in the same specimen. Right 
and left posterior radials smaller than the others and markedly narrower 
at the proximal face than at the distal, giving a spade-shaped appearance; 
the other plates rectangular, nearly as high as wide. Even here there 
is a slight variation. The anterior radial is usually narrower at the base 
than the right and left anterolateral radials, and therefore slightly less 
rectangular. In one specimen in which all the radials are well shown 
the following measurements were taken: 

Left Right 

antero- antero- 

Anterior lateral lateral 

Greatest height • 13 mm 13 mm 13 mm 

Height to facet 11 mm 1 1 mm 1 1 mm 

Greatest breadth . . . . . 12.8 vaxn 12.8 mm 12.7 mm 

Breadth at base 9.9 mm 12.3 mm 8 . 5 mm ( ?) 

The radial facet stands out strongly. The plate slopes steeply away from 
it on each side and more gradually to the base. Radials notched inter- 
radially for the reception of the interradial tegminal plates. 

Anal plate narrower than the radials, broader at the upper face than 
at the lower. 

Tegmen. In each interradius, except the posterior, three tegminal 
plates rest upon the radials; central one the largest, the two lateral ones 
curving out to meet the primibrachs and first one or two secundibrachs 
on each side. First three plates followed by numerous rows of small inter- 
ambulacral plates. Anal plate usually followed by five or six plates;, 
one specimen studied has at least seven, and probably eight, plates in this 
row. There are no specimens at hand showing the tegmen, but it is figured 
and described as hemispherical, flattened in the central part and with 

an excentric anus placed within a small protuberance. 
19 



290 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Arms. I have refigured here the specimen figured and described by 
Miss Wood (1904, p. 81, pi. 16, fig. 4) in which the arms are beautifully 
preserved. Two primibrachs; the first extending well above the top of 
the radial; primaxil broader and higher than the first primibrach. Both 
primibrachs and the lowest secundibrachs incorporated into the calyx 
by lateral union with the tegminal plates. The arms show three bifur- 
cations above the primaxil in the length preserved (about 45 mm), and 

it is quite possible that at least a fourth bifurcation was 
present as the arms must have been several millimeters 
longer. Arms compactly biserial above the third or 
fourth secundibrach and flattened on the dorsal surface, 
giving a rectangular appearance particularly in the upper 
portions. Along the angle thus formed on each side of 
the dorsal surface each ossicle, especially above the 
secundaxil, bears on the dorsal surface a very small sub- 
spinous tubercle pointing distally and slightly outward 
(see text figure 52). Tubercles only seen well with a 
lens. Under the lens, because of the compactly biserial 
nature of the arms, the two parallel rows of tubercles 
give a serrated aspect to the dorsal surface of the arms. 

Figure 52 Arthracan- ° r 

t h a carpenteri. On the axillaries tubercles larger and stronger. Pinnules 

fhtupprportL'of a°n rather long and delicate. 

arm of the specimen Column round and composed in the proximal por- 

shown on plate 60, fig- _ 

ure 1, showing the two tion of thin columnals with sharp edges. 

dorsal rows of tubercles. Ornamentation. Pitted, spine-bearing tubercles 

small and irregularly but universally distributed over the surface of the 
radials and basals; more abundant on the radials. Tubercles on the radials 
appear to be most numerous just below the radial facet. Surface of the 
plates between the tubercles practically smooth, being marked only by the 
finest granules. There are one or two to several tubercles on the primibrachs 
and a few also occur on the lowest secundibrachs. Spine-bearing tubercles 
also found on the plates of the tegmen; according to Hinde, most numerous 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 29 1 

on the plates of the central portion. Spines elongate and cylindrical, not well 
preserved in any of the specimens at hand. According to Hinde they vary 
from. 1.5 mm to 4 mm in length. Those on the basals and radials fairly 
uniform in size and averaging 2.5 mm in length; those on the plates of the 
tegmen only 1.5 mm in length, but nearly as thick as those of the cup. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds, Ontario, Canada. 
Specimens found at Arcona, Bartlett's Mill, Bosanquet and Thedford. 

Types. The originally described material was in the collection of 
Doctor Hinde. Hypotypes and other unfigured specimens in the Museum 
of the Canadian Survey, in the United States National Museum and in the 
collection of Doctor Springer. Also two specimens in the Redpath Museum, 
Montreal, one of which is figured here. 

Remarks. This species was described by Hinde in 1885 as distinct 
from the A. punctobrachiata of Hall and Williams. It was 
cited by Wachsmuth and Springer in 1885 as probably a synonym of 
A. punctobrachiata and in 1897 as a synonym; and has been 
so regarded since then. As stated above, the Canadian form is always 
figured for the species because of its better preservation. It is however 
a distinct species. A. carpenteri is a larger, stronger form than 
A. punctobrachiata. It is more nearly like A. eboracea 
in possessing practically rectangular radials; but the species averages 
considerably smaller in size and in the character and distribution of the 
tubercles more nearly approaches A. punctobrachiata. The 
arms of A. carpenteri are markedly different from those of 
A. punctobrachiata, as discussed in the description of that 
species under Remarks. There should be no difficulty in distinguishing 
these two species. 

In two of the specimens figured here a Platyceras is shown 
attached to the tegmen. The parasitic attachment of a gastropod appears 
to be very frequent in this species. 

Figure 1, plate 60, has been reproduced from the original drawing 
by Miss Wood. 



292 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arthracantha ithacensis Williams 

Plate 37, figures 6-8 

1883 Arthroacantha ithacensis Williams. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, 21:85, 

with a plate 

1884 Arthroacantha ithacensis Williams. Bui. U. S. Geol. Surv., 3 : 19 

1885 Arthracantha (?) ithacensis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 3, p. 119 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 37:341 
1885 Hystricrinus ithacensis Hinde. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 15: 158 
1889 Arthracantha ithacensis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 225 

1896 Arthracantha ithacensis Kindle. Bui. Amer. Pal., v. 2, no. 6, 

P- 33 

1897 Arthracantha ithacensis Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam.. 2:749, pi. 76, figs. 1a, b, c (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Com. Zool., v. 21 

The description of this, the type species of the genus, is based upon 
gutta-percha squeezes of the type material used by Williams. The cast of 
the main type specimen shows the dorsal cup, the proximal plates of the 
tegmen, a portion of the arms, a small fragment of stem, and several spines. 
A second cast shows a badly crushed tegmen with some of the spines 
attached. Another specimen consisting of the basal plates alone was referred 
to this species and figured by Wachsmuth and Springer. There is some 
doubt whether this specimen is really referable to A. ithacensis. The 
casts fail to show many characters that might be made out if the original 
molds were carefully examined. The cup of the most important specimen 
is somewhat crushed. The distortion however is not of sufficient magnitude 
appreciably to affect the general shape of the cup. A. ithacensis 
is the smallest known species of the genus if we consider the type specimen 
as a mature individual and eliminate from consideration the isolated base 
referred to the species by Wachsmuth and Springer. In the case of the 
type specimen the estimated height of the crown is 45 mm and probably 
does not exceed that amount. 

Dorsal cup subcorneal with curving sides; height about 8 mm and 
breadth about 13 mm. Basals fused to three elements, the sutures between 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 293 

which are clearly marked. Cup formed by the basals conical with a height 
of approximately one-third that of the dorsal cup. Basals somewhat 
constricted immediately above the stem cicatrix; the latter sharply defined 
and with a diameter of 2 mm. 

Radials spade-shaped, appreciably narrower at the base than the 
top. Radial facet narrow compared with the Chem.ung species of the 
genus, having a width only slightly in excess of one-third that of the upper 
face of the radial. The most elevated point in the radial lies at the radial 
facet ; from the middle point of the facet the plate slopes off abruptly to the 
sides and more gradually to the base, giving an elevated triangular area 
in the central portion of the plate with the apex at the radial facet. This 
area is not sharply delimited but with its smooth contours merges gradually 
into the marginal level of the plate. 

Posterior interradius not shown. 

Tegrnen. Interradial plates of the tegmen lying immediately in contact 
with the radials were seen in two interradii. As here shown the median 
plate which in some species occupies the entire interradius is flanked laterally 
by a pair of plates of equal magnitude. These in turn abut laterally 
against the proximal brachials thus serving to incorporate them in the 
theca. This is the only portion of the tegmen shown by this specimen. 
Another cast shows the structure of the tegmen very poorly (plate 37, 
figure 7). Plates of the tegmen small. Ambulacrals clearly distinguished, 
showing as two rows of alternating plates of approximately equal size. 
Ventral tube similar to that of A. depressa. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, twice as wide as long. First primibrach 
quadrangular; primaxil pentagonal, sharply angular above and with 
concave upper faces. Arms free beyond the first secundibrachs. 

The arms of this species are poorly shown by the material at hand. 
In the best preserved specimen which shows only fragments of the arms, 
it is estimated that they had a length not greatly in excess of 35 mm. Arms 
slender, apparently bifurcating at least three times after the main divi- 
sion; loosely biserial somewhat after the manner of A. p u n c t o- 



294 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

brachiata. Like that species as well, each ossicle has a spine-bearing 
tubercle. Backs of the arms rounded. Pinnules slender and comparatively 
short. 

Column preserved to a length of about 4 mm from the theca ; composed 
of short ossicles which may be divided into nodes and internodes. Between 
each pair of nodes are three columnals the central one of which, like the 
nodes, is marked by a narrow raised keel. 

Ornamentation. Surface of theca, and arms at least in the proximal 
portion, covered by small papillae or granules. Spine-bearing tubercles 
on basals, radials, brachials, and tegminal plates. The radial bears in 
the neighborhood of 20 tubercles. On the arms each brachial above the 
main bifurcation bears a tubercle. How far distad this character extends 
it is impossible to state owing to the poor preservation of the arms. On 
the tegmen the spines are numerous, and seem to be scattered rather generally 
over the surface. One spine borne by each plate. Spines themselves long 
and slender, the length being well shown in several cases. Spines borne 
by the plates of the dorsal cup attain a length of at least 6 mm. On the 
tegmen measurements of 13 mm were made. 

Horizon and locality. Portage (Ithaca) beds, Ithaca, N. Y. A specimen 
that may belong to this species has also been collected in the lower Chemung 
beds, near Wallace, Steuben county. 

Types in the museum of Cornell University. Gutta-percha casts 
studied and used in the preparation of the illustrations in the collection 
of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. Wachsmuth and Springer (1897, plate 76, figure ib) figure 
a set of basal plates which they refer to A. ithacensis. The same 
specimen is figured here on plate 37, figure 8. Although the size of the 
tubercles and their dispersal over the surface suggests A. ithacensis, 
the size of the base together with its low broadly expanding form causes 
one to hesitate in definitely assigning it to this species. 

An external mold and internal cast of the basal plates of a single 
specimen were collected by D. Dana Luther in the lower Chemung beds, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 295 

near Wallace, Steuben county. They are not in very good condition, 
but there is little doubt that they belong to this species. 

Arthracantha depressa W. & Sp. 

Plate 37, figures 9-1 1 

1897 Arthracantha depressa Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

2:751, pi. 76, figs. 3a, b (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 21 
1902 Arthracantha depressa Iuther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 52, p. O24 
1904 Hystricrinus depressus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63 , 
P- 65 

Gutta-percha squeezes of the type specimen of this species constitute 
the only material upon which the present description is based. One of 
these squeezes shows the dorsal cup and the base of the arms, while the 
other is a most excellent cast of the tegmen. Apparently both pertain 
to the same specimen. The theca, unfortunately, is much compressed on 
its long axis causing a crumpling and telescoping of the radials and a general 
distortion of the basal cup. This makes it impossible not only to obtain 
accurate measurements of the constituent plates but accurately to judge 
the relative proportions of the dorsal cup. Nevertheless the species seems 
to be a well-defined one and from the characters shown there should be 
little difficulty in recognizing it. From its general appearance one might 
infer that the type specimen represents an old individual as evidenced by 
what seems to be a superficial deposit of secondary stereom on the plates 
and by the general aspect of the spine-bearing tubercles. 

Dorsal cup. Quite apart from the vertical crushing to which the 
dorsal cup has been subjected it appears that the cup is normally low and 
broad, this character being especially striking if one eliminates from con- 
sideration the proximal brachials which are incorporated into the theca 
by laterally apposed interradial tegminal plates. 

Basals fused to three elements, the sutures between which are scarcely 
visible. This condition is unusual in the genus. The obscurity of the 
sutures may be due either to the preservation of the specimen or, what 



296 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

seems more probable, to a secondary deposit of stereom. The latter is 
indicated by the fact that the basal disk is marked by parallel series of 
lines which run parallel to the lower faces of the six plates constituting 
the second range. As a result the basal disk is marked by a set of hexagons 
nested one within the other. This peculiar marking seems to be due to a 
thickening of the plates and is here considered a secondary character rather 
than a feature representing original growth lines. Cup formed by the 
basals broad and low with only slightly sloping sides. No evidence of a 
stem cicatrix. Inasmuch as within this genus the stem cicatrix is normally 
large and sharply defined, this fact is of considerable interest. It may 
possibly be that this specimen represents an individual which had lost its 
stem. Such cases are apparently not uncommon among crinoids, having 
been observed in Arachnocrinus and other genera. If we assume 
the loss of the stem in this individual the thickening of the basal plates 
might well follow as a secondary character. 

Radials, as noted above, have been crushed and telescoped. They 
seem normally to have been broader than high with approximately the 
same breadth at top and bottom. This latter fact taken in conjunction 
with the shape of the basal disk argues strongly for a shallow dorsal cup 
with nearly vertical sides. Radial facet broad, occupying nearly one-half 
the upper face of the radial. The radial facet furnishes the most elevated 
point on the plate as is usual in specimens of this genus. It slopes out- 
ward giving the arms at their inception a slight inclination away from 
the cup. 

Posterior interradius not preserved. 

Tegmen. The squeeze of the dorsal cup shows the interradial teg- 
minal plates in two interradii. In each case a single plate occupies the 
entire interradius, laterally abutting against the proximal brachials of the 
adjacent rays and incorporating them into the theca. This incorporation 
involves the brachials up to and including the second secundibrach. The 
other cast shows the tegmen remarkably well as may be seen from figure 
11, plate 37. Tegminal plates fairly heavy. Largest plate in the tegmen 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 297 

approximately at the center. This plate is surrounded by four prominent 
interradial plates, one for each interradius except the posterior. In the 
latter three somewhat smaller plates meet the central one. Ambulacrals 
large and irregularly disposed. The chief point of interest in the tegmen 
is the ventral tube, which is little more than a slight swelling in the posterior 
interradius. Looking directly at the posterior interradius it appears that 
there is a median vertical row of three plates made conspicuous by being 
spiniferous. Each of the first two plates of this series is flanked laterally 
by a pair of large plates. The third and last distinctive plate of the 
median row merges into the cluster of small plates that forms the summit 
of the anal protuberance. 

Arms. Primibrachs low and broad, the facet, as noted above, occupy- 
ing nearly one-half the upper face of the radial. With a maximum breadth 
of 6.5 mm the first primibrach has a height of about 2.1 mm. The primaxil 
measures 6.2 mm by 1.8 mm. The upper faces of the axillary diverge 
at such a great angle as to present an almost flat surface. Both first 
primibrach and primaxil traversed medially by a sharply marked rounded 
ridge which bifurcates on the primaxil, the forks continuing along the 
rounded backs of the arms. First two secundibrachs remarkably broad, 
partaking of the nature of the primibrachs rather than the succeeding 
secundibrachs. Both meet the large interradial tegminal plate on one side 
and the homologous brachials of the other half of the ray on the other 
side. Thus these brachials are strongly incorporated into the theca. Arms 
above the second secundibrachs comparatively slender and so far as 
observed uniserial. No pinnules observed. 

Column. No evidence of a stem cicatrix. 

Ornamentation. As elsewhere noted, basal disk of this specimen marked 
by a series of hexagons composed of lines of varying strength. Each radial 
likewise apparently marked by lines running parallel to the base of the 
plate. These however look more like crumplings of the plate due to 
vertical crushing than they do to surface ornamentation or secondary 
deposition of stereom. 



298 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The spine-bearing tubercles of this species, so far as seen, occur only 
on the radials and certain of the tegminal plates. On the radials the 
tubercles are irregularly scattered over the surface, there being few 
tubercles to a plate. The average number on a plate seems not to 
exceed six or eight. Tubercles unusually prominent and very large in 
proportion to the size of the crinoid. As noted elsewhere, the three plates 
forming the median line of the ventral tube are spiniferous. The central 
plate of the tegmen has a spine-bearing tubercle ; ambulacrals irregularly 
spiniferous. 

Horizon arid locality. Lower Chemung beds (Prattsburg sandstone), 
Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype and plastotypes in the collection of Doctor Springer. 

Arthracantha granosa sp. nov. 

Plate 37, figures 12-15 

This species is represented by a splendid internal cast of a somewhat 
crushed theca, a portion of the external mold of the dorsal cup of the same 
specimen, external molds of portions of the arms, and isolated plates both 
in the form of molds and the actual substance of the plate itself. The 
species evidently differs from any other described, so, in spite of the 
imperfection of the material, it has seemed best to describe it. With two 
exceptions, all the material came from one closely circumscribed outcrop 
and undoubtedly pertains to the one species. 

Species a large one, probably only being surpassed in size by A . 
splendens among the species known. Theca here figured of about 
the size of A. eboracea, but isolated plates indicate that the form 
attains a considerably greater size. 

Dorsal cup measures 16 mm in height to the radial facet and has a 
breadth of about 20 mm at the same level. The breadth is estimated from 
the crushed specimen and, as given, may be too great. Cup narrow at 
the base, above expanding in a smooth even curve to a level lying at about 
three-fourths the height of the radials. Above this level the cap constricts 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 299 

to the level of the arm facets. In this character it resembles A . 
splendens. The shoulder in A. granosa, however, is much 
less prominent. 

Basals fused to three elements, the sutures between which are indicated 
by slightly depressed lines. Cup formed by the basals about one-half 
the height of the dorsal cup. Radials slightly wider at the top than the 
bottom. Their width at about one-half their height is slightly greater 
than at their upper margins. Arm facet occupies about one-half the upper 
margin of the radial; horseshoe-shaped and inclines outward. 

Anal plate narrower than the radials and of about the same height. 

Tegmen nearly flat. Interradial plates well shown in the internal 
cast. Laterally the first interradial abuts against the first primibrach and 
primaxil, reaching nearly to the top of the second. On each of its long 
concave sloping shoulders it bears a single plate which laterally abuts 
against the primaxil, and the first secundibrach, reaching about midway 
up the side of the latter. This lateral interradial supports a second, and 
this in turn a third. A fourth is probably present. These plates abut 
laterally against members of the radial series and serve to incorporate the 
latter at least to and including the second secundibrach. The median 
uppermost pair of faces of the primary interradial supports two plates. 
From each of these proceeds a lateral series that imbricates with the upper 
faces of the first lateral series described above. Above the plates just 
described, which have a more or less regular sequence, come the irregularly 
disposed plates that form the tegmen proper. Tegmen composed of numer- 
ous small plates ; ambulacra covered by two rows of rather large alternating 
plates. In the posterior interradius the anal supports three large plates 
of which the median is the smallest. The lateral plates rest in part on 
the anal and in part on the adjacent radials. Laterally they abut against 
the primibrachs and on one side the plate seems to reach well up on the 
first secundibrach. The median plate supports three small plates, while 
the laterals are followed by plates of fairly large size which abut laterally 
against the secundibrachs. The higher ranges of plates can not be made 



300 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

out distinctly. Anal opening apparently lies at about the level of the 
second secundibrach. 

Arms remarkably long. One set of arms, which judging by the size 
might well have belonged to the theca here figured, measure not less than 
70 mm in length. Arms compactly biserial with rounding backs and 
sides; comparatively slender, bifurcating three or four times above the 
main bifurcation. In the specimen showing four divisions, the last bifurca- 
tion comes in the extreme distal portion of the arms. Pinnules long and 
slender. An interesting and unusual feature is shown in several specimens. 
That is, external molds of the ventral surface are preserved. The ambula- 
cral furrow is covered by numerous small plates, irregular in size and 
arrangement and as a rule tumid. Laterally this covering extends up on 
the ventral surface of the pinnules. 

Column. Only about 3 mm of the proximal portion preserved. Colum- 
nals, as here shown, low and annulate. 

Ornamentation. All the plates of the dorsal cup rather thickly covered 
with large spiniferous tubercles, the number on the basals specially note- 
worthy. Several are clustered immediately about the column. One basal 
segment, of which but a portion is shown, has three tubercles within 3 
mm of the stem cicatrix. Probably about twenty tubercles borne by each 
radial. Judging from the fragmentary molds of the tegmen it appears 
that a number of its plates are spiniferous. Spine-bearing tubercles occur 
on the arms as well, so far as observed restricted to the immediate neighbor- 
hood of the bifurcations. As a rule a tubercle is borne by the axillary 
alone, but other tubercles to the number of two or three are found on the 
proximal ossicles of the succeeding series. In one case a second tubercle 
was observed immediately below the bifurcation. Primaxil probably not 
spiniferous. It is impossible to determine whether the next following 
bifurcation develops this structure. Primibrachs and succeeding arm 
ossicles for an unknown distance covered with coarse granules which have 
a tendency to coalesce, especially on the primibrachs. 

Horizon and locality. The specimens constituting the material upon 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 3OI 

which this description is based were collected by D. Dana Luther from 
the Portage (Grimes sandstone), Deyo basin, two miles south of Naples, 
N. Y. A specimen, doubtfully referred to this species, was found in the 
lower Chemung beds, Avoca, Steuben county; two others come from the 
lower Chemung, near Wallace, Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species probably resembles A. depressa more 
than any other described species. Even taking into consideration the 
vertically telescoped cup of the latter, A. granosa has a relatively 
higher and narrower cup. The primibrachs in A. granosa are fully 
twice the height of those in A. depressa and the arms are relatively 
stouter in their proximal portions. In A. depressa the first inter- 
radial tegminal plate abuts against the radial series reaching up to and 
serving to incorporate the second secundibrach. In A. granosa the 
same plate only reaches to near the top of the primaxil. In relative size of 
tubercles the species are very similar and dissociated plates of the two might 
be confused. The tubercles are more abundant in A. granosa. In A. 
depressa there are no granules on the primibrachs. 

A. splendens differs from the present species in its lower primi- 
brachs and its relatively smaller and more numerous tubercles. The 
primary interradial tegminal plates reach up on the secundibrachs, as 
in A. depressa. The large size of A. splendens, the high 
shoulder on the radials, and the shape of the radials themselves are all 
characters that might come with maturity, and so are not used for 
comparison. 

A very much crushed and fragmentary specimen of Arthracantha 
in the collection of the New York State Museum comes from the Chemung, 
Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y. The general character of the cup is like 
that of granosa; and, if uncrushed, I think the shape of the cup would 
be the same. There are spines on the few tegminal plates that are visible, 
and the arms at the base are heavy and granulose. The specimen is doubt- 
fully referred to granosa, and, though in such a poor state of preser- 



o 



02 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



vation is figured here (plate 37, figure 15) for purposes of comparison and 
to show the size and number of the tubercles. 

Two molds of bases, crushed and somewhat fragmentary, of an 
Arthracantha were collected by Luther in the lower Chemung 
beds, near Wallace, Steuben county, which seem closer to A. granosa 
than any other form. The tubercles are large, very numerous on one, fewer 
on the other. It is quite likely that they belong to this species and, if so, 
are the largest specimens found. 

Arthracantha splendens sp. nov. 

Plate 37, figure 16 

This, by far the largest and most imposing known species of the genus, 
is represented by an external mold from the Chemung. One side of the 
dorsal cup and a portion of the arms are preserved, together with a trace 
of the proximal portion of the stem. Dorsal cup somewhat crushed but 
not enough appreciably to affect its general outlines. Crown, when com- 
plete, probably with a height of not less than 125 mm unless the arms were 
unusually short compared with their stoutness. 

Dorsal cup subovoid in shape; height to the arm facets 35 mm, maxi- 
mum breadth about the same. Greatest diameter of the cup slightly 
below the arm bases. Above this there is a sharp constriction of the cup, 
the diameter at the arm bases being but 28 mm. 

Basals large forming a subcorneal cup that has a height slightly more 
than three-fifths the height of the dorsal cup. 

Radials spade-shaped. In this species the usual conditions are reversed 
in that the widest portion of the radial is at the base. One of the radials 
measures 22 mm in breadth at the base and 15 mm at the top; height to 
the radial facet 19.3 mm. Facet horseshoe-shaped, lying almost horizontal; 
breadth 7.5 mm. The surface of the radial rises in an even curved slope 
from the base and sides, culminating in a point slightly below the radial 
facet. Above a horizontal line passing through this point the plate abruptly 
pitches inward giving a steep declivity. The shoulder formed is very 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 303 

prominent and a most striking character. This form of the radials results 
in a marked constriction of the theca as elsewhere noted. 

Posterior interradius unknown. 

Tegmen. All that can be seen of the tegmen are the proximal inter- 
radial plates. Entire interradius between the arm bases occupied by a 
single interradial tegminal plate. Laterally this abuts against the primi- 
brachs of the adjacent ray. Above the level of the primaxil the plate nar- 
rows upward in a gentle curve to near the apex where the sides abruptly 
converge, the two faces thus formed supporting a pair of plates. Upper 
sloping faces of the interradials support a pair of tegminal plates as well. 
The latter abut against the secundibrachs of the adjacent rays incorporating 
them into the theca as the proximal brachials are incorporated by the large 
interradial itself. Supported by this lower lateral pair of plates is at least 
one more pair which serve to incorporate still higher ranges of brachials. 
A most unusual character of this species is the relatively small size of the 
tegmen. In the other species of the genus the dorsal cup expands to the 
arm bases, the greatest diameter of the theca occurring at this level. In 
splendens, however, there is an abrupt constriction of the dorsal 
cup immediately below the arm bases. As a result, while the maximum 
diameter of the dorsal cup is approximately 35 mm, its diameter at the arm 
bases is but 28 mm. Allowing for the thickness of the arms, which is very 
considerable, it may easily be seen that the diameter of the tegmen is com- 
paratively small. 

Arms, so far as they are preserved, very stout and tapering gradually 
distad. From this it appears that they were of considerable length. Primi- 
brachs two; low and broad. The upper faces of the primaxil slope at an 
unusually low angle. Secundibrachs incorporated in the theca to the 
number of eight or more. The first four pairs of secundibrachs meet and 
imbricate on the inner side of the ray which, taken in connection with their 
incorporation into the theca by the interradial tegminal plates, must have 
resulted in great rigidity. It is difficult exactly to determine the nature 
of the higher brachials. Immediately above the primaxil they are remark- 



304 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

ably broad and low with parallel faces. Higher up brachials apparently 
very loosely biserial, each ossicle crossing the median line of the arm and 
wedging in for some little distance on the other side. It is quite possible, 
of course, that in the more distal portions of the arms a closely biserial 
condition obtained. 

Column. Not enough preserved to show any distinctive characters; 
apparently composed of low columnals similar in all respects to those 
shown by other species of the genus. 

Ornamentation. Surface of the dorsal cup up to the " shoulders ' 
of the radials coarsely granular. Above the shoulder and on the slope of 
the declivity radials covered by a coarse vermicular marking which extends 
up on the primary interradials and the proximal brachials. Spine-bearing 
tubercles occur plentifully on the basals and radials. Tubercles absolutely 
of rather large size, being of about equal dimensions with those borne by 
A. depressa. Relatively, however, they can not be called large. Upon 
the basals and the lower portions of the radials tubercles somewhat scattered 
and irregularly disposed. Tubercles progressivly become more numerous 
in the upper portion of the radial, reaching their maximum development 
along the " shoulder " of the plate where they are closely crowded and of 
much smaller size. Above this line there apparently are no spiniferous 
tubercles. There are in the neighborhood of from forty to fifty tubercles 
to a radial. The spines themselves unknown. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, about four miles 
north of Bath, N. Y. 

Type. Holotype and only known specimen in the New York State 
Museum. 

Remarks. The great size of A. splendens at once distinguishes 
it from all other known species of the genus. The constriction of the 
dorsal cup at the arm bases and the large number of spines borne on the 
dorsal cup form other characters that serve to distinguish it. Another 
character which, so far as known, is unique is the fact that the radials are 
so much broader at the base than at the top. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 305 

Order FLEXIBILIA Zittel 

While the Monograph on the Devonian Crinoids was in preparation, 
Doctor Springer's Monograph on the Crinoidea Flexibilia went to press. 
The New York material has been studied and figured by Doctor Springer, 
so that practically all the field of the Flexibilia of New York, in manuscript, 
was covered by his work. Doctor Springer very kindly loaned me his 
descriptions and plates and I have here reproduced his descriptions and 
some of his original figures. 

Suborder SAGENOCRINOIDEA Springer 
Family ichthyocrinidae Wachsmuth & Springer 

Genus CLIDOCHIRUS Angelin 1878 

Springers description. Ichthyocrinidae with rays in contact except 
in lower part at the posterior side. Crown elongate, expanding above 
radials. Radianal in primitive position under right posterior radial, 
resting on basals and touching right anterior radial. Infrabasals variable; 
either large, exposed above the column, or small, entirely concealed. Basals 
large, exposed above the column. Anal x alone, or followed by others in 
single vertical series, arched over by brachials. Primibrachs two. Arms 
dichotomous, interlocking. Column large, with or without proximal 
enlargement. Otherwise similar to Ichthyocrinus. 

Genotype. Clidochirus pyrum Angelin. 

Distribution. Silurian to Devonian (Lower Carboniferous?); Sweden 
and the United States. 

Clidochirus schucherti (Talbot) 

Plate 38, figures i, 2 

1905 Ichthyocrinus schucherti Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 2 130, pi. 3, fig. 1 
1920 Clidochirus schucherti Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 299, pi. 37, figs. 
12-13 & 

Springer's description. A medium-sized species. Crown short, conical, 
with rather narrow base, expanding uniformly to about the middle terti- 
brachs, and becoming strongly contracted above that by the infolding of 
the arms. Spread of calyx from base to upper secundibrachs, about i to 3 ; 
height to width at that level, 1 to 1.5; side outline but slightly convex; 
20 



306 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

cross-section circular; base larger than proximal columnal. Surface smooth. 
Crown of maximum specimen, 27 mm high by 20 mm wide at upper secundi- 
brachs; width of base at infrabasals, 6 mm. 

Infrabasals small, not visible beyond the column. Basals large, show- 
ing a full pentagon in side view. Anal x large, perhaps followed by another. 
Radianal smaller than radials in other rays. Brachials four times wider 
than high, evenly curved, without surface angularity or imbrication; 
secundibrachs mostly four, abnormally eight; tertibrachs five to eight or 
more, with another bifurcation visible in some rays. Column of good 
size, proximal columnals not enlarged; alternating nodal joints becoming 
rounded a short distance below. 

This species was founded upon a specimen from the New Scotland 
beds of the Helderbergian of New York, and described under Ichthyo- 
crinus. Miss Talbot's description and diagram, while in other respects 
excellent, are not correct in representing four primary plates in each ray. 
The specimen is partly imbedded in the matrix, leaving only three rays 
exposed, and these injured by weathering, so that the plate can be well 
distinguished in only two of them. One has four, the other three. No 
other species or specimen of this family is known in which there are four 
primary plates (radial and three primibrachs) in all the rays, except in the 
Carboniferous. From these facts we must infer that the ray with the four 
plates is the right posterior with the radianal in primitive position, and 
that there are a radial and two primibrachs in each of the other four 
rays. 

This is confirmed by the discovery of another specimen from the same 
horizon in New York in which the crown is free and the anal structures 
clearly shown, thus leaving no doubt as to its generic position under 
Clidochirus. The stem in the type specimen also is that of this 
genus, and not of Ichthyocrinus. This species added to the one 
from West Virginia, brings the range of the genus strongly into the 
Devonian. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone at Clarksville 
and Schoharie, N. Y. 

Type in the Yale University Museum, New Haven, Conn. The 
other specimen figured here is in the collection of Doctor Springer, now 
deposited in the United States National Museum. 

Remarks. One of the figures of this species (figure 2) has been 
reproduced from the original drawing prepared by Doctor Springer. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 307 

Genus SYNAPTOCRINUS Springer 1920 

Springer's description. Ichthyocrinidae with rays usually in contact 
all around. Crown elongate, expanding distally from radials up. Infra- 
basals entirely within the ring of basals. Posterior basal elongate, much 
larger than others. No radianal. Anals and interbrachials usually want- 
ing. Primibrachs two. Arms dichotomous, interlocking or closely 
appressed. Column strong, enlarging proximally, covering a large part 
of the basals. 

Genotype. Forbesiocrinus nuntius Hall. 

Distribution. Devonian; United States. 

• 

Synaptocrinus nuntius (Hall) 

Plate 38, figures 3-7 

1862 Forbesiocrinus nuntius Hall. 1 5th Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 124 
1865 Taxocrinus nuntius Meek & Worthen. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 

9:140 
1868 Taxocrinus nuntius Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 1398 
1S72 Forbesiocrinus nuntius Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 12. 

(Photographic plates distributed privately.) 
1877 Taxocrinus nuntius S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 92 
1879 Taxocrinus nuntius Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 1, 

p. 49 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:272 
1889 Taxocrinus nuntius S. A. Miller. N. Amer. G20I. & Pal., p. 285 

1899 Taxocrinus nuntius Grabau. Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., nos. 2, 3, 4, 

p. 145, fig. 27 

1900 Taxocrinus nuntius Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

11 : 198 
1920 Sypaptocrinus nuntius Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 302, pi. 38, figs. 3-6 

Springer's description. Type of the genus. Specimens usually small, 
but may attain large size. Crown elongate, widest about the third bifur- 
cation, where height to width is i to 1.3; spread of calyx from perimeter 
of column facet to the primaxil, 1 to 2.5; cross section at that level stellate; 
side outline straight; base concave, the concavity filled by column and 
including the basals except for small points sometimes exposed. Rays 
strongly elevated and angular in the middle; primary plates and axillaries 



308 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

nodose; sutures sinuous. Surface strongly ornamented with small papillae, 
tending to coalesce into longitudinal wrinkles. A large crown is 20 mm 
high to about the fourth bifurcation, probably extending considerably 
higher; width, 24 mm; base outside of column, 7 mm. 

Infrabasals small, filling about half the diameter of column facet. 
Basals small, visible only in small angles beyond the column, except the 
posterior basal, which is greatly elongated, extending to the full height 
of the radials, and terminating in an acute angle, leaving no surface for 
attachment of anal plates. Radials wider above than below, elevated 
into large, angular, median nodes resembling short spines projecting down- 
ward over the proximal columnals, with lateral margins flattened toward 
the sutures; similar nodes surmount the two primibrachs and all the 
axillaries beyond, the intervening brachials being elevated and sharply 
angular in the middle. All brachial plates are much wider than long, and 
have the lateral margins abruptly deflected from the median elevated 
part into low, winglike buttresses, which meet at the interradial sutures 
and interlock; just at the edge they often have a slight elevation or fold 
parallel to the median line, strongly resembling rows of interbrachial plates. 
Primibrachs increasing rapidly in width upward in line with margins of 
radials. Secundibrachs three; tertibrachs about four to six or seven, the 
longer intervals being in the outer rami, some branches bifurcating once 
more. Column large next to the calyx, where it fills the concave base; 
it diminishes gradually for about a dozen moderately thick, rounded and 
equal ossicles, with thin projecting rims; below that they become thicker 
and more rounded, with large ones at intervals of four or five. 

The description of brachial structures is chiefly taken from the large 
specimen obtained at a different locality from the type (plate 38, figures 
5, 6) ; the nodes are less accentuated in smaller specimens, but the angulari- 
ties and general features of surface marking are the same. Out of four 
well-marked specimens, three are about equally small; but notwithstanding 
the great disparity in size of the large one, I am unable to see any specific 
difference between them. The sharply angular distal end of the posterior 
basal, constant in all the specimens, precludes any suggestion of anal 
structures. Since the foregoing description was prepared I have obtained 
from the type locality in Erie county another still larger specimen, measuring 
45 mm high by 35 mm wide. It is so encrusted with pyrites that the 
detailed structures are obliterated, but the nodose axillaries are almost 
spiniferous. 

Hall in describing the species notes its remarkable resemblance to 
"Forbesiocrinus" thiemei, now the type of Wachs- 
muthicrinus, as well as its difference from that species in arm 
structure. This resemblance is heightened by the nodose and spiniferous 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 309 

character of the axillaries so conspicuous in the specimens found since 
his time. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds. Type from Ham- 
burg, Erie county; probably the Moscow shales. Specimens have been 
collected at Eighteen Mile creek, Erie county, and Bellona, Yates county, 
N. Y. Bellona specimen undoubtedly from the Moscow shales. Species 
also reported from the Ludlowville shales of Eighteen Mile creek (Grabau, 
1899, p. 145). 

Types. Hall's original is in the collection of the American Museum 
of Natural History, number ^ ^ . Other specimens are in Columbia Uni- 
versity and in the collection of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. All the figures of this species have been reproduced from 
the original drawings prepared by Doctor Springer. 

Suborder TAXOCRINOIDEA Springer 
Family taxocrinidae Bather (em. Springer) 

Genus EUTAXOCRINUS Springer 1906 

Springer 's description. Taxocrinidae with rays not abutting over 
interbrachials. Infrabasals low, taking little part in calyx wall. Posterior 
basal elongate. Radianal if present only in upper oblique position. Inter- 
brachials few or none. Primibrachs two. Arms dichotomous, usually 
divergent. Column usually enlarging next to calyx. Otherwise as in 
Taxocrinus. 

Genotype. Taxocrinus affinis Muller. 

Distribution. Silurian to lower part of Lower Carboniferous; Con- 
tinental Europe, the United States and Canada. 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis (Williams) 

Plate 39, figures 1-4 

1882 Taxocrinus ithacensis Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 34, 

pt. 1, p. 28, pi. 1, fig. 10 
1884 Taxocrinus ithacensis Williams. Bui. U. S. Geol. Soc, no. 3, pp. 12, 24 
1886 Taxocrinus ithacensis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3 , 

p. 144 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:68 
1889 Taxocrinus ithacensis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 285 



310 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

1896 Taxocrinus ithacensis Kindle. Bui. Amer. Pal., v. 2, p. 35 
1920 Eutaxocrinus ithacensis Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 367, pi. 50, figs. 
1. 3 

Springer's description. A small species. Crown elongate, turbinate, 
narrowly expanding to the tertibrachs, where height to width is 1.2 to 
1. Calyx narrow, with small base; side outline straight, spreading to top 
of primaxil, 1 to 2.6; height to width, 1 to 1.2. Arms broadly rounded, 
tapering rapidly to small ends. Rays with smooth margins, increasing 
in width from radials up leaving only narrow, elongate spaces. No inter- 
brachials. Surface smooth. 

Infrabasals low, like a columnal. Basals small. Primibrachs increasing 
in width upward. Secundibrachs three or four, the latter number pre- 
dominating; two more bifurcations beyond, after which the arms infold. 
Column large and long, enlarging at the calyx where it is flush with the 
basal ring, and also toward the root ; proximal columnals very thin, strongly 
crenulated, narrowing for about 5 mm, beyond which alternate columnals 
increase in length somewhat irregularly, until toward the middle of the 
stem they become long and convex; this continues until the column ends 
in an encrusting root. Dimensions of type: height of crown, 19 mm; 
width, 10 mm; base, 3 mm; length of stem, 180 mm; diameter at calyx, 
3.2 mm; at end of conical enlargement, 2 mm; near root, 3 mm. 

Doctor Williams in describing this species figured sections of the stem, 
which is substantially complete, with its root attached to a Spirifer, 
as shown b}^ my figure 1 on plate L (plate 39, figure 1), a few columnals 
only being missing at the fracture. The original figure is misleading and 
quite fails to show the slender turbinate outline of the crown and narrow 
interbrachial spaces; compared with my figure, which is made with photo- 
graphic accuracy direct from the type, it would scarcely be supposed to 
have been from the same specimen. The secundibrachs are inconstant, 
varying from three to four, sometimes five. The anal side is not shown. 

This species comes from the Ithaca formation. It bears considerable 
resem.blance to Taxocrinus communis, from the base of the 
Carboniferous, from which it might not be easily distinguished but for 
the number of primibrachs. This and the next species occur rather 
plentifully in the shales about Cayuga lake, chiefly in the form of natural 
molds; but the type specimen is well preserved in its rotund condition. 
Apparently the attachment of the stem to other objects is a frequent con- 
dition, as Williams says it was found in several cases. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (Ithaca), Sherburne sandstone, 

Reticularia laevis beds, at Ithaca, N. Y., and from the Ithaca 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 311 

beds in the ravine east of South Otselic about 200 feet above the bottom 
section. Specimens referred to this species come from the Ithaca beds 
at Montour Falls. 

Types in the Cornell University Museum. Plastotypes are in the 
collection of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. Two of the figures here used are reproduced from the 
originals prepared by Doctor Springer. One (plate 39, figure 1) is Williams' 
principal type. Another specimen, a young form referred to this species, 
is also figured here (figure 3). This specimen shows a very prominent, 
large, rounded columnal immediately below the most proximal thin colum- 
nals. Springer, in a letter to me, stated that this was not uncommon 
among young forms of this and other species, and that he did not attach 
importance to it. 

I have referred to this species two specimens from the Ithaca beds, 
Montour Falls, one of which is too crushed for use. The other is figured 
here (figure 4); it shows the posterior side -of the calyx. The left posterior 
ray shows two bifurcations above the primaxil. The first bifurcation is 
on the third secundibrach, the second on the sixth tertibrach. Both the 
inner and outer branches of the first bifurcation show the second bifurcation 
on the fifth tertibrach. This variation in the higher brachials, I think, 
may well be expected within the species. The habit of this specimen is 
somewhat more spreading than in the type, but I think this, in large part, 
is due to the manner of preservation. 

Eutaxocrinus alpha (Williams) 

Plate 39, figures 5-13 

1882 Taxocrinus ithacensis var. alpha Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. v. 34, pt. 1, p. 29 
1920 Eutaxocrinus alpha Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 368, pi. 50, figs. 2, 4, 5 

Springer's description. When describing the preceding species Doctor 
Williams gave the varietal name alpha to a small form occurring at 
the same localities, but from a higher horizon. He published no figures, 



312 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

but later furnished me casts from the original natural molds of the 
specimens which he regarded as types; these are shown by my figures 2 
and 4 on plate L (see plate 39, figures 5, 6), to which I added figure 5 (see 
plate 39, figure 7) of a specimen with a long stem having prominent elongate 
columnals. After the plate was printed I came into possession of a number 
of similar specimens of this variety having more or less of the stem pre- 
served, all exhibiting a striking uniformity in the small size and in the 
stem characters. The crown is usually less than 5 mm in height, with the 
arms limited to two visible bifurcations; and the stem is proportionally 
very long — in one case 15 cm without reaching the extremity. There are 
a few thin ossicles conically enlarging next to the calyx, followed by 
alternating ossicles with the larger ones convex; in the median part the 
columnals increase in size, becoming rather uniformly elongate, barrel- 
shaped or doubly-conical; beyond this the stem diminishes gradually to 
a slender thread, and the columnals become cylindrical and proportionally 
very much elongated. These are all thoroughly juvenile characters; but 
in view of the difference in horizon, and greater regularity in the size and 
proportions of the stem ossicles in a good series of specimens, it is advisable 
to recognize this form as a full species, of which figure 5 (see figure 7) repre- 
sents the typical form, rather than figures 2 and 4. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds at Ithaca, N. Y., 
in layers about 300 feet above those with E. ithacensis; and 
from the lower Chemung beds (Hydnoceras colony) at Avoca, 
Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types in the Cornell University Museum. Squeezes of the types 
and other specimens are in the collection of Doctor Springer and the New 
York State Museum. 

Remarks. The figures shown here on plate 39, figures 5-7, are repro- 
duced from the originals prepared by Doctor Springer. 

There are in the New York State Museum a series of young specimens 
referred to this species, from the lower Chemung beds of Avoca, Steuben 
county. Some of them are illustrated, enlarged, on plate 39, figures 8-13. 
Two of the specimens (figures 10 and 11) show a subradial plate which 
is not shown in any of the other specimens, not even in the one in which 
we have the mold of both sides. This plate was at first thought to be 
part of the basal, and was interpreted to be an extra high basal such as is 
seen in some of the larval forms of Antedon; but plasticine squeezes 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 313 

brought out the suture lines, which closer study showed were also visible 
on the mold. This extra plate bulges out beyond the radials and the 
basal cup. These very young forms recall the hypothetical ancestral form 
of the Flexibilia (Springer 1906, p. 493, pi. 5, fig. 9). 

Eutaxocrinus curtus (Williams) 

Plate 39, figures 14-17 
1882 Taxocrinus curtus Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 34, pt. 1, 

P- 3° 
1884 Taxocrinus curtus Williams. Bui. U. S. Geol. Soc, no. 3, pp. 12, 24 
1886 Taxocrinus curtus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, p. 144 

(authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:68 
1889 Taxocrinus curtus S.E. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 285 
1896 Taxocrinus curtus Kindle. Bui. Amer. Pal., 2:34 
1920 Eutaxocrinus curtus Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 369, pi. 50, figs. 6-9 

Springer's description. A small species. Crown short, stout, more 
or less rotund, widest about the upper secundibrachs ; height to width 
about 1 to 1. Dimensions of mature specimen, 16 mm high by 15 mm 
wide; base, 4.5 mm. Calyx low, broadly expanding with side outline 
convex; height to width 1 to 2; base broad; spread of calyx from base to 
primaxil, 1 to 2.2. Infrabasals hidden by column. Basals very small. 
Rays wide and heavy, and strongly increasing in width from radials to 
axillary secundibrachs, above which the divisions become very small, in 
young specimens looking like mere threads. No interbrachials, and spaces 
very narrow and elongate. Secundibrachs three or four, irregularly. 
Column large, enlarging at the calyx with thin columnals which alternate with 
longer and more convex ones farther down ; mode of termination unknown. 

This species is found associated with E. ithacensis, from 
which it is well distinguished by its broad and short crown and more blunt 
habit generally. Williams' description was made from a young specimen, 
on which he noted as a character that the stem does not enlarge next to 
the calyx. This is not the case in the adult, like the fine specimen from 
the New York State Museum shown by figure 8 of plate L {see plate 39, 
figure 16) ; and there is a notable difference among specimens in this respect 
due to age. The appearance of branching roots in figure 6 {see plate 39, 
figure 14) is misleading, caused by incidental depressions in the somewhat 
injured natural mold from which the impression was taken; the specimens 
are mostly in that condition. 



314 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. Upper Devonian, Chemung group; Ithaca and 
Avoca, N. Y. Williams gives the horizon as Portage. There is reason 
to believe that the type specimen, which he did not figure but of which 
he sent me an impression from the original natural mold, identified as 
the type, was associated with variety alpha rather than with i t h a - 
c e n s i s , and therefore belongs to the Chemung. The originals of figures 
8 and 9 (figures 16 and 17) are from the Chemung beds at Avoca, Steuben 
county, in which E. alpha also occurs; the two species being thus 
associated at this locality probably occur in the same formation at the 
type locality also. The horizon of figure 7 (figure 15) is doubtful, and I 
regard figures 6, 8 and 9 (figures 14, 16, 17) as controlling for the characters 
of the species. 

Types. Museum Cornell University, Ithaca. 

Remarks. Two of the figures used here (figures 14 and 15) are repro- 
duced from the originals prepared by Doctor Springer. 

The specimens of this species coming from Avoca were collected in 
the Hydnoceras colony at Cotton hill. 

(?) Eutaxocrinus pulcher Springer 

Plate 38, figures 8-10 
1920 (?) Eutaxocrinus pulcher Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 369, pi. 75, fig. 10 

Springer's description. A medium-sized species, of delicate and graceful 
habitus. Crown elongate, very narrow, spreading but little from the base 
where it is flush with the top columnal. An average uncompressed specimen 
has the crown 40 mm high; 10 mm wide; base, 6 mm; calyx at top of 
axillary primibrach about as high as wide. Interbrachials wanting, or 
irregular; when present they are usually hidden by close apposition of the 
arms ; and anal interradius extremely narrow, with posterior basal but 
slightly differentiated; anal tube not observed, but must have been very 
small. Arms tapering gradually to the fourth bifurcation, with relatively 
long brachials, and upper division series long and slender. Sutures strongly 
arcuate throughout. Column large, with wide proximal enlargement. 
Surface smooth. 

Infrabasals low, not higher than a thin columnal. Basals short. 
Radials and primibrachs large and of nearly equal size. Secundibrachs 
four, about half as wide as preceding plates; higher brachials diminishing 
by about one-half at each bifurcation, but the long branches themselves 
taper but little. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 315 

This species is of remarkably graceful contour, with flowing lines 
and gentle curves. It is not as well illustrated as is desirable, because 
overlooked until all the plates for the Taxocrinidae were printed. 
The specimen figured on plate 75 {see plate 38, figure 8 J is much flattened, 
and does not show the almost cylindrical form of the uncompressed crown. 
The anal interradius can scarcely be distinguished from the others, and 
upon the evidence of the specimens in the New York State Museum originally 
studied it was thought to be undifferentiated. Material subsequently 
collected by me at the type locality furnished some additional information, 
from which it appears that the posterior basal is somewhat larger than 
the others, but of similar shape; and that the anal and other interbrachial 
areas may be occupied by plates or perisome irregular in shape, size and 
position, so far as can be seen from the exterior — largely due to the close 
compression of the rays, whereby the interradial structures are pushed 
to the inside and only incidentally exposed. There may be a small tube, 
invisible in the fossils as found, and the lowest plate of such a tube would 
be entirely separated from the posterior basal, but supported on the 
shoulders of the radials — the basal not being suturally connected with 
the plates succeeding it. The specimens upon which we have to depend 
occur in a micaceous sandstone, mostly in the form of natural molds; 
in the few which have the skeleton preserved the preservation is unfavorable 
for definition of the sutures and finer structures. With the information 
now available the reference to the present genus must be made with doubt. 
Additional figures which I had prepared will be published in the forth- 
coming work on the New York Devonian crinoids now in course of 
preparation by the New York State Museum. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Belmont, N. Y. 
A poor mold of what appears to be the same species was collected by 
Mr Charles Butts in the Chemung beds at Alfred, X. Y. 

Types in the New York State Museum. Other specimens in the 
New York State Museum and in the collection of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. I have refigured here the type specimen figured by Doctor 
Springer. Two other specimens in the New York State Museum are here 
figured. The original drawings were prepared, but not used, by Doctor 
Springer; and through his kindness I have had them for reproduction 
here (plate 38, figures 9, 10 j. 



31 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

(?) Eutaxocrinus amplus Springer 

Plate 38, figure 1 1 
iy2o (?) E u t a x o or i n u « amplus Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 370, pi. 50, fig. 10 

Springer's description. An extraordinarily large species. Crown 
elongate and robust; the type and only specimen is 70 mm high by 30 mm 
wide; base, 10 mm; height to width of calyx at primaxil, 1 to 1.3; spread 
from base, 1 to 2. Side outline convex. Arms very strong throughout, 
not diminishing rapidly upward; sutures broadly arcuate. Interbrachials 
present. Anal structures unknown. Surface smooth. 

Infrabasals very low, not distinguishable from a columnal. Basals 
small, in form of low pentagons. Radials and primibrachs . three times 
as large as the basals, not materially widening upward, twice as wide as high, 
and of nearly equal size. Secundibrachs four; these and higher brachials 
in each division of about the same size, wider than high, and each about 
two-thirds as wide as those of the preceding division. Branching above 
the secundibrachs somewhat irregular, with five to ten plates in outer ramus 
of tertibrachs and four to seven in the inner, and longer intervals above; 
one ray probably injured and recuperated. Arms extending beyond fourth 
bifurcation, and infolding at about that level. Interbrachials few, narrow 
and elongate, in two or three ranges; a small intersecundibrach present. 
Column large, tapering rapidly from the calyx at first and then gradually 
until becoming cylindrical, with slightly alternating columnals of even 
diameter. 

This species is proposed upon a single specimen from the New York 
Chemung, being an impression from a natural mold in the collection 
of the late Professor James Hall now in the University of Chicago. In its 
peculiarly large and robust habit it is unlike any other of this genus, and 
looks more like a specimen of Onychocrinus ramulosus. This 
resemblance is heightened by the presence of two or three irregular ramule- 
like arm-branches, but in general structure the arms are in nowise like 
those of that genus. Lack of knowledge of the anal structures makes 
the generic position of the species uncertain. 

Horizon and locality. From the upper Chemung beds, Binghamton, 
New York. 

Type. Plastotype and only known specimen in Chicago University, 
Walker Museum. 

Remarks. The figure of the species used here was reproduced from the 
original drawing prepared by Doctor Springer. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 317 

Eutaxocrinus dumosus sp. nov. 

Plate 38, figure 12 

Eutaxocrinus dumosus is of medium size with turbinate 
body and comparatively short arms. The crown when complete would 
have measured at least 30 mm. Cup low, of the same width as the column 
in the proximal portion (5.5 mm) ; gradually increasing in width upward, 
having a width at the radials of 7 mm.. 

Dorsal cup. Infrabasals can scarcely be distinguished from the thin 
columnals. They form a very thin ring at the top of the column. Basals 
of comparatively large size; an average one has a height of 1.7 mm and 
a breadth of 3.1 mm. Radials somewhat over twice as wide as high, an 
average one having a width of 3.3 mm and a height of 1.5 mm. Practically 
no variation in width in the radial series. Upper margins of the radials 
slightly arcuate. 

Tegmen not preserved. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, both considerably wider than high, with 
slightly arcuate upper margins. The first quadrangular, an average one 
having a width of 4 mm and a height of 1.6 mm; primaxils pentagonal 
giving rise to 2 x 5 arms. An average one has a width of 4 mm and a 
greatest height of 2.1 mm. 

Arms bifurcate on the fifth or sixth brachial above the primaxil; and 
again on the fifth brachial above this, but only on the inner branch of 
each half ray. Secundibrachs about one-half the width of the primibrachs, 
the series decreasing gradually in size upwards and flaring out again on the 
secundaxil. Tips of arms not shown, but arms apparently not much 
longer; no indication that a third bifurcation might be expected. Upper 
margins of brachials slightly arcuate. 

Column. About 46 mm preserved. Gradually decreases in width, 
having a diameter at the place of attachment to the calyx of 5.5 mm, in 
the most distal part preserved of 3.2 mm. For a distance of 22 mm column 
made up of very thin columnals of about the same thickness. From this 



31 8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

point on there is a variation in size, thin columnals alternating with thick 
ones, or it may be that two or three thin ones occur between the thicker 
ones. All columnals have crenulate margins. 

Horizon and locality. From the Ithaca beds, De Ruyter, N. Y. A 
younger specimen from the west side of Cayuga lake, near Ithaca, perhaps 
belongs to this species. It is in a poorly preserved condition and not 
much can be made out of it. 

Types originally in the collection of D. S. Chatfield. Gutta-percha 
squeezes in the New York State Museum and in the collection of Doctor 
Springer. 

Remarks. The species to which E . dumosus bears the closest 

resemblance is E. ithacensis (Williams) . The calyx in the latter 
is more spreading than in the former. In dumosus there- are five 

or six secundibrachs, whereas ithacensis has four (rarely five). The 

thin columnals in dumosus cover twice the distance that they do in 

ithacensis, and the margins of the articulating faces of all the 

columnals are crenulate. 

Genus TAXOGRINUS Phillips 1843 

Springer's description. Taxocrinidae with rays not abutting over 
interbrachial areas. Infrabasals low, forming but a small part of the calyx 
wall ; sometimes entirely concealed by the column. Posterior basal elongate. 
Radianal only in upper oblique position. Interbrachials variable, usually 
present in lower part of area; frequently numerous, with distal margin 
crescentic, rising toward the rays; sometimes wanting. Primibrachs three. 
-Arms dichotomous, divergent. Column usually enlarging proximally. 
Tegmen composed of pliant skin with calcareous spicules imbedded, traversed 
by calcified ambulacra passing between parted orals to an open mouth. 
Anal opening excentric, at the end of a tube formed by extension of the 
ventral perisome and supported at the posterior side by a vertical series 
of anal plates. 

Genotype. Cyathocrinus ? macrodactylus Phillips. 

Distribution. Middle Devonian to close of Lower Carboniferous; 
Great Britain, Belgium, and the United States. 

Remarks. There is only one representative of this genus in the New 

York Devonian, Taxocrinus lobatus (Hall). Hall (1864, p. 55; 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 319 

1875, p. 169) referred to Taxocrinus communis a specimen 
from the Chemung at Forestville, Chautauqua county, N. Y. There was 
only a single specimen and one side of this was buried in the rock. This 
specimen is not in the New York State Museum and has not been located. 
No evidence has been found of the occurrence of this species in the Chemung 
of New York. It is described by Doctor Springer in his recent Monograph 
as one of the earliest Carboniferous occurrences of the genus from the 
lowest part of the Waverly Group, Richfield, Ohio. Hall (1875, pi. 12, 
figs. 3, 4, 5) figured three specimens under this species, only one of which 
(figure 3) belongs there. The others (figures 4, 5) belong under For- 
besiocrinus (Springer 1.920, plate 52, figures 1-4). 

Taxocrinus lobatus (Hall) 

Plate 39, figures 18-20 

1862 Forbesiocrinus lobatus Hall. 15th Rep't N. Y. State Cab, Nat. 

Hist., p. 124 
1868 Forbesiocrinus lobatus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:371 
1872 Forbesiocrinus lobatus Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 11. 

(Photographic plates distributed privately.) 
1877 Forbesiocrinus lobatus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 79 
1879 Taxocrinus lobatus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 1, 

p. 49 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:272 
1889 Taxocrinus lobatus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 286 

1900 Taxocrinus lobatus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 198 

1 90 1 Taxocrinus lobatus (in err.) Shimer & Grabau. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 

13:185 
1904 Forbesiocrinus lobatus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

63:5s 
1904 Taxocrinus lobatus Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., v. 47, no. 1471, 

p. 81 
1920 Taxocrinus lobatus Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 386, pi. 52, figs. 9-1 1 
Not Taxocrinus lobatus var. Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 2, 

1889, p. 94, pi. 12, fig. 1 



320 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Springer's description. A medium-sized species. Crown elongate, 
turbinate below; height to width at second axillaries, 1.9 to 1. Calyx 
narrowly spreading, 1 to 3, with nearly straight sides; height to width 
at primaxil, 1 to 1.4. Arms large and deeply rounded, strongly divergent, 
tapering very gradually, the first division series being almost as large as the 
primibrachs; infolding about the fourth bifurcation, but much longer and 
bifurcating further beyond; sutures strongly arcuate, and a strong node 
on each axillary. Interbrachial spaces wide, chiefly filled with strong 
perisome. Anal tube large and prominent. Surface smooth. Crown of 
mature specimen, 41 mm high; 22 m.m wide; base, 6 mm. 

Infrabasals low but showing well above the column. Basals fairly 
large, with acute angles. Posterior basal extremely large and broad with 
very wide concave socket, supporting a large anal tube with lower plates 
large, as wide as high, becoming shorter above, and bordered on both 
sides with wide areas of very strong perisome. Radials and primibrachs 
of similar form and size, almost as long as wide. Primibrachs three, 
exceptionally two; secundibrachs four, sometimes five, nearly as wide as 
the primibrachs. Tertibrachs 6 on inner and about 8 in outer division. 
Interbrachials 1 to 3, and small intertertibrachs sometimes present, followed 
by extensive perisome. Column unknown. 

The brachials throughout in this species are much longer than is usual 
for the genus, and the development of anal structures and perisome much 
more profuse than in any other Devonian species, recalling those of the 
later Subcarboniferous. In arm structure it superficially resembles T . 
kelloggi, but it has a much narrower and more conical calyx, and 
is very different in other details. The type specimen is in poor condition, 
and does not show the structures plainly; it seems, however, to have but 
two primibrachs in part of the rays, whereas the other two extremely 
well-marked specimens have three consistently throughout. One of 
these (figure 10; our figure 19) shows all the characters of the species 
most beautifully; and the other (figure 11), though not so perfect, fully 
confirms it. The latter has a Gasteropod commensally attached over the 
anus. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, at 

Bristol, Ontario county, and at Canandaigua lake, N. Y. 

Types. Hall's original (figure 18), in the American Museum of Natural 

History, number 5_34. Other specimens in the New York State Museum 

and in the collection of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. For figure 19, plate 39, the original drawing prepared 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 32 1 

by Doctor Springer was used. Type specimen, as figured here (plate 39, 
figure 18), shows 8 mm of column; composed of thin columnals which 
gradually become longer. Column in the most proximal part with a 
diameter of 3.6 mm; but it narrows rapidly, and at a distance of 6 mm 
has a diameter of 2.3 mm. Hall (1862, p. 124; 1872, pi. 1, fig. 11) figured 
and described this specimen with the column attached. When I received 
the specimen the column was separated from the crown; I have figured it 
attached as in the original figure. 

There are in the New York State Museum parts of three columns which 
unquestionably belong to this species. In one case (plate 39, figure 20) the 
column is preserved for a length of 17 cm and beyond this the impression 
of the column is preserved for 2.5 cm. This column is attached to a crushed 
calyx, so that its character is beautifully shown from the most proximal 
part. Round; for a distance of about 8 mm composed of thin columnals 
of the same size. At the base of the calyx width 5.4 mm; at a distance 
of 8 mm diameter 3.5 mm; and practically this same diameter maintained 
for the remainder of the column, so far as preserved. In the more proximal 
portion there is an alternation in the size of the columnals; usually every 
eighth columnal enlarged and projecting beyond the others forming a 
nodal columnal. In the more distal portion of the stem columnals 
practically of the same size; even the nodals disappear or become much 
less prominent. 

Springer has noted in his description the presence of a gastropod 
commensally attached over the anus in one of his specimens. This appar- 
ently is not an uncommon occurrence in this species, for among the 
few specimens which represent it in the New York State Museum two 
show this commensal relation, one a young specimen and the other an 

adult. 

21 



322 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Order INADUNATA Wachsmuth & Springer 

Suborder LARVIFORMIA Wachsmuth & Springer 
Family pisocrinidae Angelin 

Genus HYPSOCRINUS Springer & Slocom 1906 
Hypsocrinus fieldi Springer & Slocom 

Plate 40, figures 1-5 

[906 Hypsocrinus fieldi Springer & Slocom. Field Mus. Pub., no. 114, Geol. 
ser., v. 2, no. 9, p. 296, pi. 81, figs. 1-6 

This New York species was recently described by Springer and Slocom. 
No representative in the New York State Museum ; holotype and only known 
species in the Field Columbian Museum, Chicago, 111. 

Original description. Calyx elongate, cylindrical, slightly expanding 
to the arm bases. Base truncate; basal facet broad, slightly concave, 
entirely filled by the column; axial canal stellate or pentagonal, interradial 
in position. Basals very elongate, forming two-fifths to half the height of 
the cup. Radials, three large and two small, all arm-bearing; the two 
smaller ones short, wider than high, separated from the basals by three 
much more elongate inferradials, one of which is directly beneath the 
right posterior radial, and represents the radianal ; the other two are for the 
most part directly under the right anterior radial, whose lower margin meets 
them by an obtuse angle, but in part obliquely under the left lower corner 
of the anterior radial, meeting it by a curved suture; the other three radials 
are large and elongate plates. Arm facets very shallow, curved, not entirely 
filling the distal face of the radials, but leaving short, sloping shoulders 
between, which are rounded off exteriorly, but probably formed a support 
for oral plates in the tegmen. Arms simple, uniserial, tapering rapidly, 
and doubtless very short. No trace of a dorsal canal in radials or 
brachials. Anal structures and tegmen unknown. Surface smooth; calyx 
plates slightly rounded, and sutures distinct. Stem unknown; but it was 
large at the proximal end, as the radiate markings of its articulation are 
visible to the edge of the basal facet. 

Horizon and locality. Devonian; Hamilton group (Moscow shale). 
Found near East Bethany, New York. 

The specific name is in honor of Marshall Field, the founder of the 
Field Columbian Museum., where the type specimen is deposited. 

Remarks. Springer and Slocom state that they have omitted from 

their description some details apparent enough in the figures, which might 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 323 

be abnormal or due to individual variation, such as the lateral bulging, 
because there was only one specimen at hand. Since asymmetry is fre- 
quently characteristic of this group, they think it quite probable that 
other specimens will show the same character. 

Construction of the tegmen unknown. Springer and Slocom state: 
' ' The tegmen is clearly not an elevated pyramid like that of Haplo- 
c r i n u s, but, beyond this, no opinion can be ventured with our present 
knowledge " (p . 271). 

Pisocrinus and Haplocrinus are the two genera most 
nearly related to Hypsocrinus structurally. 

Family anamesocrinidae nov. 

Family created to contain the new genus Anamesocrinus. 
Forms small, monocyclic, with five basals, regular in form and size. Three 
of the radials, the right anterior, left anterior and right posterior compound. 
Each radial supports several arms. The two posterior radials support 
on their shoulders the first plate of what appears to be an armlike anal 
tube. 

This new family differs from the Pisocrinidae in having three 
radials bisected and in the numerous arms. Among the Hetero- 
crinidae, it resembles the Ordovician genus Ectenocrinus 
in the character of the dorsal cup. The numerous arms to each radial 
recall the Catillocrinidae. 

Genus ANAMESOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. dvd[xeaoq, intermediate; xptvov, lily] 

Genus represented in the New York State Museum by ten specimens, 
all of the same species. Description, however, based upon the three 
figured here (plate 40, figures 6-9) since they best show the details. Genus 
seems to be of intermediate character. Dorsal cup like that of the 
Ordovician genus Ectenocrinus ; arms resembling those of the 
lower Carboniferous genus Catillocrinus. 



324 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Since only the one species is known the specific description serves for 

both genus and species. 

Genotype. Anamesocrinus lutheri sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage and lower Chemung) of 

New York. 

Anamesocrinus lutheri sp. nov. 

Plate 40, figures 6-9; text figure 53 

A very beautiful little crinoid. Because 
of its small cup and the long, slender, 




/V^YV-''^^ unbranching arms, it bears a decided resem- 

„. , 1 . , . , , blance to a tassel. It is so delicate that 

Figure 53 Analysis ot calyx of A n a m e - 

socrinus lutheri, the genotype; some of the Portage material (Laona sand- 

/, the first plate of the anal tube (?). s .... . . 

stone) only shows taint impressions of the 
arms and poor, crushed preservation of the calyces. In other material 
from the Lower Chemung beds (plate 4c, figures 8, 9) only the molds 
remain and the drawings have been made and the specimens studied from 
the gutta-percha squeezes. On a small piece of shale from the Lower 
Chemung, Fillmore, N. Y., two specimens are well preserved, one showing 
the crown and the other the crown and the column. These have consti- 
tuted the best material for the description of the species. 

As noted above, species small ; crown in the different specimens showing 
a length of 12 mm, 15 mm, 10.5 mm, 14.5 mm, etc. The measurements 
given in the description will be taken from the specimens figured on plate 
40, figures 6-8. 

Dorsal cup conical, having a width at the base in one specimen of 1 
mm and at the arms of about 2.5 mm. Another specimen shows the same 
width at the base and a width at the arms of 2.8 mm. 

Basals five, pentagonal, average ones having a height of 1 mm and a 
breadth of 1.5 mm, and a height and breadth of 1.5 mm. 

Of the five radials three are compound, more or less equally bisected 
transversely — the left anterolateral, right posterior, right anterolateral. 
A typical radial gives a height and width of about 1.7 mm. Compound 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 325 

radials slightly narrower than the others. Upper edges of the radials 
bear small sockets for the reception of the arms. 

Only two specimens show the posterior side of the calyx. In one, the 
right posterior and right anterolateral compound radials are shown ; posterior 
interradius not visible. The other specimen apparently showed the posterior 
interradius. This specimen was figured under Doctor Kirk's supervision 
(plate 40, figure 7), and afterwards a wax impression was taken which 
removed the crown and the upper part of the column from the shale to 
the wax permanently, thus exposing the anterior side of the crown (plate 
40, figure 6). The specimen is so delicate that it is utterly impossible to 
attempt to remove the specimen for study of the posterior side. All the 
figures made under Doctor Kirk's supervision have been very carefully 
and accurately drawn, so his figure (plate 40, figure 7) is used here for 
description. A small plate similar to the anal plate of Ectenocrinus 
(Bather, 1900, p. 146) rests upon the shoulders of the left posterior radial 
and the right posterior super-radial. This plate is very suggestive of an 
anal or first tube plate. The fact that the figure shows an arm resting 
upon it need not be given great weight for the specimen is in a crushed 
condition and several arms have been pushed out of place. 

Tegmen not exposed in any of the specimens. 

Arms simple, very slender, about four or five times as long as the 
calyx, and, with the exception of the first brachial of each arm, made up 
of few, long brachials, measuring 2.2 mm, 3 mm, etc., the proximal ones 
being the longest. First brachial of each arm very short (about .3 mm) ; 
not much longer than wide. There is some difficulty in ascertaining the 
number of arms to a ray because they are missing or pushed out of position 
in those specimens where an entire radius is visible. From a study of the 
different specimens, five seems to be the correct number to a ray in the 
larger forms, thus giving a total of twenty-five arms. One specimen, a 
smaller form figured on plate 40, figures 6, 7, seems to have fewer arms 
(two or three) borne by the compound radials. 

Column round; expanded at the point of attachment to the calyx, 



326 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

having a diameter in an average specimen of about i mm. It gradually 
narrows for a distance of about 1.8 mm until the diameter is about .4 mm. 
Proximal enlarged portion made up of very thin columnals, but they grow 
gradually longer in the more distal portions of the stem, having three or 
more times the length of the proximal columnals. 

Horizon and locality. Five specimens from the Portage (Laona sand- 
stone) beds, Laona, Chautauqua county, in the bed of Canadaway creek. 
Also from the lower Chemung beds: two specimens (plate 40, figures 
8, 9) found along the road from Watkins to Elmira; two specimens, one of 
which is figured on plate 40, figures 6, 7, from Fillmore, east side of the 
Genesee river, Scott's ravine; and one poorly preserved specimen apparently 
belonging to this species from East Koy creek, Cooley's farm near East 
Pike, Genesee county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. As noted above, Anamesocrinus lutheri shows 
characters similar both to the Ordovician Ectenocrinus and the 
Lower Carboniferous Catillocrinus. 

The species has been named in honor of D. Dana Luther by whom 
the majority of the specimens were collected. 

Family haplocrixidae Roemer 

Genus HAPLOCRINUS Steiniger 1837 
Haplocrinus clio Hall 

Plate 40, figures 10-14 

1862 Haplocrinus clio Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't X. Y. State Cab. Nat. Hist., 

p. 143, pi. 1. figs. 5-9 

1868 Haplocrinus clio Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis 2, p. 376 

1877 Haplocrinus clio S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 81 

1878 Haplocrinus clio Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb.. p. 17 

1886 Haplocrinus clio Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, 

p. 162 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:86 
1889 Haplocrinus clio S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 252 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 327 

1900 Haplocrinus clio Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 198 
1910 Haplocrinus clio Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 2:500 

Dorsal cup very small, subangularly turbinate below the arm openings, 
pentagonal when viewed from above, and with projecting arm bases. 

Basals five, very small and pentagonal. 

Radial plates large. Three of them, the right and left anterolateral 
and the right posterior, compound, consisting of two plates each; two of 
them, the anterior and left posterior, very large, simple, and heptagonal. 
In the series of two, first plate small; quadrangular in two rays and penta- 
gonal in the third, the right anterolateral; all much wider than high. 
Second plate large, intermediate in size between the first small plates and 
the large radials; two of them pentagonal and one hexagonal, the right 
posterior. All of the five large radials strongly protrude at the upper 
margin for the articulation of the arms, and show a large arm opening 
with a central septum passing into the interior of the body. Upper margin 
of the radials thickened, the upper edges rounding over into the summit. 

Tegmen composed of five triangular plates, the orals. Sutures of 
adjacent orals in line with the median line of the radials, and the broad 
base of each rests upon the two adjacent radials. Orals have grooved sutures 
which are shallow near the base of the orals and broaden out above so that 
they truncate the top of the oral pyramid. When viewed from above 
these sutures form a five-pointed, stellate depression. Lower lateral angles 
of the orals truncated to form the upper border of the arm openings. 

Arms apparently composed of long, slender brachials, deeply grooved 
on the ventral side, corresponding to the size of the arm opening. First 
brachial articulated by a mitred end to the sloping facet of the radial 
plate. 

Column missing. From the cicatrix seen to be large, round and 
deeply impressed. 

Ornamentation. Surface of all the plates marked by fine, wrinkled 
radiating striae. 



328 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. From the Marcellus shale beds (Cherry Valley 
limestone), near Manlius, Onondaga county, New York. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History, num- 

ber 1371. 

I 

Family symbathocrinidae Wachsmuth & Springer 

Genus SYMBATHOCRINUS Phillips 1836 
Symbathocrinus subtrigonalis sp. nov. 1 

Plate 40, figures 16, 17 

Species considerably larger than the other species figured here (plate 
40, figures 15, 18). Dorsal cup turbinate with a height of approximately 
4.5 mm and a breadth of 8.9 mm. 

Dorsal cup. Basal ring broken away in the only specimen of the 
species; basals apparently were quite small. 

Radials pentagonal, narrow at the base and gradually widening upward. 
Anterior radial gives the following measurements: height, 4.5 mm; width 
at top, 4.3 mm; width at base, 2.5 mm. Arm facets straight, occupying 
the entire width of the radials. 

Two posterior radials notched for the reception of the anal x which 
has a length of 4.5 mm and a greatest width (near the base) of 2 mm. 
Second plate of anal tube visible; above this tube concealed by the arms. 

Arms composed of long, quadrangular brachials, the most proximal 
ones averaging about 2 mm in length. Backs of the brachials wedge- 
shaped; angle not sharp and becomes quite rounded proceeding distad. 
Lateral apposed faces sharply squared off. 

Column missing, but apparently was round. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the cup and brachials faintly granulose. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Moscow limestone, Hamilton 
group, at Cashong creek, near Bellona, N. Y. 

1 While this paper was in press, there appeared a paper by Springer " On the Fossil Crinoid Family 
Catillocrinidae " in which this new species is described and figured as S. hamiltonensis (Smith. 
Misc. Coll., 1923, v. 76, no. 3, p. 29). 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 329 

Types. Holotype in the collection of Doctor Springer, now deposited 
in the United States National Museum, Washington. 

Remarks. Comparison of this species with Symbathocrinus 
sulcatus will be found under the description of that species. S . 
subtrigonalis is quite distinct from S. matutinus of the 
Hamilton of Iowa in its much greater size, shape of the cup and the radials 
and in the character of the arms. 

Species named from the character of the arms. 

Symbathocrinus sulcatus sp. nov. 

Plate 40, figure 15 

Theca rather below the average size, measuring 4.3 mm in breadth 
by 2 mm in height. Dorsal cup narrower and more turbinate than in 
most of the Carbonic forms. 

Dorsal cup. Basals fused to three, extending well beyond the stem. 

Radials pentagonal, narrow at the base, and widening gradually upward. 
Articular extensions of the radials or " muscle-plates " large, and forming 
a moderately elevated pyramid, which is capped by the orals. Anterior 
radial gives the following measurements: length, 2 mm; width at top, 
2.7 mm; width at base, 1.2 mm. Arm facets straight, occupying the 
entire width of the radials. 

Arms composed of long quadrangular brachials, averaging about 1.5 
mm in length in the proximal 15 mm of the arm. Backs of brachials 
wedge-shaped, while the lateral apposed faces are sharply squared off. 
Total length of arms probably about 25 mm. Arms as preserved in this 
specimen measure 22 mm. 

Ventral margins of brachials distinctly notched for the reception of 
the covering plates, of which there are four or five on each side of an 
ossicle. 

Column round and of medium size; composed of alternating wide and 
narrow columnals, except in the proximal portion, where the first five 
columnals are of the same width. 



33° NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Ornamentation. The most distinctive feature of the ornamentation 
of this species is the deeply grooved or depressed character of the radials 
along their common sutures, which suggested the name sulcatus. 
Besides this, plates of dorsal cup and arm ossicles finely papillose. 

Horizon and locality. Onondaga limestone. Only specimen known 
from Limerock, near Le Roy, Genesee county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Inasmuch as the small, unfused basal is exposed in this 
specimen, it is evident that the posterior interradius is buried in the 
exceedingly hard matrix, precluding any possibility of uncovering it. 

There seems to be no doubt, however, that the form should be referred 
to Symbathocrinus rather than toStylocrinus, to which, 
chiefly by virtue of its geological position, it might be expected to belong. 
The nature of the articular extension of the radials — a feature used by 
Wachsmuth and Springer in the separation of the two genera (Revision 
of the Palaeocrinoidea, pt. 3, p. 171) — is essentially that characteristic 
of Symbathocrinus. 

Symbathocrinus sulcatus differs from S. matuti- 
nus (plate 40, figure 18), from the Hamilton of Iowa in a number 
of respects. S. matutinus has a more prominent and projecting 
basal ring; cup lower in proportion to the width; arms much longer and 
proportionally more slender. Nodal columnals more prominent and more 
rounded, giving the column a beadlike appearance. 

The new species of Symbathocrinus from the Hamilton of 
New York, subtrigonalis (plate 40, figures 16, 17), is a much 
larger form with heavier cup plates. Dorsal cup twice the size of that of 
sulcatus ; radials not so flaring and do not show the pronounced 
depressions in the region of the sutures. Median dorsal ridge on the 
brachials less angular in the most proximal part of the arms and becomes 
more rounded distad. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 33 1 

Genus STYLOCRINUS Sandberger 1850 
Stylocrinus (?) canandaigua sp. nov. 

Plate 40, figure 19 

Species represented by a single dorsal cup from the Hamilton beds 
of the Canandaigua lake region, N. Y. Though so little of the specimen 
is shown, the species is here described and figured because the genus has 
hitherto been noted only from the European Devonian (Springer, 191 3, 
p. 209; Bather, 1900, p. 152). 

Dorsal cup small and bowl-shaped, having a height of 6 mm, a 
width at the bottom of 3 mm and at the top of approximately 7 mm. 
Basals three, of unequal size; height approximately 1 mm. Radials 
quadrangular or pentagonal, depending upon their relation to the basals. 
One of them has a height of 5 mm, a width at the base of 2.3 mm and at 
the top of 3.8 mm. Radial facets appear to be directed downward and 
inward. 

Column. Cicatrix with subpentagonal outline due to the radial ridges. 

Ornamentation. A low ridge extends up to the center of each radial 
and is more faintly shown on the basal cup. Ridge becomes lower just 
above the middle of the radial plate, almost giving the appearance of being 
broken ; and from this point it spreads out toward the upper corners leaving 
on each side a slight but noticeable depression. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, west 
shore of Canandaigua lake, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype and only known specimen in the collection of the 
New York State Museum. 

Remarks. At first glance this specimen might be taken for a 
Symbathocrinus, a genus which has been described from the 
American Devonian ; but the radial facets characteristic of Symbatho- 
crinus and the additional facet on one of the radials for the support 
of the anal tube are not present. So far as can be ascertained the specimen 
is referable to Stylocrinus. 

Species named for the locality in which it was found. 



33 2 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Suborder FISTULATA Wachsmuth & Springer 
Family heterocrinidae Zittel 

Genus BRACHIOCRINUS Hall 1859 
Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall 

Plate 41, figures 1-4 

1859 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Hall. Pal. N. Y. 3 : 118, pi. 5, figs. 5-7, 

pi. 6, figs. 1-3 
1868 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:356 
1877 Brachiocrinus nodosarius S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 72 
1881 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 2, p. 229 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 33:413. 
1889 Brachiocrinus nodosarius S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 229 
1895 Herpetocrinus nodosarius Bather. Amer. Geol., 16:213-217 

1899 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 88. 

1900 Herpetocrinus nodosarius Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11 : 279. 
1903 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus . 

Bui. 65, p. 65 
1905 Brachiocrinus (Herpetocrinus "") nodosarius Talbot. Amer. 

Jour. Sci., 20:32; pi. 4, figs. 7,8 
1911 Brachiocrinus nodosarius Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 41, 

no. 1846, p. 48 

Talbot' s description. In Hall's description, these fragments of 
crinoids are considered as arms or parts of arms; and this opinion was 
held by Wachsmuth and Springer in 1881. In 1895, Bather brought 
arguments to prove that they belong to columns, not arms (page 213), 
and even gave a revised diagnosis of these New York forms as Herpeto- 
crinus nodosarius. That he is not so certain of this classification 
as the earlier paper would indicate, may be gathered from the fact that 
in a later reference to the fossil, he lists Brachiocrinus as doubt- 
fully synonymous with Herpetocrinus (1900, p. 146). 

Among other points in support of his first view, he remarks that 
" cirri composed of thick, beadlike joints which increase in size from the base 
to the middle and thence diminish to the extremities," characteristic of this 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 333 

species, are also found in Herpetocrinus flabelliformis, 
which occurs in the uppermost beds of the Silurian of Gotland (1895, PP- 
215, 216). 

Most of the specimens in the Yale collection are so encrusted with 
silica that it is very difficult to get anything but general outlines; but one 
specimen is in fairly good condition and clearly shows the joints of the 
column and the cirri. The joints are slightly wedge-form and quite thin, 
giving to the fossil an irregular appearance, which is still further increased 
by the difference in the size of the joints of the cirri. The diameter of the 
cirri is so great that only every third or fourth joint is cirrus-bearing. The 
bulblike process, varying in size and shape, is shown in several specimens 
at the end of the column. The question has arisen whether this bulb 
is at the base of the stem, or whether it is simply a thickening somewhere 
between the proximal and distal ends. If the latter were the case, the 
central canal should show at both ends of the specimens. Although one 
individual shows the canal very well at the distal end of the cirri and the 
proximal end of the stem fragment, this canal is not visible at the distal 
end of the bulb on many individuals under observation. A small depres- 
sion on one specimen looks like a cicatrix of attachment. Several indi- 
viduals have the crescentic form of the joints of the column, as in 
Herpetocrinus. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone, east of 
Clarksville; Helderberg mountains, Schoharie, N. Y. Also found in the 
Coeymans at Schoharie. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History, numbers 

— — — — , and in the New York State Museum, numbers 4 — 4 — _. 
1 ' 2 12 

Remarks. The specimens in the New York State Museum show very 
distinctly the character of the cirri and the column with its bulblike distal 
extremity. In one specimen (plate 41, figure 3) below this small knob- 
like or bulblike process the column is present, composed of a few short, 
narrow columnals and tapering almost to a point. 

Since Talbot's description was published, Kirk (191 1, p. 48) in his 
paper on " The Structure and Relationships of Certain Eleutherozoic 
Pelmatozoa ' has discussed Herpetocrinus and Brachio- 
c r i n u s . He states: "Brachiocrinus is structurally similar to 
Herpetocrinus in that the column bears two rows of cirri. These 



334 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

are much heavier than in the case of Herpetocrinus and are 
composed of beadlike ossicles. The column is round, and it does not seem 
wholly certain that any but the distal portion bears lateral appendages • 
In one or two instances the portion of the column preserved appears involute • 
This coiling suggests, however, that the distal portion of the column forms 
the center of the coil, and not the proximal end, with the attached crown. 
If such be the case, we must consider Brachiocrinus as having 
the distal portion of the column flexible, more or less prehensile, and 
occasionally involute. For a short distance up the column is a double 
row of cirri, by means of which objects could be grasped. So considered 
Brachiocrinus is not closely comparable to Herpetocrinus, 
as has hitherto been thought." 

Springer (1913, p. 212) lists Brachiocrinus as doubtfully 
synonymous with Herpetocrinus. 

Genus DELTACRINUS Ulrich 1886 
Deltacrinus clarus (Hall) 

Plate 41, figure 5; text figure 54 

1862 Cheirocrinus clarus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 116, pi. 1, fig. 17 
1868 Cheirocrinus (Calceocrinus ?) clarus Shumard. Trans. Acad. 

Sci. St Louis, 2 1358 

1877 Calceocrinus clarus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 72 

1878 Cheirocrinus clarus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

1886 Calceocrinus clarus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, 

p. 281 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:205 
1886 Deltacrinus clarus Ulrich. 14th Rep't Geol. Surv. Minn., p. 109 
1889 Deltacrinus clarus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 238 
1893 Calceocrinus clarus Bather. Crin. Gotland, pt. 1, p. 66 
1900 Calceocrinus clarus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 
1904 Calceocrinus clarus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, p. 55 
1913 Deltacrinus clarus Springer. Zittel Eastman's Textbook Pal., p. 214 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



335 




Species of medium size. Cup a little flattened on the dorsal side; 
slight constriction just above the middle, above this it expands. The 
specimen gives the following measurements: width at base, 6.5 mm; width 
at median constriction, 6.2 mm; width at arm bases, 7.5 mm. Character 
of the posterior side of the cup shown here by a diagram (figure 54) . 

Dorsal cup. Basals fused to three forming a fairly large, subtriangular 
convex disk. " Anterior " basal, the triangular plate which hinges on the 
left anterior inferradial and represents the fused left posterior and left 
anterior basals, well shown. This plate does not enter into the stem 
articulation. Rest of the basal disk formed, by the 
posterior and right anterior basals (right posterior 
basal atrophies) largely concealed by the stem 
because of the way in which the specimen lies in 
the rock. The character and relations of these 
basals may be seen in the accompanying figure. 
As shown there, the posterior and right anterior 
basals are bounded for some distance by the large 
radials. 

Two simple radials, the anterior and left pos- 
terior, well shown; large, roughly five-sided and 
somewhat thickened at the junction of the arm 
plates. Anterior radial has a length of 8.6 mm 
and a width of approximately 7 mm. Left anterior 
inferradial short and triangular; 5.5 mm wide, 2 mm 
high; its base a little concave in the center and 
straight on each side. Left anterior superradial 
short, pentagonal, supporting a single simple arm; width 4.6 mm, height 
2 mm. The radials of the posterior side are shown in the accompanying 
diagram. Fused right posterior and right anterior superradials form a 
low wide plate, the T-plate which is separated from, the large simple 
radials by the right anterior inferradial and the radianal (right posterior 
inferradial) . 



Figure 54 Diagram of pos- 
terior side of Deltacri- 
n u s . (After Bather, 1 893 ) . 
/. B, the " anterior basal " 
formed by the fusion of the 
left posterior and left ante- 
rior basals; r. a. B, right an 
terior basal; p. B, posterior 
basal; a. R, anterior radial; 
/. p. R, left posterior radial; 
T, T-piece formed by the 
fusion of the right posterior 
and right anterior superra- 
dials ; r. a. Ri, right anterior 
inferradial; RA, radianal, the 
right posterior inferradial; x, 
first plate of the anal tube. 



336 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen. Anal tube not visible in the specimen. It is supported by 
the T-piece and the two inferradials to the right, but does not touch the 
two large, simple radials. 

Arms borne by the anterior radial, left anterior superradial and left 
posterior radial. Arm borne by the left posterior radial nearly concealed. 
Left anterior superradial bears a single, simple arm made up of rounded 
or subcylindrical brachials about once and a half wider than high. Second 
arm plate above the anterior radial axillary, giving rise on the inner or 
abanal side to a single arm; on the outer or adanal side the immediately 
succeeding plate again bifurcates giving rise to two arms. This gives 
to this ray three arms which bifurcate several times; all composed of long, 
cylindrical brachials. 

Column short and flexuous. Columnals shorter in the proximal part 
of the stem. 

Ornamentation. Surface finely papillose. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shales) beds, 
Canandaigua lake, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the American Museum of 

Natural History, number 4473 ^ 

Remarks. The specimen figured, Hall's type, shows the column 
attached by a spreading root to the column of another crinoid. Hall 
(1862, p. 117) pointed out that this attachment must have taken place 
while the other crinoid was living, or otherwise the pendent arms of the 
Deltacrinus would have reached quite or almost to the muddy 
sediment on the bottom. 

In a recent paper (191 8, pp. 86-88), Jaekel describes the group to 
which Deltacrinus and Halysiocrinus belong as reef- 
dwellers with recumbent stem and obliquely erected head. They are 
specialized forms which have developed their peculiar characters because 
of their mode of life. The crown which has developed bilateral symmetry 
can be bent over toward the stem. In this " shut up " position the broad, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



337 



undivided arm (borne by the left anterior superradial) lies above the other 
arms and serves as a protection to the crown, particularly against tidal 
currents. 

Jaekel's explanation of the habit of these forms is, I think, more natural. 
Certainly the animal with crown erect is in a better position, as pointed 
out by Jaekel, for the food to be carried to the mouth along the ambulacral 
furrows than if the arms were pendent. According to Jaekel's views the 
specimens of this group, as figured on plate 41, are in an incorrect position. 

Genus HALYSIOCRINUS Ulrich 1886 (em. Bather 1893) 
Halysiocrinus secundus (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 41, figures 6-9; text figures 55-5 7 

1872 Calceocrinus (Cheirocrinus) secundus 
Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, figs. 13, 14- 
(Photographic plates distributed privately.) "-P 

Dorsal cup. A comparatively small, slender species. 
Dorsal cup, seen from the left anterior radius, narrow at 
the base; becomes somewhat constricted medially, and Figure 55 Diagram of 
widens out again rather abruptly at the arm bases. One 
specimen gives the following measurements: width at 
base, 5.4 mm; width at median constriction, 5 mm; 
width at arm bases, 6.3 mm. 

Basals fused to three, forming a fairly large, sub- 
triangular, convex plate, which measures 4.6 mm along 
its articulating edge. Left posterior and left anterior 
basals fused, forming what is styled an anterior basal. 
Anterior basal triangular; its length, measured along the 
hinge line, 3.5 mm. It will thus be seen that 1.1 mm 
of the length of the hinge line is made up by the pos- 
terior and right anterior basals. Stem attached along the suture line of 
the right anterior and posterior basals, and about .5 mm from the point 
of union of the three basal plates. 




the posterior side of 
Halysiocrinus. 
(After Bather, 1893). 
/. B, the " anterior 
basal " formed by the 
fusion of the left pos- 
terior and left anterior 
basals; r. a. B, right an- 
terior basal; p. B, pos- 
terior basal; a. R, ante- 
rior radial; /. p. R, left 
posterior radial; r. a. Ri, 
right anterior inferra- 
dial; RA, radianal, the 
right posterior inferra- 
dial ; x, first plate of the 
anal tube. 



22 



338 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Large radials, the anterior and left posterior, with a maximum length 
of 6.5 mm. Their common suture is 2.9 mm in length. Left anterior 
inferradial subtriangular in shape and quite small; width 2.3 mm along 
the hinge area, height 1.2 mm. Left anterior superradial has a width 
of 3.6 mm and a height of 1.9 mm. Radial suture straight and occupies 
the entire width of the superradial. 

Radianal and right anterior inferradial fused, forming a plate 4.5 mm 
in width, which rests in shallow excavations in the anterior and left posterior 
radials. Proximally upon it rests the posterior and right anterior basals, 
while distally it connects with the broad anal x. 

Hinge area well exposed in 

IB 

P .B 
Ip.R- 



LB 





the larger specimen, and on 
plate 41 , figure 9, will be found a 
semi-diagrammatic figure (x 3) 
of this structure. From this 
figure and figure 8 on the same 



56 57 

Figure 56 Halysiocrinus secundus. Enlargement 
(x 4) showing basals and stem attachment. (See plate plate, as Well as text figures 56, 
41, figures 6, 7). For labelling, see figure 55. 

„. tt 1 • ■ ^ XT- S7» it will be seen that the tol- 

r igure 57 Halysiocrinus secundus. Hinge area ^ ' ' 

(x 3). (See plate 41, figures 8, 9). /. a. Ri, left anterior lowing plates take part in form- 
inferradial; other labelling as in figures 54, 55. . . . 

mg the hinge line : left postenor 
basal and left anterior basal (fused), posterior basal, right anterior basal 1 
anterior inferradial, left posterior radial, and anterior radial. Hinge line 
straight, except that in the middle there is a crescentic notch in that 
portion of the hinge formed by the basals. This is shown in figure 9, 
plate- 41, where the opening appears somewhat to one side of the middle, 
owing to a slight disarrangement of the plates. Opening doubtless 
functioned as a passage for the nutrition and enervation of the muscles 
and ligaments of the hinge area. 

Portion of the hinge area formed by the left posterior and anterior 
radials and the left anterior inferradial subtriangular, more or less com- 
pletely divided into three pits. Central pit of the same width as the left 
anterior inferradial; separated from the lateral pits by two rounded ridges, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 339 

perpendicular to the hinge line. These ridges seem to be processes of the 
left anterior inferradial, and to mark the sutures of this plate with the 
anterior and left posterior radials in the hinge area. Thus the small 
triangular, lateral pits lie in these two radials. Central horseshoe-shaped 
pit with several irregular ridges running perpendicular to the hinge line; 
about ten in number and probably constituted points of attachment for 
the muscles that controlled the elevation of the crown. On the other side 
of the hinge, these muscles were probably attached along the long, narrow, 
somewhat crescentic groove that traverses the basals. 

What the mechanism of the depression of the crown was, is somewhat 
uncertain. Undoubtedly the major portion of the work was done by 
gravity. It is probable, however, that in addition, there were bundles 
of elastic tissue that functioned somewhat in the same manner as the elastic 
tissue in the arms of recent crinoids. If this be the case, the two small 
triangular, lateral pits might well serve for the reception of elastic ligament. 

Foregoing description and measurements made from the specimen 
figured on plate 41, figure 8. Structure of arms, anal tube and stem taken 
mainly from the somewhat smaller specimen figured on the same plate, 
figure 6. 

Tegmen. Anal x a, large, broad plate, supporting a single series of 
large quadrangular plates which constitute the dorsal portion of the ventral 
tube. In the smaller specimen six of these plates preserved, giving a tube 
about 11 mm in length, exclusive of the anal x. It is probable that when 
complete this tube did not have more than two additional plates. Ventral 
surface of tube covered by a large number of thin plates, the general 
appearance of which suggests that they were not closely united laterally 
but were set in a flexible integument. As preserved, the plates overlap one 
another, and the exposed edges present an uneven, ragged outline. This 
unevenness does not seem to be due to the weathering, or fracture. It 
seems possible, therefore, that the ventral side of the tube was more or 
less flexible, and capable of distention to some degree. 

Arms. Brachials of left anterior ray form a stout, nonbifurcating 



340 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

arm. In the smaller specimen, seven brachials preserved, forming an 
arm 18 mm in length. In the lateral arms, second brachial axillary. In 
the inner or abanal half of the arm, third succeeding plate axillary, after 
which no further division apparently takes place; in the outer or adanal 
division of the arm, second plate following the primaxil axillary. Outer 
or adanal half of the resultant bifurcation not preserved; inner half bifur- 
cates again, apparently for the last time, on the fourth succeeding brachial. 
Arms of the larger specimen not less than 25 mm long. 

Horizon and locality. Only two specimens known from the Onondaga 
limestone, near Lima, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the Jewett collection, Cornell University Museum, 
number 7327. 

Column composed of round, thick ossicles; in the proximal portion 
measures 1.7 mm in diameter. 

Remarks. This species was figured by Hall in 1872 in the so-called 
New York State Museum Bulletin 1, plate 1, figures 13 and 14 (photo- 
graphic plates issued privately) , as Calceocrinus (Cheirocri- 
nus) secundus. The species does not belong in this genus, as brought 
out by the description and figures, but in the genus Halysiocrinus. 
The fused left posterior and left anterior basals do not enter into the stem 
articulation, the T-piece is obsolete, the radianal (right posterior inferradial) 
and right anterior inferradial are fused into one plate and support the 
anal x which also abuts by its lower corners on the two large simple radials. 

See Remarks under Deltacrinus clarus. 

Family cyathocrinidae Roemer (em. W. & Sp.) 
Subfamily CARABOCRININAE Springer 

Genus LASIOCRINUS Kirk 1914 
Lasiocrinus scoparius (Hall) 

Plate 42, figures 4-10; plate 43, figures 1-7 

1859 Homocrinus scoparius Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:102, pi. 1, figs. 1-9 
1868 Homocrinus scoparius Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:378 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 34 1 

1877 Homocrinus scoparius S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 82 

1879 Homocrinus scoparius Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 1, p. 79 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:302 
1889 Homocrinus scoparius S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 255 
1893 Homocrinus scoparius Bather. Crin. Gotland, pt. 1, p. 105 
1897 Homocrinus scoparius Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. Cam., 

1:45 (authors' ed.); Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 

1899 Homocrinus scoparius Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 92 

1900 Homocrinus scoparius Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:279 
1905 Homocrinus scoparius Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:20, pi. 3, 

fig- 3 
1911 Homocrinus scoparius Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 41, no. 1846, 

P-58 
1914 Lasiocrinus scoparius Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 46, no. 2038, 
• pp. 474-482, pi. 42, figs. 10, 11, 12 

Kirk (1914, pp. 481, 482) created a new genus for this species and, 
at that time, referred only one other species to it, Homocrinus 
tenuis Bather from the Silurian of Gotland. Bather's species is shown 
here (plate 43, figure 8), so that the Devonian representative of the genus 
may be compared with the Silurian. 

Dorsal cup elongate conical, subpent agonal above, with a broad base 
from which the sides slope gradually up to the top of the radials; as broad 
or broader at the top of the radials than it is high. 

Infrabasals five, equal, slightly longer than wide, pentagonal. Nar- 
rower at the base and the lower lateral faces the longer, bringing the greatest 
width at the top. 

Basals longer than wide, hexagonal with the exception of two, the 
posterior and right posterolateral which come in contact with the anal 
plates and are heptagonal. They are larger than the other basals and of 
about equal height and width. 

Radials relatively small, as wide or wider than high, pentagonal, 
except the right posterior which comes in contact with the anal and the 



34 2 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

right tube plates and is irregularly hexagonal. Radial facet occupies 
practically the entire width* of the upper face. 

Radianal quadrangular, small. Rests below upon the left shoulder 
of the right posterolateral basal and the right shoulder of the posterior 
basal; above is bordered by the anal x and the right posterior radial. 
Anal x of about the size of the adjoining radials and in line with them. 
Bordered on each side by the right and left posterior radials, rests below 
upon the truncated posterior basal and the radianal, and supports above 
two plates of the anal tube. 

Tegmen. Anal tube long, more than half, sometimes three-fourths 
as long as the arms. Near the base composed of larger plates, and above 
of a number of parallel, vertical rows of small hexagonal plates. Plates 
at the summit spiniferous, some of them bearing quite strong spines. 
Talbot (1905, p. 20) only recognizes five spines belonging to five large 
plates at the upper end of the sac. Some of the specimens figured here 
(plate 42, figure 4; plate 43, figure 2) certainly show the spiniferous summit 
as described by Hall, though some of the spines appear to be stronger 
than the others. 

Arms long. Apparently great variability in the number of primi- 
brachs to the ray, even in the same individual; lowest number three, 
highest six; four or five seems to be the usual number. Primibrachs short 
and quadrangular; primaxil pentagonal. First bifurcations on the prim- 
axils equal; above this arms divide seven or eight times by bilateral 
heterotomy at regular intervals. Bifurcations closer together in the more 
proximal portion of the arms. 

Arms of earlier species apparently isotomous, as shown in Lasio- 
crinus tenuis (plate 43, figure 8). 

Column long, slender, consisting of irregularly alternating larger and 
smaller columnals. Most proximal columnals shorter. Column rounded 
below, becoming obtusely pentagonal and enlarged above. Thicker joints 
nodose; canal small and round. One of the specimens figured here shows 
delicate cirri on the distal portion of the column; not found above the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 343 

middle of the stem. Talbot (1905, plate 3, figure 3) figures the distal end 
of a column, Math cirri, showing a coil or loop. This is characteristic 
wherever the distal end of the column is present. 

Horizon and locality. Common in the thinly laminated or shaly layers 
in the Coeymans limestone at Schoharie, Jerusalem hill and Wheelock's 
hill, Litchfield and North Litchfield, N. Y. Hall reports the species from 
the Manlius (Tentaculite limestone) at the Helderberg and Schoharie. 
Talbot (1905, p. 20) states that no such specimens have come under her 
observation, but we have two specimens in the New York State Museum 
so labelled. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History, num- 

ber ?224. 

I 

Lasiocrinus (?) schohariensis sp. nov. 

Plate 43, figure 9 

Species described from a gutta-percha squeeze taken from a mold 
of the specimen. This is the only specimen in our possession, and only 
the anterior side of the calyx is shown. 

Dorsal cup with a height of 6 mm and a width of 5 mm; expanding 
regularly from the base to the top of the radials, resembling an inverted 
cone. Width at the base 2.1 mm, at top of radials 5.2 mm. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, slightly wider at the top than at the bottom. 
Only infrabasal shown in its entirety has a height of 2.3 mm and a width 
of 2 mm. 

Basals hexagonal, very little larger than the infrabasals. Only two 
visible; one has a height of 2.8 mm and a breadth of 1.9 mm; the other 
slightly broader. 

Radials roughly pentagonal, shorter than the basals, with an average 
height and width of about 2 mm. Radial facet occupies very nearly the 
entire width of the radial. Anal plates not exposed. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms. Five or six primibrachs, all a little broader than high; first 



344 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

four or five quadrangular, the fifth or sixth, pentangular, axillary, giving 
rise to two equal branches. Only a few brachials shown above this point, 
so nothing further can be stated as to the later bifurcations of the arms. 

Column round, composed of columnals of alternating thicknesses. At 
varying intervals there are conspicuously large, projecting columnals, 
nodals, with rounded edges. Stem, from the base of the cup, gradually 
enlarges in diameter for a distance of about 30 mm; then it gradually 
tapers until at a distance of 87 mm from the cup, diameter less than half 
the diameter at the base of the cup. 

Horizon and locality. From the Schoharie grit, Pine hill, near Highland 
Hills, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. An exact generic determination of this species can not be 
made without the anal area which is not visible, but the species is referred 
with a query to Lasiocrinus. The column of this species is very 
characteristic. 

Genus ITEACRINUS nov. 

[Ety. tTea, willow; xpivov, lily] 

The genus Iteacrinus is based upon two species. Calyx broad 
and low, broader than high. Arms heterotomous : ten main rami bearing 
long, slender, nonbranching ramules at regular intervals alternately on 
each side (bilateral heterotomy). Rami diverge; not in contact above the 
primaxil. Anal area only shown in one species. Here, radianal relatively 
large; anal x rises above the level of the radials. Anal tube slender and 
made up of delicate plates; length unknown. Column pentangular. Genus 
differs from Vasocrinus in the more delicate form, shape of the 
calyx, and in the long, slender, unbranched ramules. Anal x rises above 
the line of the radials and the radianal is relatively large in Iteacrinus, 
whereas in Vasocrinus it is small. Anal tube in Iteacrinus 
more slender and composed of delicate plates. Iteacrinus quite 
distinct from the other genera. 

i Name Iteacrinus given to this genus because of the resemblance 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 345 

of the slender rami with their long, slender ramules to willow branches. 
It is here placed in the family Cyathocrinidae. In the two 
species representing the genus the radial facet is wider and less curved 
than is usual in the family, but other genera in the same family, such as 
Lasiocrinus, show the same characteristic. 

Genotype. Iteacrinus flagellum sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (lower Chemung) of New York. 

Iteacrinus flagellum sp. nov. 

Plate 42, figure 2 

The specimen representing this species is preserved as a mold in the 
Chemung sandstone. A gutta-percha squeeze has been made and the 
description is based upon this. Specimen shown from the posterior side. 
Crown fairly well preserved and about 30 mm of the stem. Crown, with 
the arms extended, had a length of about 65 mm. 

Dorsal cup wider than high, giving the measurements: height 4.2 
mm, width 5.9 mm. Infrabasals pentagonal, small, with a height of 
1 mm or less. Basals longer than wide, hexagonal, with the exception of 
the posterior and right posterolateral which come in contact with the 
anal plates and are heptagonal. Posterior basal is the only one fully 
shown; height 2.3 mm, breadth 2.1 mm. 

Radials heptagonal, except the right posterior which is hexagonal, 
being truncated to rest upon the right posterolateral basal. Radials 
slightly broader than high, an average one having a width of 2.2 mm and 
a height of 1.8 mm. Radial facet slightly curved; does not occupy the 
entire width of the radial, though there is not a great deal of difference 
in their respective widths. 

Anal x hexagonal, very little smaller than the left posterior radial. 
Radial a little smaller and pentangular. Upon the upper face of the 
radianal rests the right tube plate. Anal x bears upon its three upper faces 
the left, middle and right tube plates. These first tube plates hexagonal 
and almost as large as the anal x. 



34 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen. Ventral tube not complete, so nothing can be said as to 
its length and the character of its distal extremity; slender and appears 
to taper little in the portion preserved. Width at the base 3.2 mm. 
First few plates of the ventral tube large ; plates higher up small, hexagonal 
and arranged in vertical rows. Two rows of plates with a definite furrow 
between them extend along the median dorsal line of the tube. On their 
outer borders they are provided with delicate folds and furrows, three or 
four to a plate, which connect with similar folds and furrows from the 
adjoining vertical rows of plates. Each vertical row of plates marked with 
a faint ridge. Areas of folds and furrows at the outer edge of the rows 
of plates appear to be depressed. There seems to be a strengthening of 
the tube at the sides and in the median dorsal line. 

Arms ten, long and slender, having a length, when extended, of at 
least 60 mm. Three primibrachs; the first two of about equal length, the 
third, the primaxil, usually longer and wider at the top. Above the 
primaxil, arms divide by bilateral heterotomy on every third brachial, 
giving rise to two conspicuously unequal branches, the smaller one-half, 
or less, the thickness of the main branch. This gives a main arm with 
long, slender armlets or ramules at regular intervals. All brachials quad- 
rangular; those of the armlets comparatively longer. 

Column preserved to a distance of 30 mm, but so weathered that the 
stem characters are visible only in the first 8 mm. Stem here made up of 
alternating thin and thick columnals. Average thin columnals measure 
about .2 mm in length; alternating columnals have an average length 
of .7 mm. 

Ornamentation. Basals, radials, anal x, radianal and first tube plate 
possess radiating folds or ridges which cross the suture lines and are rather 
pronounced at the margins of the plates, but do not extend far toward 
the centers of the plates. Between the ridges, at the angles where three 
plates come together, are rather deep depressions or pits, and there is a 
pronounced depression or furrow between adjoining basals. The low 
ridges extending up the vertical rows of tube plates and the fine ridges 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 347 

and furrows along the outer edges of these plates also constitute part of 
the ornamentation. Entire ornamentation of this species not conspicuous. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Cotton hill, 
one mile north of Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The structure of the stem and the manner of branching 
of the arms is quite characteristic. Named flagellum because of the 
whiplike appearance of the slender arms with the long, slender armlets. 

Iteacrinus robustus sp. nov. 

Plate 42, figure 3 

This species is also represented by the mold of a single specimen 
which shows what appears to be the anterior side. Very similar to 
Iteacrinus flagellum, but differs from it in enough points to 
give it specific value. 

A larger, stronger-appearing form, and the ridges and depressions of 
the dorsal cup are more pronounced. Anal side unknown. A small portion 
of the anal tube visible; so far as can be ascertained, similar to that of 
I. flagellum. Three primibrachs appear to be the usual number, 
though one ray (the right anterolateral ?) shows four. The anterior (?) ray 
in one branch shows a bifurcation on the fourth brachial above the primaxil 
which gives rise to two equal branches. With this variation, the branching 
is of the same type as in I. flagellum, except that the armlets are 
given off usually from every fourth instead of every third brachial. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Cotton hill, 
one mile north of Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Genus CRADEOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. /.pcBr), twig; xptvov, lily] 

The two species belonging to this genus are slender and of small to 
medium size. Calyx slender and elongate. Arms heterotomous : ten 
main rami bearing very slender, nonbranching ramules at regular intervals 



348 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

alternately on each side (bilateral heterotomy) . Rami diverge but little 
and in one species are almost in contact for some distance above the 
primaxil. Very little of the anal area preserved in either species. Radianal 
pentagonal, of medium size compared to the other plates. From the 
position of the radianal it seems likely that the anal x is not in line with 
the radials, but this can not be ascertained definitely from the material 
at hand. First tube plates in one species large and hexagonal. Their 
arrangement suggests an anal tube composed of similar plates; but none 
of the upper portion of the anal tube is preserved. Column subpentangular 
to rounded. 

The two species placed in this genus have been so grouped pro- 
visionally, while some details are lacking, because a general similarity of 
characters seems to warrant it. One species is represented by a single 
specimen which shows only a very little of the anal tube; and no specimen 
of the other species shows more than the radianal. Cradeocrinus 
is here referred to the family Cyathocrinidae. Radial facets wider 
and less curved than is usual in this family, but other genera of the family, 
such as Lasiocrinus, show this same characteristic. Genus quite 
distinct from the other genera of the family. There is a similarity to the 
Lower Carboniferous genus Goniacrinus, but the radianal is large 
and the anal region quite distinct. In Goniacrinus anal x is like 
one of the radials, in line with the radials and followed by a prominent 
series of plates which pass into the anal tube. 

Genotype. Cradeocrinus elongatus sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage and lower Chemung) of 

New York. 

Cradeocrinus elongatus sp. nov. 

Plate 41, figures 11- 13 

Specimens of this species occur in the form of molds in the Chemung 
sandstone. Description based upon gutta-percha squeezes taken from the 
molds. 

Dorsal cup long and slender. In one specimen height of 4 mm, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 349 

width at the top of the radials 3 mm; in another specimen, height and 
width about 4 mm. 

Infrabasals small, pentagonal, slightly broader at the top than at 
the bottom. An average one has a height and greatest width of about 
.6 mm. 

Basals the largest plates of the cup; hexagonal and elongate, slightly 
wider at the top than at the bottom.. An average basal has a height of 
2.5 mm, a width at the base of .6 mm and at the top of 1 mm. 

Radials comparatively small, pentagonal, an average radial having a 
height and width of about 1.1 mm. Radial facet only slightly curved 
and about three-fourths the width of the radial. 

Anal plates are not exposed. One specimen shows part of the radianal 
which apparently is pentagonal. 

Tegmen not exposed. 

Arms. Three primibrachs, all longer than wide. One specimen in 
the right anterolateral ray shows four. First two (or three) quadrangular, 
primaxil pentagonal and broadens out at the top. Above the primaxil 
the arms bifurcate by bilateral heterotomy, giving a slender armlet at 
the fourth brachial above the primaxil and usually at every third brachial 
above this point. All brachials quadrangular. In a typical specimen the 
arms have a length of 42 mm. They are only slightly divergent, being 
almost in contact for some distance above the primaxil. 

Column subpentangular in the proximal part, becoming fairly rounded 
in the more distal portion. Columnals with rounded edges. While all 
are thin, columnals of two thicknesses are shown alternately arranged. 

Ornamentation. The species can hardly be said to be ornamented. 
There are conspicuous depressions or furrows between the basals, between 
radials and basals and between the radials. One radial shows incipient 
ridges along its edges. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Cotton hill, 
one mile north of Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 



350 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Cradeocrinus pergracilis sp. nov. 

Plate 42, figure 1 

A very graceful little species, represented by a single mold in fine 
sandstone, from which a gutta-percha squeeze has been made. Drawing 
(plate 42, figure 1) and the description based upon this squeeze. Crown 
measures about 16 mm; about 27 mm of column preserved. 

Dorsal cup obconic, having a height of 2.3 mm, a width at the base 
of .9 mm and a width at the top of the radials of 2.3 mm (the same as the 
height) . 

Infrabasals pentagonal, comparatively long, the lateral faces being 
the longest, and slightly wider at the top. Average infrabasal (right 
posterior) has a height of .8 mm and a width at the top of .7 mm. 

Only the posterior and right posterolateral basals visible; heptagonal, 
the posterior supporting the anal x and radianal, and the right postero- 
lateral having an additional face for the support of the radianal. Other 
basals probably hexagonal, as usual. Right posterolateral basal gives 
the measurements: height, 1+ mm; width, 1 mm. 

Radials pentagonal, slightly smaller than the basals, the posterior 
radials being smaller than the others. Right anterolateral radial has a 
height and a breadth of about .8 mm. Radial facet practically straight 
and occupying almost the entire width of the radial. 

Radianal small, pentagonal. Anal x larger than the radianal, but 
small, resting upon the truncated upper face of the posterior basal. 

Tegmen. Only a few of the proximal plates of the anal tube shown; 
of about the size of the radianal, and apparently hexagonal. 

Arms. Three primibrachs, noticeably longer than wide, the first one 
the longest. The third, the primaxil, broadens out just below the point 
of bifurcation and gives rise to two equal branches. Arms divide 
by bilateral heterotomy at least three times above the primaxil, first 
on every fourth, then apparently on every third brachial, giving rise 
in each case to conspicuously unequal branches. Brachials quadrangular, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 351 

longer than wide, and joining by straight sutures. Arms but little 
divergent. 

Column. About 27 mm preserved; round and made up of alternating 
thin and thick columnals with slightly rounded edges. No indication of 
cirri in the portion of the stem preserved. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (Ithaca) beds, in the ravine 
east of South Otselic, from the base of the exposed section. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species may readily be distinguished from elonga- 
t u s , the other species of the genus, by the difference in size, the relatively 
shorter dorsal cup and basals, and the slender, rounded stem with its alter- 
nating thin and thick columnals. 

Subfamily GASTEROCOMINAE Springer 

Genus SCHULTZICRINUS Springer 191 1 
Schultzicrinus typus Springer 

Plate 44, figures 1-7 

1872 Cyathocrinus (?) sp. undet. Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, 

fig. 6. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 
1911 Schultzicrinus typus Springer. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, no. 3, 

PP- i3 2 . 133, pl- 3- figs. 1-6 

Original description. Calyx rather small, depressed hemispheric, wider 
than high; widest at upper angle of basals, contracting above that. Base 
truncate; infrabasal disk large and distinct; axial canal usually quad- 
ripartite, with large central opening and four small ones surrounding it. 
Anus rather large, encroaching on posterior basal; posterior radials meeting 
above it without intervening plate, so far as known. Radial facets shallow, 
filling almost the entire distal face of the plate, and directed obliquely 
upward. Arms long and heavy, broadly rounded or almost flat, closely 
abutting; brachials broad and long, except the first, which is usually very 
short; ventral furrow broad and shallow, with large covering plates, about 
five pairs to a plate of average size. Surface smooth. Column large, with 
very conspicuous nodals about twice the diameter of the internodals, and 
three or four times as long; there is considerable variation in the length 
of these plates, as well as in the number in the internodes. 



352 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of Doctor Springer, now deposited 
in the United States National Museum at Washington. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone. Types from 
the vicinity of Le Roy, Genesee county; other localities Lima, Livingston 
county; Limerock and vicinity, Genesee county, N. Y. 

Remarks. This genus and species was founded by Springer (191 1, 
p. 132) upon a series of excellent specimens. Some of his figures are 
reproduced here (plate 44, figures 2-6). 

To this species is referred a specimen (plate 44, figure 7) in the collection 
of Cornell University, figured by Hall in his so-called Bulletin 1 as 
Cyathocrinus ? sp. undetermined. This specimen is from the 
Onondaga of Lima, N. Y., and is in a badly crushed condition. 

There are in the New York State Museum several specimens of this 
species most of them in a very fragmentary condition. Three specimens 
and many fragments occur on the slab with two of the types of A r a c h - 
nocrinus bulbosus (plate 45, figure 1) but they are too much 
weathered to figure. A very beautifully preserved specimen from Limerock, 
Livingston county, is figured here (plate 44, figure 1). It shows the calyx, 
arms, and about 12.5 cm of stem. 

Schultzicrinus (?) elongatus Springer 

Plate 44, figures 8-10 

191 1 Schultzicrinus (?) elongatus Springer. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., 
v. 25, no. 3, p. 133, pi. 3. figs. 7a, b, c, d 

Species described by Springer from one specimen. No specimen of 

this species in the collection of the New York State Museum. Springer's 

description and figures are given here. 

Original description. I have figured under this name a specimen 
found associated with the foregoing, knowing that it may not belong to 
this genus. I wanted to give it a name for reference, in hope that future 
discoveries may throw more light upon it. It has similar broad, upright, 
closely abutting arms, but they become narrow, deep, and rounded distally. 
Differing from the type species, and all others of this group, the arms 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 353 

distally become strongly ornamented with fine, sharp pustules. The cup 
is of a very different style from that of the others, spreading upward 
instead of contracting. Unfortunately we have but the one specimen, 
and a fragment of cup that may be the same; and with so much lacking 
in this its real generic characters remain obscure. I doubt if it has the 
anal opening through the cup. It will be observed that the specimen has 
a tripartite axial canal in the column; and as this had not been observed 
in any of the other American forms of this group, except Miss Wood's 
"Tripleurocrinus," I first thought they might go together; 
but the type is so different that this seems impossible, and, as already 
shown, too much importance must not be given to the form of the 
canal. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Le Roy, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of Doctor Springer, now deposited 

in the United States National Museum. 

Genus ARACHNOCRINUS Meek & Worthen 1866 
Arachnocrinus bulbosus (Hall) 

Plate 45 ; plate 46, figure 1 

1862 Cyathocrinus bulbosus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 123, pi. 1, figs. 19-22 

1866 Arachnocrinus bulbosus Meek & Worthen. Geol. Surv. 111., 2:177 

1868 Cyathocrinus bulbosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:362 

1877 Cyathocrinus bulbosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 74 

1878 Cyathocrinus bulbosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 16 

1879 Arachnocrinus bulbosus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 1, p. 93 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:316 
1889 Arachnocrinus bulbosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal, 

p. 224 
1900 Arachnocrinus bulbosus Whitfield & Hovey. BuL Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 

1903 Arachnocrinus bulbosus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 64 

1904 Cyathocrinus bulbosus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P-43 
1911 Arachnocrinus bulbosus Springer. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, 
no. 3, pp. 128, 129, pi. 2, figs. 3-1 2 
23 



354 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus (Hall) has been recently 

described by Springer (1911, pp. 128, 129) with a number of very good 

specimens at hand. His description will be used here instead of the original 

description by Hall. 

Springer s description. Type of the genus. A rather small species, 
with small, globose calyx and ponderous arms; distinguished at once by the 
great size of its axillary brachials, which are several times as large as the 
others, extending throughout the rays, giving them a very unusual appear- 
ance; 'average ordinary brachials measure 1 mm high by 3 mm wide, while 
the axillaries next to them are 3 mm by 4.5 mm. Articulating facet on 
radials facing obliquely outward. Arms long, cylindrical, with frequent 
bifurcations, and very little taper to the fourth bifurcation, the farthest 
preserved. Primibrachs very irregular in number, from 3 to 12; shown 
by five specimens as follows: 

1. ant. 1. post. r. post. r. ant. ant. 



1. post. 


r. post. 


r. ant. 


9 


7 + 


6 


3 


3 


3 


7 + 


r- 




10 


3 


4 


■ — 


15 


5 


3 



5 7~\ 5 10 12 

8 

12 + 

The anterior ray probably bifurcates higher than the others, as a rule. 
Dorsal canal extending throughout the arms. Ventral furrow broad, 
roofed by two interlocking rows of covering plates, about three pairs to 
the ordinary brachial and nine or ten pairs to an axillary (see plate 45, 
figures 3, 4). Infrabasal disk small, with obtusely quandrangular column 
facet, central axial canal, and usually four smaller ones surrounding it. 
Anus relatively small, and so far as observed not followed by any plate 
between the radials; figure 6a looks as if there might have been one, but 
this is not certain, as the plates are displaced. Column with highly pro- 
jecting nodals and long internodes. Surface smooth. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone near Le Roy, 

Genesee county, N. Y. , associated with Myrtillocrinus and 

Schultzicrinus. One specimen in the New York State Museum 

from the Onondaga limestone of Ontario, Canada; other specimens 

from Limerock and Stafford, Genesee county, and from Livingston 

county. 

Types in the American Museum of Natural History, number 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 355 

" , in the University of Chicago Museum, number 13 134, and in the 

New York State Museum, number ^ ^ , the last two being here figured. 

Other specimens figured are in the New York State Museum and in the 
collection of Doctor Springer. 

Remarks. An anal plate appears to be present in one of the specimens 
figured here (plate 45, figures 6, 7). In another specimen (plate 45, figure 1 1) 
portions of only two arms are shown and these show no bifurcations though 
nine and fifteen brachials are shown. This is similar to the irregularity 
in bifurcation of rays shown in one of Springer's specimens (191 1, plate 2, 
figure 10). 

The nodals of the column are ornamented with sharp nodes or spines. 

This is shown on plate 45, in figures 12, 13. I have figured here a much 

weathered specimen with about 55 mm of column preserved. The nodal 

columnals are rather quadrangular due to the presence of four short, but 

rather strong, spines which correspond in position to the four axial canals 

(figure 13). Sometimes there are smaller tubercles between the stronger 

ones. 

Arachnocrinus extensus W. & Sp. 

Plate 46, figure 6; plate 47, figures 1, 2 

1879 Arachnocrinus extensus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 1, p. 93 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31 1316 
1889 Arachnocrinus extensus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 224 
1911 Arachnocrinus extensus Springer. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, 
no. 3, pp. 129, 130, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3, 4; pi. 2, figs. 1, 2. 

Springer's description. A large species, perfectly distinguished from 
A. bulbosus by the absence of any special enlargement of the axillary 
brachials ; all brachials are very short and wide in the lower part of the ray, 
about 1.5 to 5, deeply rounded, but their surface not convex, the axillaries 
only larger by the slope necessary to start the divisions. Arms thick, 
round, long, branching three to five times. The rays divide usually on about 
the third primibrach (occasionally one or two less or more), except the 
anterior, which uniformly divides much higher up, having 9+, 13, 15, 15, and 
19 primibrachs respectively in five specimens; the halves then bifurcate 



356 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

repeatedly at intervals of from five to twenty brachials on a fairly regular 
plan, with, minor variations; the outer branches in each dichotom continue 
in a definite direction, while the others branch from them towards the 
inner side to the number of four or five bifurcations, the inner ones mostly 
branch once or twice, so far as preserved, and probably more. This gives 
from twenty to twenty-five ultimate divisions to the ray. or ioo to 125 
in all. with the arms still strong and but little tapering. It is probable 
that five bifurcations was the usual limit, as I have a specimen, not figured, 
with one ray five inches long extending far beyond the fifth and no sign of 
further branching. There is far more regularity in the arm distribution 
than in the type species. Radial facets large, occupying the greater part 
of the distal face of the plates. The calyx plates are rather thin, and 
are broken and displaced in all the specimens, so their exact form and 
position cannot be stated, and in all the base is injured beyond recognition. 
Loose columnals are found, however, in the same beds, showing that the 
axial canal is quadripartite. Anus small, with no plate between the radials 
above it. 

Horizon and locality. From the Upper Helderberg (Onondaga), Falls 
of the Ohio. Louisville, Ky., and the equivalent rocks near Le Roy, Genesee 
county, X. Y. In the Xew York State Museum are specimens, apparently 
referable to this species from the Onondaga, Limerock, Genesee county 
and Schoharie county. 

Types in the collection of Doctor Springer, now deposited in the L nited 
States Xational Museum. 

Remarks. Springer figures under this species two Xew York speci- 
mens from the vicinity of Le Roy, Livingston county, one of which 1 1911. 
plate 2, figure 2 I I believe to be A . i g n o t u s . I have figured here 
a specimen from Limerock, Genesee county, which is apparently referable 
to this species. Another specimen from Schoharie county is a fragment 
of a much larger form, but in too poor a condition to figure. A portion 
of an arm opiate 47. figure 2), from Le Roy is provisionally placed here. 
It is part of a very large specimen, and shows the absence of an enlarged 
axillary and the long, thick, rounded character of the arm of A . 
extensus. The brachials in this portion of arm seem slightly longer 
and rounder than in the typical specimens. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 357 

Arachnocrinus ignotus Stauffer 

Plate 46, figures 2-5 
1918 Arachnocrinus ignotus Stauffer. Jour. Gaol., 25:555, pi. 1, fig- 1 

Original description. This is a medium to small-sized species of 
Arachnocrinus. The calyx is too poorly preserved for description, 
or is too deeply imbeddded in the matrix to be seen, but doubtless it is small. 

Arms more or less uniform in size, uniserial, long and showing frequent 
bifurcations. These bifurcations are not uniformly spaced on the different 
arms, and one arm does not branch within the limits of the preserved 
specimen. It probably bifurcates farther out from the calyx. The cross- 
section of the arms is circular and the shape of the arm plates resembles 
a truncated cone with the base upward. It is not quite clear whether 
the number of arms is five or six because the branching in one or two cases 
begins so near the calyx. Dorsal canal extending throughout the arms. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Le Roy and 
Stafford, N. Y., and in Ontario, north shore of Lake Erie, three and one- 
half miles east of Port Dover. 

Types. Holotype collected in Ontario by Dr C. R. Stauffer. 

Remarks. This species is represented in the New York State Museum 
by several specimens which were already described and figured in manu- 
script previous to the appearance of Doctor Stauffer' s description. Our 
material is in a better state of preservation than the type material, and from 
a study of this additions may be made to the original description. 

In three of the specimens illustrated the dorsal cup is broken, but 
the fourth specimen shows the cup entire. Small, the arms being very 
long in proportion to the size of the cup. 

Branching of arms similar to that ofA.extensus. As noted 
in the original description, bifurcations in the different arms not uniformly 
spaced. First bifurcation may be near the calyx or several brachials 
away, and is followed by several bifurcations. In no case has an arm 
without bifurcations been observed; in one of the specimens one ray shows 
five bifurcations. Axillaries, as in A. extensus, not enlarged. 
Upper or distal margin of each brachial thickened, giving the appearance 



35§ NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of a ring around the brachial at the upper edge. Thickened area prolonged 
into more or less prominent short nodes or spines, one on each side, which 
gives a spiny or thorny appearance to the arms. In some specimens a 
very small spine has been observed at the margin of the brachial in the 
median dorsal line; but in no specimen has this been found to be constant 
throughout. This, however, may be accounted for by the character of 
the preservation; in more weathered specimens spinose character of the 
arms accentuated. A low broad carina is seen extending up the dorsal 
side of the more distal parts of the arms in some cases. This characteristic 
is shown in the figure of the holotype, but no mention of it is made in the 
description. 

Springer has figured (191 1 , plate 2, figure 2) a specimen of Arachno- 
c r i n u s under the species extensus which I believe may belong 
to this species. Especially in the distal portions of the arms this specimen 
shows a tendency to thickening of the brachials at the upper margin with 
slight lateral extensions. Another specimen, in the New York State 
Museum, shows the thickening of the brachials, but the nodes are only 
slightly developed. This amount of variation might well be expected 
within the limits of the species. 

Genus MYRTILLOCRINUS Sandberger 1855 
Myrtillocrinus americanus Hall 

Plate 44, figures n-13 

1862 Myrtillocrinus ? americanus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State 

Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 142, pi. 1, figs. 2-4 
1868 Myrtillocrinus americanus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis. 

2:381 

1877 Myrtillocrinus americanus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Poss., p. 84 

1878 Myrtillocrinus americanus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 18 
1886 Myrtillocrinus americanus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., 

pt. 3, p. 186 (authors' ed.) ; Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:110 
1889 Myrtillocrinus americanus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 
p. 262 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 359 

] 897 Myrtillocrinus americanus Wachsmuth & Springer. N. Amer. Crin. 

Cam., 1:89, pi. 3, fig. 13 (authors' ed.) ; Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 20 
1900 Myrtillocrinus ? americanus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. 

Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 198 
1904 Myrtillocrinus americanus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 63, p. 43 
191 1 Myrtillocrinus americanus Springer. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool. 

v. 25, no. 3, p. 125, pi. 3, figs. 8 a, b, 9 

Dorsal cup small, broadly ovoid, widest at the upper end. 

Infrabasal disk pentagonal and apparently undivided. It forms a low 
ring around the top of the column. 

Basals large, hexagonal, slightly wider than high, widening 
upwards. Appear pentagonal because the lower margins are so nearly 
in a line. 

Radials large, hexagonal, higher than wide, with the lateral margins 
subparallel. Radial facet large, occupying the greater portion of the 
plate and raised above the margins of the plate. Subelliptical in shape, 
with the longer axis vertical, and has a small central foramen, the opening 
for the dorsal canal. Upper margin excavated by the passage leading 
from the food groove of the arms into the body cavity. 

Tegmen. Five large orals, somewhat unequal, constituting almost the 
entire tegmen; elevated into strong nodes covered with unequal pustules. 
A few of the ambulacrals in the small interoral grooves are preserved. 
Anal opening not known; not through the dorsal cup, probably small and 
obliterated in fossilization. 

Arms not known, but judging from the facet they must have been 
round and heavy. 

Column proportionally large and round, composed of rounded columnals 
of about the same length, except in the most proximal portion where they 
are shorter. Axial canal has four peripheral canals. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, near Caledonia, 
Livingston county, and Le Roy, Genesee county, N. Y. 



360 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 

number -zZ_ . 

i 

Remarks. Springer (191 1 , p. 126) refers Miss Wood's Tripleuro- 
crinus levis (plate 44, figure 14), with a query to the genus 
Myrtillocrinus and further states that he sees nothing in the 
specimen figured to distinguish it from Myrtillocrinus ameri- 
c a n u s . If that be the case this specimen furnishes the arm characters 
hitherto unknown for the species. The arms are heavy, apparently simple, 
and composed of brachials somewhat shorter than wide. 

Myrtillocrinus (?) levis (Wood) 

Plate 44, figures 14, 15 

1904 Tripleurocrinus levis Wood. Smith. Misc. Coll., v. 47, no. 1471, 

p. 57, pi. 16, figs. 2, 2 a 
1911 Myrtillocrinus levis (syn. ?of M. americanus) Springer. 

Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., v. 25, no. 3, p. 126, pi. 3, figs. 10 a, b 

Original description. Body small, sides diverging at an angle of about 
45 degrees. Surface smooth. Infrabasals not observed, but their presence 
may be inferred from the truncated lower edge of the basals. Basals 
pentagonal. Only two of these plates are preserved on the single specimen 
found. Radials one-third larger than the basals, four-sided below, the 
upper portion of the plate curving inward and backward on either side to 
form a deep food groove. The structure of the anal area can not be deter- 
mined. Arm facets occupying two-thirds the width of the radials, and 
directed obliquely upward. Width of the arm plates about twice their 
thickness. 

Plates of the column vary in size, every second or third plate being 
larger. The central canal is triangular in section, with three small circular 
canals opposite its sides and connected with it by short transverse canals. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Le Roy, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the United States National Museum, number 

35, 146. 

Remarks. The genus Tripleurocrinus Wood will not stand, 
according to Springer (191 1, p. 126), because the genus is based upon the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 36 1 

fact that the axial canal in the stem has three peripheral canals instead of 
four as in the type Myrtillocrinus americanus. This is 
not a dependable character since there is wide variation in the form of 
the axial canal, not only within the same genus, but also within the same 
species, among crinoids belonging to this horizon of the Devonian, having 
an unusual type of axial canal. Springer further states: " I see nothing 

in this specimen which I have figured to distinguish 

it from Myrtillocrinus americanus of which, however, it 
furnishes the arm characters hitherto unknown." He figures the specimen 
as Myrtillocrinus ? levis (Wood) . 

Genus MICTOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. \UY.i6q, mixed; xptvov, lily] 

There has recently been added to the New York State Museum a 
single specimen of a form belonging to this group. Arms suggestive of 
Arachnocrinus, having more of the character of the arms of A . 
extensus, though branching less frequently. Cup large, probably in 
shape and character near Myrtillocrinus or Gasterocoma. 
The crushed condition of the cup obscures the form ; probably ovoid, broader 
at the top, possibly slightly flaring, though I think this is due to its crushed 
condition. 

Tegmen not known. Posterior basal appears to be truncated and 
followed above the truncation by a small oblong plate, interpreted to be 
the anal plate. Above this plate character of calyx not distinguishable. 
Three infrabasals. Column must have been round and of unusually large 
diameter; axial canal with four peripheral canals. 

I have hesitated to make a new genus for such an imperfect specimen 
but it seemed wiser and less confusing than to force it into a genus with 
which all its characters obviously do not agree. 

Genotype. Mictocrinus robustus sp. nov. 

Distribution. Middle Devonian (Onondaga) of New York. 



362 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Mictocrinus robustus sp. no v. 

Plate 60, figures, 4, 5; text figure 58 

The species is represented by a single specimen, and that not complete; 
but it is quite distinctive. 

Dorsal cup in a crushed condition; probably ovoid in shape, broader 
at the top. Slight tendency to flaring near the top most likely due to the 
crushed condition. Cup large, but accurate measurements can not be taken 
because of the state of preservation. Height to the radial facet 10 mm, 
and as the facet is horseshoe-shaped the total height would be about 
3 mm more. 

Infrabasal ring comparatively large, having a height where best pre- 
served of 2 mm. Three infrabasals, two large and one small. Only two 
suture lines identified with certainty, but the small plate appears to be 
the anterior one. 

•-,—--,-- Basals large, with a width at the bottom about 

™ I I equal to the height but broadening out near the top. 

~\\ post. B /""" Right posterolateral plate has a height of 6.2 mm and 

\_______1. a maximum width of 7.2 mm. Posterior basal con- 

J— L- siderably larger than the others and slightly truncated 

Figure 58 Mictocrinus ^ f ^ receptk)n of the anal plate; he i g ht 

robustus. Diagram r r j. <=> 

(x 2) showing the pos- 6.2 mm, maximum width 9.1 mm. 

terior basal and the first _.,.»», . <• , -, 

anal plate resting upon It is difficult to get accurate measurements ot the 

it. The shape of the anal ra( jials. Height to the radial facet in the right posterior 

plate is better shown 

here than on figure 5, radial 3.5 mm; width at this point approximately 9 mm. 
toaB'J^rte wj Radial facet deep and horseshoe-shaped; radial probably 

R, radial; IB, infrabasal. h ac [ a total height of about 7 mm. 

Anal plate small, resting upon the truncated posterior basal and 
separating the two posterior radials; width 2.7 mm, height 3.1 mm. The 
structure above this first plate can not be determined. 

Tegmen not known. 

Arms heavy, rounded; composed of brachials which are broader than 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 363 

long in the proximal portions and more nearly of equal breadth and length 
in the distal parts. Brachials thickened somewhat along the distal margin 
where they tend to project slightly. Dorsal canal shown in an isolated 
brachial. Three bifurcations a considerable distance apart are shown on 
one arm. Arm not fully preserved, but it is unlikely that a higher bifur- 
cation occurs. Though there are fewer bifurcations the arms in genera, 
show a strong resemblance to those of Arachnocrinus extensusl 

Column not preserved; but judging by the infrabasal disk it must 
have been round and unusually large. Axial canal with four peripheral 
canals. 

Ornamentation. Surface of dorsal cup and arms covered with numerous, 
very characteristic, rounded pustules; more numerous on the plates of the 
dorsal cup than on the arms. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone at Clarence, 
near Buffalo, N. Y. 

Type. Genoholotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Family botryocrinidae Bather 

Genus BOTRYOCRINUS Angelin 1878 (em. Bather 1891) 
Botryocrinus nycteus (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 47, figures 3-6 

1862 Poteriocrinus nycteus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 120 

1868 Poteriocrinus nycteus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:392 

1872 Poteriocrinus nycteus Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, figs. 

3, 4. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 

1877 Poteriocrinus nycteus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Poss., p. 88 

1878 Poteriocrinus nyctaeus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 20 

1889 Poteriocrinus nycteus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 275 

1903 Poteriocrinus nycteus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65, p. 78 

1904 Poteriocrinus nycteus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 



364 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The description of this species is based upon Hall's type and a larger 
specimen which shows about 16 cm of column and in which the dorsal cup 
is better preserved. 

Dorsal cup turbinate, with the height and greatest width nearly equal. 
Infrabasals pentagonal, a little longer than wide; wider at the top than 
at the bottom, with the lower lateral faces the longer. Basals of about 
the same height and width, or slightly higher than wide. Two, the posterior 
and right posterolateral heptagonal, because they border the anal plates; 
the others hexagonal. 

Radials in general slightly wider than long, heptagonal, the upper 
margin prominent and thickened in the region of the radial facet which 
occupies a little over a third of the width of the radial. Radianal small, 
oblique and quadrangular. Anal x a little smaller than the radials and in 
line with them. It rests upon the truncated posterior basal and is bordered 
on the left by the left posterior radial, on the right by the right posterior 
radial and the radianal. In the type two tube plates distinguished resting 
upon the anal x and a small one upon the left flank of the right posterior 
radial; other plates can not be made out. The larger specimen shows three 
plates resting upon the anal x. 

Tegmen. Ventral sac better shown in the type; large, slightly curved 
at the tip, more than three times the height of the dorsal cup. Composed 
of vertical rows of hexagonal plates, the lower ones resting upon the anal 
x being the largest. The ventral sac in the larger specimen does not 
appear to be as long; but it is poorly preserved, and the full length may 
not be well determined. 

Arms. Three primibrachs, all longer than wide ; first two quadrangular, 
the third pentagonal, axillary. This gives to each ray two main arms 
bearing armlets which in some places appear to be on every second brachial, 
alternately on each side. Brachials above the primaxils quadrangular 
and generally slightly longer than wide; all seem to be slightly constricted 
at the middle. Armlets slender, composed of long, narrow brachials. 
Arms poorly preserved in both specimens. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 365 

Column round. Upper part composed of columnals of unequal length 
in a somewhat regularly alternating order. In the more distal part 
columnals are longer, and all of nearly the same size. Margins of columnals 
finely crenulate, this character being visible only in a few places in the type. 

Ornamentation . Radials and anal x marked at the margin by incipient 
radiating ridges, slightly stronger on the anal x. Radiating, subangular 
ridges present on the plates of the ventral sac. Plates of the cup and 
arms striato-granulose, the striae being arranged in a radiating direction. 
The larger specimen does not show the ornamentation. The striato- 
granulose character of the plates has been almost entirely destroyed in the 
cleaning of the specimen. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, Ontario 
county, N. Y. Holotype collected at Vincent; the larger specimen from 
Cashong creek, near Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The species was described by Hall as a Poteriocrinus. 
The quadrangular radianal, the anal x in line with the radials and supporting 
several tube plates, together with the other characteristics, makes it evident 
that this species does not belong in the genus Poteriocrinus. 

Botryocrinus crassus (Whiteaves) 

Plate 47, figures 7, 8 

1887 Homocrinus crassus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 2 (advance 

sheets), p. 95; 1889, pi. 12, fig. 2 
1889 Homocrinus crassus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 255 
1893 Botryocrinus crassus (doubtful whether species will stand) Bather. 

Crin. Gotland, pt. 1, p. 103 
1898 Botryocrinus crassus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 5, p. 375 
1901 Botryocrinus crassus Shinier & Grabau. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 13 : 185 
1906 Botryocrinus crassus Bather. Ottawa Naturalist, v. 20, no. 5, p. 101 

This species of Botryocrinus from the Hamilton of Ontario 
has been added here for comparison with the New York forms. The species 



3 66 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



of Botryocrinus in Europe J and America have been described by 
Bather (1906), and his redescription of Whiteaves' holotype (following 
the order of the original description) is given here. 

Bather s description. Dorsal cup somewhat bell- shaped, rather broad 
and sharply inflated near the base, and very slightly constricted just about 
the middle of the basals. Height of dorsal cup, from the lower margin 
of the infrabasals to the top of the radial facet, 14 mm, to the bottom of 
facet, 12.75 mm; maximum width of cup, 13.4 mm; width at base, 4.5 
mm. Infrabasals pentagonal, about one-half the size of the basals, and 
wider than high. Basals moderately large, about equal in size to the 
anterior radials; higher than wide; the three anterior ones hexagonal, the 
two posterior ones heptagonal and truncated above. Radianal plate equal 
in size to the infrabasals, rhomboid (see measurements below) and resting 
between the two posterior basals, the right posterior radial, and the 
superior anal plate x. Radials pentagonal, outer surface nearly flat below, 
slightly raised in the middle, and above this truncated abruptly and 
obliquely by the facet for the arms, angle of facet with general side of cup 
being 135 degrees. The facet is shallowly excavated with contour almost 
circular, but broader than high, width 4 mm; height 3.1 mm; axial canal 
small, ovate, marginal, its acutely pointed apex opening directly into the 
ventral groove, which forms an obtusely angular notch in the centre of 
the upper margin of the plate. Right and left posterior radials a little 
smaller than the rest. Superior anal plate x pentagonal, equal in size to 
the right posterior radial and facetted above for the reception of plates 
of the anal tube {vide infra). Cup-plates thick; all rounded towards the 
sutures, especially in the upper part of the cup; outer surface apparently 
smooth, but where the test is well preserved, as on the posterior basal and 
anterior radial, are slight traces of shagreen ornament. 

Measurements in millimetres: 



Height 

Infrabasals 

Left anterior basal 

Anterior radial ' 

to bottom of facet 4 

Right posterior radial 5 

to bottom of facet 2 



Anal x. 



4 



75 



Width 
below 


Width 

above 




Length of suture 
between plates 


2-5 

5-4 
7- 


5- 

7- 
6.4 






3 

4 
4 


5 


5-4 


4-75 






4 




4-7 


3-75 


I 


left side 
rt. side 


4 
2 


6 



1 Recently (Haarmann 1920) six species (five new) have been added from the Rhenish 
Devonian. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 367 

Each of the sutures bounding the radianal is 3 mm long, and the plate in 
each direction is 3.6 mm. 

Relation of the species. The radials slope outwards towards the facet, 
in the way characteristic of Botryocrinus. The axial canal is 
quite distinct from the ventral groove, though not actually separated 
therefrom by stereom. The sides of the ventral groove slope inwards at 
a wide angle, and at the same time separate from one another, so that the 
communication between ventral groove and axial canal becomes wider. 
Right posterior radial has portions of three or four rather solid covering 
plates. The chief point of difference between Homocrinus and 
Botryocrinus, so far as the dorsal cup is concerned, lies in the 
number of plates supported by the anal plate x. These plates are not 
preserved, but one can see the facets for them, on the upper surface of the 
plate x. There is one small deeply grooved facet in the middle, and another 
rather smaller immediately to the right of this. The right and left slopes 
of anal x have larger curved facets, of which that on the left still bears a 
fragment of the succeeding tube-plate. Two small similar facets are clear 
on the adjacent slope of the left posterior radial and one at all events is 
to be made out on the right posterior radial. These facets are surrounded 
by a slightly elevated rim, so that their size and position are well defined. 
The arrangement of the tube-plates of the proximal row must therefore 
have been very like that of Botryocrinus ramosissimus, 
as figured in " Crinoidea of Gotland '' I, plate 5, figure 164. 

Among all specimens of Botryocrinus hitherto examined, this 
is the only one in which the greatest width of the cup is less than the 
height. This fact and the bell- shape of the cup certainly warrant the 
retention of the species. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds, near Thedford, Ontario. 

Types. Holotype is in the Museum of the Geological Survey of 

Canada. 

Botryocrinus americanus Rowley 

Plate 47, figures 9, 10 

1904 Botryocrinu? americanus Rovvley (in Greene). Contr. Ind. Pal., 

pt. 18, p. 184, pi. 54, figs. 12, 13, 14 
1906 Botryocrinus americanus Bather. Ottawa Naturalist, v. 20, no. 5 

pp. 93-104 

There are so few American Devonian species of Botryocrinus 
that, in addition to Botryocrinus crassus (Whiteaves), 



368 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Botryocrinus americanus Rowley from the Hamilton of Indi- 
ana is also included here for comparison with the New York forms. I 
have been unable to obtain the original, and have therefore used Rowley's 
figures as well as his description 

Original description. The infrabasals are five in number, rather large, 
quadrangular, convex and spread out horizontally to more than half the 
width of the calyx. There is a shallow excavation for the reception of the 
column. The columnal canal is pentagonal. 

The basals are five in number, width and length equal, sharply convex 
or wartlike, the two posterior being seven-sided, the remaining three, 
six-sided. The wartlike nodes on these plates are not central but near 
the bottom of the plate giving the calyx, in a basal view, a pentagonal 
outline. The anterior and the adjoining lateral radial are pentagonal, 
wider than long and with scars for arm attachment more than half their 
width. These three plates are more protuberant near the middle of the 
scar. The two posterior radials are five-sided but somewhat smaller in 
size. Lying between the two posterior basals but not reaching the infra- 
basals, is a quadrangular interradial plate, a little larger than an infrabasal, 
hardly convex. Above and to the left of this plate is another and larger 
interradial, five-sided and with its top suture on a line with the top of the 
radials. This plate rests between a basal, the first interradial, and two 
radials. Plates all rather thick. Shallow pits mark the junction of sutures. 
Ventral parts and arms unknown. This fossil agrees with the Silurian 
genus Botryocrinus in the number and arrangement of its plates, 
but, despite the presence of two interradials, the body is quite symmetrical 
in shape. Botryocrinus has previously been found in the Silurian 
of Europe. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds, near Charlestown, 
Indiana. 

Type. Holotype in the G. K. Greene collection, now in the American 
Museum of Natural History. 

Remarks. Bather discusses this species of Rowley's in his paper on 

the species of Botryocrinus in Europe and America. He states 

(1906, pp. 103, 104): 

Professor Rowley's clear description unfortunately omits a few details 
that would have helped to complete the present diagnosis. The figure 
suggests that the arm facet occupies the whole upper surface of the radial, 
but it is merely described as more than half the width. It might be possible 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 369 

to distinguish facets for tube-plates on the summit of x, though the phrase 
" its top suture on a line with the top of the radials " suggests that it only 
supported one plate. Though very different in shape from all other dorsal 
cups of Botryocrinus, there seems no reason to doubt Prof. 
Rowley's description of his species. After all, the characters are only an 
intensification of those noted in Botryocrinus crassus from 
the same formation. 

Botryocrinus concinnus sp. nov. 

Plate 47, figures II, 12 

There is only one specimen of this beautiful species at hand; but it has 
been splendidly preserved and so well worked out from the shale that both 
the anterior and posterior sides of the calyx are shown. The specimen 
measures about 33 mm to the ends of the arms in the one ray where they 
are exposed practically to the tips. 

Dorsal cup shaped almost like an inverted thimble. It flares most 
rapidly up to the basals and from there upward the increase is very gradual. 

Infrabasals five, pentagonal, an average one having a breadth of 
2.6 mm and a height slightly over 1 mm. 

Basals the largest plates in the cup, one of them measuring 3 mm in 
breadth and 4 mm in height; hexagonal except the posterior one which 
is heptagonal because it is in contact with the anal and radianal. 

Radials pentagonal with curving facets for the reception of the first 
primibrachs. These facets do not occupy the entire upper surface of the 
radials. An average radial measures about 2.1 mm in height and about 
3.1 mm in breadth. 

In the posterior region the quadrangular radianal characteristic of 

Botryocrinus very distinctly shown, though small. Length and 

width about 1.5 mm. Anal plate large, having a breadth and height 

approximately 2.3 mm; rather squarish in appearance; in line with the 

radials and does not extend above them. It borders a radial on each 

side and the posterior basal and the radianal below. Above two tube 

plates rest upon the anal. Very little of the anal tube can be made out 

from the posterior side. 
24 



3J0 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Tegmen. A few of the proximal plates of the ventral sac are shown, 
and part of the distal portion from about the middle of the arms to the tips 
is visible from the anterior side. Proximal plates rest in parallel rows 
upon the anal plate. In upper portion of ventral sac plates ornamented 
with radiating ridges which are strengthened into small nodes where several 
ridges come together. Plates here can not be made out, but the general 
aspect suggests that they are arranged in parallel rows. Ventral sac 
extends to the tips of the arms in the specimen, but whether it originally 
extended farther can not be ascertained. 

Arms. Two primibrachs in the anterior and right and left posterior 
rays, the second axillary. In the right and left anterolateral rays, three 
primibrachs, the third axillary. Ten arms altogether. In the rays with 
two primibrachs, the first is small, about twice as wide as high, and the 
primaxil also is smaller than in the other rays. In the anterior and right 
and left posterior rays, the arms bifurcate on the third brachial above the 
primibrachs. Anterior ray the only one in which the arms are shown to 
their extremities. In this ray the arms, above the primibrachs, branch five 
times by slightly unequal bifurcations. Right anterolateral ray only shows 
one bifurcation above the primibrachs, the bifurcation occurring on the 
fourth brachial above the primaxil. Brachials, especially in the upper 
portion of the arms, somewhat longer than wide, and except at the axillaries, 
join by straight faces. 

Column wanting. A broken portion of the proximal columnal shows 
that the column was round and stout for the size of the calyx, measuring 
about 2.6 mm in diameter. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton beds (Skaneateles shale), 
east side of Owasco lake, Cayuga county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species is very similar to Botryocrinus 
c r a s s u s (Whiteaves) , but there seem to be sufficient differences to make 
it a separate species. Only the calyx of B. crassus has been found 
so nothing is known of the arms. B. crassus is larger than B . 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 37 1 

concinnus and has a concave and shallow constriction just below 
the middle. The radial facets are narrower and more curving in 
B. crassus, and the radials in the region of the facets are thickened 
and project rather prominently. 

Botryocrinus obconicus sp. nov. 

Plate 47, figure 13 

Species represented by a single specimen showing the dorsal cup and 
33 mm of stem. Dorsal cup very characteristic, however, and would 
readily distinguish obconicus from the other species of 
Botryocrinus. 

Dorsal cup elongated, with gradually sloping sides, suggesting an 
inverted cone. Infrabasals pentagonal and elongated, having a height of 
2.3 mm, a width at the base of 1.2 mm and at the top of 1.8 mm. Basals 
likewise elongated, hexagonal, except the posterior one which is in contact 
with the anal and radianal. An average one gives the following measure- 
ments: breadth 2 mm, height 3.2 mm. 

Radials pentagonal, not quite as elongated as the infrabasals and 
basals, having a height and breadth of approximately 2.3 mm. Facet for 
the reception of the first primibrach very slightly curved and occupies about 
two-thirds of the upper face of the radial. 

Characteristic quadrangular radianal well shown. Anal plate appears 
to be heptagonal, in a line with the radials and not extending above them; 
bordered on each side by a radial, and below it rests upon the posterior 
basal and the radianal. Above it appears to have been bordered b}^ three 
plates of the anal sac, but only the middle one is now present. 

Tegmen missing. 

Arms missing. Portions of the first primibrachs preserved, and these 
are bent inward as seen in figure 13, plate 47. 

Column. About 33 mm preserved. Round, with a diameter of 2 mm, 
and made up of columnals which grow slightly thicker in the more distal 
portion of the column. 



37 2 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds on 

r- 

the west shore of Canandaigua lake, probably in the vicinity of Menteth's 
point. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Botryocrinus sentosus sp. nov. 

Plate 41, figure 10 

The single specimen upon which this species is based occurs on the 
same slab with one specimen of Decadocrinus multinodosus 
sp. nov. and two specimens of Logocrinus geniculatus sp. nov. 
It is a beautiful species of Botryocrinus, the crown measuring at 
least 65 mm in length. 

Dorsal cup rather spreading and low; height 8 mm, width at the top 
of the radials approximately 19 mm. Infrabasals small, pentangular; 
average height 2 mm, width 3.2 mm. Three of the basals hexagonal, the 
other two heptagonal because they come in contact with anal plates. 
Average basal has a height of 4 mm and a width of 6 mm. 

Radials heptagonal, an average one having a height of 4.3 mm and 
a width of 7 mm. Posterior radial smaller than the others. Radial 
facet slightly curved, occupying a little over two-thirds of the upper face of 
the radial. 

Anal x of about the size of the radials and in line with them. Radianal 
rather large, quadrangular, resting between the posterior and right posterior 
basals and bordered above by the anal x and the right posterior radial. 

Tegmen not exposed. 

Arms. Two primibrachs; the first quadrangular, the second 
pentangular, axillary. First primibrach and primaxil of the right posterior 
radius shorter and slightly broader than those of the other radii. An 
average first primibrach has a height of 2.5 mm and a breadth of 4.5 mm; 
an average primaxil has the same width, and is only slightly longer. 

Arms bifurcate on the fifth brachial above the primaxil and seem to 
bifurcate regularly on every third brachial above this. At least ten 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 373 

bifurcations above the primaxil. Sometimes the two members of a 
bifurcation fairly equal; usually a noticeable difference, the smaller branches 
occurring alternately on each side (bilateral heterotomy). This gives the 
effect of a central, stout branch or arm giving off smaller, but very stout, 
bifurcating branches regularly, on alternate sides to the tips. Bifurcations 
of the branches occur usually on every third brachial and, as on the main 
branch, have unequal members. 

Column pentalobate and made up of nodes and internodes. Nodal 
columnals thicker and extend out beyond the other columnals. Internodes 
made up of columnals of alternating sizes. Except in the most proximal 
internode, the internodes average about seven or eight columnals. All 
columnals thickened at the five angles thus emphasizing the pentalobate 
character of the stem. Axial canal large and circular. 

Ornamentation. Species very characteristically ornamented. Plates of 
the dorsal cup have strong radiating folds which cross the suture lines. 
Ornamentation of the arms very striking. Every axillary brachial above 
the primaxil, whether in the main arm or the branches, bears a conspicuous 
spine just below the point of bifurcation. In most cases the spines are 
broken so that they resemble nodes; but in the distal portion of the arms 
a few are preserved, and one of these has a length of 2.8 mm. Spines in 
the more proximal parts of the arms must have been much stronger. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, Cashong 
creek, Yates county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Botryocrinus sentosus has been placed pro- 
visionally under this genus. While this monograph was waiting publication, 
a paper by Erich Haarmann appeared (1920) describing six (five new) species 
of Botryocrinus from the Rhenish Devonian. Among them is 
B. irregularis which somewhat resembles B. sentosus in 
general habit, but the two species are quite distinct. B. irregularis 
has three or four primibrachs, and likewise differs in the absence of spines 
on the arms and the character of their bifurcations. 



374 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

The name sentosus was given because of the thorny appear- 
ance given to the species by the numerous spines on the arms. 

HALLOCRINUS gen. nov. 

Genus formed to receive Hall's "Cyathocrinus" 
ornatissimus. 

Dorsal cup broadly subturbinate. Infrabasals low, but form a con- 
spicuous part of the dorsal cup. Radial facet occupies a variable amount 
of the upper face of the radial, but as a rule extends almost completely 
across it. Posterior interradius has a large radianal and anal in the cup, 
followed by three tube plates. Ventral sac of large size; composed of 
numerous vertical rows of thin plicated plates. Arms broad and stout 
at the base, the second primibrach and at times the primaxil reaching 
down on one side or the other and resting on the radial. Arms peculiar 
and of considerable interest. After the main fork, rami give off long 
pinnuliferous branches at regular intervals to the inner side of the ray. 
This is a striking character and one which apparently led Jaekel to place 
the species in his genus Cosmocrinus. Column pentagonal in the 
proximal portion, becoming round distad. Columnals in the more distal 
portion of the stem long, cylindrical and highly ornamented. 

Named in honor of James Hall. 

Genotype. "Cyathocrinus" ornatissimus. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage) of New York. 

Hallocrinus ornatissimus (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 49, figures 4, 5 ; plates 50, 5 1 

1843 Cyathocrinus ornatissimus (incl. M. portlandicus) Hall. Geol . 
Rep't 4th Dist. N. Y., p. 247, fig. 108 

1877 Cyathocrinus ornatissimus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 75 

1878 Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 17 
1889 Cyathocrinus ornatissimus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., 

p. 236 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 375 

1900 Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus . 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 
1903 Scytalocrinus ornatissimus (in err.) Clarke. N. Y. State Mus. 

Mem. 6, p. 348, pi. F 
1905 Cosmocrinus ornatissimus Whitfield. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

21:20, pi. 2, fig. 2, pi. 3, fig. 2 
1913 Cosmocrinus ornatissimus Springer, Zittel-Eastman Textbook Pal., 

p. 221 

The description of the species is based on a number of specimens in 
the American Museum of Natural History. These specimens are all from 
the original locality in tfye town of Portland, New York, and constitute 
the material used by Hall in his original description. 1 They are in all 
cases somewhat distorted by pressure making it difficult accurately to 
judge the relative proportions of the dorsal cup. The original figured type 
of Hall is on a waterworn fragment of limestone which doubtless was found 
on the beach of Lake Erie. The specimen itself is rather badly weathered. 
Some of the other specimens, unfortunately, have been treated with acid 
which to a great extent has ruined the surface sculpture. The cup of one 
specimen (plate 51) is given a deceptive appearance. The acid has attacked 
the plates unevenly, working most strongly along the sutures and particularly 
at the angles of the plates. This results in depressed areas at these points 
giving the plates a relief at variance with that shown by the other specimens 
examined. The available specimens vary in size from one having an 
arm length of approximately 16 mm to one in which the arms attain a 
length of not less than 100 mm. 

Dorsal cup subturbinate though in different specimens the cups are 
given shapes varying from narrowly turbinate to broadly basin-shaped 
depending upon the degree and character of distortion. Plates of the 
dorsal cup wider than high tending to give a somewhat low, broadly 
expanding cup. This character is more marked in adult specimens than 

1 A specimen from the same locality has recently (192 1) been acquired by the New 
York State Museum from Williams College through the kindness of Doctor Cleland. It 
also was part of the material used by Hall in his original description. 



376 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

in the young forms. It is difficult to give measurements of the plates 
of an individual as none is in favorable condition to show all the plates 
in a good state of preservation. The original Hall type here figured (plate 
50, figure 1) has been chosen to give the majority of measurements. 
Dorsal cup of the type specimen has a height to the radial facet of 1 1 mm 
and a diameter at the base of the arms of about 20 mm. Another specimen 
which is somewhat unsatisfactory for this sort of measurement gives a 
height of 8 mm and a diameter of 18 mm. 

Infrabasals pentagonal with a height of 4 mm and an extreme breadth 
of 5.5 mm. Another specimen gives a height of 3 mm for one of these 
plates and an extreme breadth of 4.8 mm. Infrabasals in this specimen 
in a better state of preservation than in the type specimen. 

Basals, with the exception of the posterior and the right postero- 
lateral, hexagonal, one of them having a height of 6 mm and an extreme 
breadth of 7 mm, the greatest breadth being above the center of the plate. 
Posterior basal heptagonal supporting the left posterior radial, the radianal 
and anal x. Right posterolateral basal supports the radianal on its upper 
left shoulder. 

Radials pentagonal; one of them with an extreme breadth of 7.5 mm 
and a height to the facet of 4.3 mm. Facet occupying a variable amount 
of the upper face of the radial; usually, however, extending nearly the 
entire breadth of the upper face. In the case of a radial of another speci- 
men the upper face of which measures 7.5 mm, the facet has a breadth of 
7 mm. In many cases facet asymmetrical as to the median line of the radial 
plate. In such cases it runs to the extreme margin of the plate on one 
side and falls short of reaching the other extremity by a space of variable 
width. This permits the second primibrach or even the primaxil to rest 
upon the radial on that side. This condition obtains in one or more rays 
of all the adult individuals examined. 

Radianal fully as large as the basals ; hexagonal, supporting the middle 
and right tube plates. Abuts at the right against the right posterior radial. 

Anal x somewhat smaller than the radianal, supporting the left and 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 377 

middle tube plates and perhaps a small tube plate to the left of the left 
tube plate. Abuts laterally against the left posterior radial. 

Tegmen. Radianal and anal x apparently succeeded by four plates 
as noted above. Three of these plates of fairly large size, forming the 
base of the ventral sac which is of remarkable dimensions. On plate 49, 
figure 4, a specimen of medium size is shown, the dorsal cup measuring 
no more than 8 mm in height. Ventral sac with a length of not less than 
82 mm and a maximum breadth as it lies flattened on the rock of 17 mm. 
Distal portion of sac of this specimen concealed by another specimen; in 
the figure restored without shading. Form given the distal portion probably 
fairly accurate having been reconstructed from the other specimens which 
though imperfect, still seem to indicate the true structure of the organ. All 
ventral sacs crushed flat. It would appear in all cases where the sac is 
attached to the cup that the anterior side alone is exposed; composed of 
regular rows of thin, comparatively wide low plates marked by characteristic 
ridges or plications. Up to the center of each row following the long axis 
of the sac is a median beaded ridge. From the center of each plate to the 
lateral edges are fine, sharp folds or ridges; either two or three of these 
on either side of the plate giving the appearance of minute, two- or three- 
tined forks. A retouched photographic enlargement of a portion of the 
surface is shown on plate 49, figure 5. As the sac lies crushed flat upon 
the rock it appears that along each margin is a range composed of some- 
what heavier plates which perhaps give rigidity to the sac. Whether the 
posterior surface of a sac has been examined can not be told with certainty. 
It seems probable however that both surfaces are essentially similar in 
character, rigidity being given as noted above by lateral rows of somewhat 
heavier plates. No openings observed in the ventral sac. 

Arms. Primibrachs three, varying considerably in size and shape. 
First primibrach normally occupies nearly the entire surface of the radial. 
This condition apparently obtains constantly in young individuals. In 
some cases, however, the facet as elsewhere noted begins at one margin 
of the radial and reaches but a portion of the way across the plate. In 



378 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

such cases the first primibrach is overlapped by the second primibrach. 
The second primibrach at times has its normal position upon the first 
primibrach, not touching the radial at either side. At times it reaches 
down on one side and rests upon the radial. In one case both first and 
second primibrachs overlapped by the primaxil which comes to rest upon 
the radial on one side. Primaxil quite variable in shape; frequently has 
the normal, straight, horizontal, lower margin characteristic of most 
crinoids, and at times, as noted above, overrides the brachials below it 
and comes to rest upon the radial itself. Upper sloping faces of the 
primaxil at a low angle or more steeply inclined. In one case it has a 
pinched form, pushing up as a sharp wedge between the succeeding 
brachials. 

Above the main bifurcation of the ray the arms branch in an irregular 
dichotomy (unilateral heterotomy). This gives a peculiar form of arm 
structure and one apparently which largely influenced Jaekel in con- 
sidering ornatissimus as falling within his German genus Cos- 
mocrinus. Arms give off to the inner side of the ray nonbifurcating 
branches of extraordinary dimensions, the proximal ones attaining a length 
in a specimen of medium size of not less than 75 mm and practically 
reaching the ultimate tips of the arms themselves. First bifurcation of 
the arms after the main axil falls either on the eleventh, thirteenth, or 
fifteenth brachial so far as observed. Subsequent bifurcations fall on the 
tenth, twelfth, or fourteenth brachial after the next preceding axillary. 
Axillaries are of no little interest. In the distal portions of the arms the 
upper faces are equilateral, the most distal bifurcation consisting of branches 
of equal dimensions. Proceeding proximad this symmetrical axillary 
gradually gives way to a highly asymmetrical type in which the face 
supporting the nonbifurcating inner branch is much smaller than the 
other. In one case the axillary does not extend completely across the arm. 

Pinnules comparatively short and slender; a number of measurements 
give a maximum length of no more than 12 mm. Dorsal surface of the 
pinnules somewhat like that of Maragnicrinus portlandicus 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK $79 

Whitfield. In the latter species the pinnule ossicle has a sharp keel with 
lateral grooving extending to the edges of the plate; in this case backs of 
the pinnules more nearly wedge-shaped although frequently the structure 
noted inMaragnicrinus is suggested. Near the base of some 
of the pinnules the dorsal surface appears to be rounded. 

Column in its proximal portion distinctly stellate in cross section; 
distad becomes round. No specimen seen in which the stem is preserved 
for any considerable distance; so far as shown, however, composed of 
comparatively low columnals which are alternately wide and narrow. In 
the proximal portion of a large individual diameter of column 7 mm. In 
this region the columnals had a height which gave a rate of 12 ossicles to 
10 mm. Articular face of a columnal in the proximal stellate portion has 
a series of marginal articulating ridges suggesting those of the more primitive 
Pentacrinidae. In the dissociated stem fragments which are found associ- 
ated with the crowns in great numbers and which are assumed to belong 
to this species, the columnals are strongly biconcave and have a peripheral 
row of articulating ridges. The shape of the axial canal can be ascertained 
only with difficulty and with a considerable degree of uncertainty as 
secondary calcification has largely altered the material. A section made 
through the stellate portion of a column seemed clearly to show a pentalobate 
axial canal. The dissociated round columnals appear to have circular 
canals. 

Ornamentation. As noted elsewhere surface sculpture of specimens 
has in most cases partially or wholly been obliterated by treatment of the 
material with acid. Plates of the cup seem to be covered with roughly 
radiating vermiform lines which run perpendicular to the faces of the 
plates. Same general type of ornamentation observed in an incipient 
form on the brachials where lines follow the long axis of the arms. Distad 
brachials finely pitted. 

No specimens observed in which those portions of the column attached 
to the crown show any sculpturing. The great mass of crinoid stems that 
largely goes to make up the lenticular sheet of limestone on the surface 



38O NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of which the crinoids are found exhibit the greatest variation in ornamen- 
tation. Presumably these columns pertain to Hallocrinus although 
there is always the possibility that in part they are referable to M a r a g - 
nicrinus portlandicus Whitfield. The latter possibility is 
scarcely to be considered seriously however as authentic columns of the 
latter species were examined for some distance distad from the crown and 
bear no resemblance to the dissociated stems in question. 

A typical segment of column such as is found on the slabs is shown 
on plate 50, figure 4. There is great variation in ornamentation from that 
seen in this specimen. In some cases each columnal is marked by a median 
peripheral ring which may be either continuous or broken up into beads. 
On either side of this ring and running parallel to the long axis of the 
column are vermiform, markings. When longitudinal markings alone occur 
these may be fine or coarse and closely crowded or widely spaced as the 
case may be. At times the vermiform markings give way in part to dots 
or cancellations. No two stem fragments seem to be identical and even 
within a distance of a few centimeters on the same stem the ornamentation 
of the columnals differs appreciably. Largest round columnal observed 
has a diameter of 6.5 mm. 

Ontogeny. Among the numerous specimens of this species in the 
American Museum of Natural History two young specimens (plate 50, 
figures 2, 3) were found that cast an interesting light on the development 
of the organism. It will be noted that there are several points wherein 
the young specimens differ materially from the adults. 

Dorsal cup in the youngest specimen (figure 3) more conical than in 
adult specimens. As to the relative proportions of the plates it will be 
noted that the infrabasals are decidedly smaller, scarcely appearing beyond 
the stem, whereas in the adult specimens they form an appreciable part 
of the dorsal cup. In the case of the radials the arm facet extends almost 
completely across the upper face of the radial; entirely occupied by the 
first primibrach which has straight, subparallel faces. Second primibrach 
and primaxil of equal width with the first primibrach and in no case tend 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 38 1 

to reach down and touch the radial. Arms in the smallest individual 
comparatively much stouter than in the adult, a feature much less pro- 
nounced in the next larger specimen (plate 50, figure 2). Pinnules in the 
youngest individual not preserved, but in the other specimen comparatively 
heavier and longer than in the case of adult specimens. The most interesting 
feature in connection with the arms is the fact that they bifurcate in a 
regular dichotomy, the upper faces of the axillaries being of equal dimensions 
as they are in the distal portions of the arms in the adults. In the smallest 
specimen there is no appreciable development of the ornamentation, but 
in the next larger specimen there is an obscure rather coarse radiating 
ornamentation. Column as shown by the smallest specimen clearly stellate. 
The features noted above are those which are to be expected and are 
more or less common to all ontogenetic series of crinoids. Of special 
interest however are the changes to be observed in the posterior interradius. 
A comparison of figures 1, 2 on plate 50 and plate 51, will show notable 
differences in structure. It is to be regretted that the posterior interradius 
of the youngest individual is not exposed and can not be reached. In 
the young individual the radianal plate supports the anal x and the right 
tube plate alone. In the case of an adult the radianal supports the anal 
x, middle and right tube plates. The anal x in turn in the young specimen 
supports the left, middle, and right tube plates instead of the middle 
and left tube plates, and at times possibly a tube plate to the left of the 
left tube plate. The plate styled middle tube plate in discussing the 
young individual is a plate destined to become the middle tube plate in 
later development and would receive this designation if this specimen 
alone were being studied. It is evident that this plate, potentially the 
middle tube plate, is in this small specimen one of the next higher range 
of tube plates. It is of relatively small size and rests upon the upper 
inner faces of the anal x and right tube plate. With the increase in size 
of the crinoid and the concomitant broadening of the posterior interradius, 
the middle tube plate gradually worked down between the anal x and the 
right tube plate. Eventually it comes to rest upon the radianal. It is 



382 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

to be noted that the middle tube plate still bears almost the same relative 
position to the anal x, showing that the union of the middle tube plate 
and the radianal was brought about mainly by the mutual growth of these 
two plates, of partial resorption, and change in outline of the affected portion 
of the anal x. The right tube plate was pushed to one side. Apparently 
the greatest relative growth of an}^ of the plates concerned is that of the 
radianal which in the case of a young specimen is but slightly larger than 
the middle tube plate and considerably smaller than either the anal x or 
the right tube plate. In the adult specimens the radianal plate is of equal 
size with or somewhat larger than the anal x. It is very considerably 
larger than either the middle or right tube plate. It will thus be seen that 
a change of very marked character took place in the ontogenetic develop- 
ment of an Inadunate in which a shifting and mutation of the constituent 
elements is a marked character. 

Horizon and locality. All of the authentic specimens of this species 
known have been obtained from a single locality on the shore of Lake 
Erie, Portland, N. Y. The crinoids apparently occurred in a small lens 
of Portage limestone which was largely made up of comminuted crinoidal 
remains. The limestone mass lay in the midst of calcareous shales. In 
the collection of the New York State Museum there is a small slab from 
the Portage beds, Mount Morris, Livingston county, N. Y., which shows 
a portion of a crown of a young specimen and fragments of columns which 

apparently are referable to this species. 

~8"o 
Types in the American Museum of Natural History, number n ° . 

1 

Remarks. The genus Cosmocrinus was defined by Jaekel 

(1898, pp. 28, 29). In the genus he included three species, Poterio- 

crinus dilatatus Schultze, Cyathocrinus ornatissi- 

m u s Hall, and a new species which he called Cosmocrinus h o 1 - 

z a p f e 1 i . None of the species was chosen by Jaekel as the genotype. 

Poteriocrinus dilatatus is certainly genetically distinct from 

Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Hall. The status of the other 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 383 

species referred to the genus may not be ascertained with certainty as 
both the specific description and the material are far from satisfactory. 

As noted above the new species holzapfeli was given a very 
inadequate description by Jaekel. Indeed, relying simply on his description 
which is but three lines in length, it would be impossible to recognize the 
species. To all intents and purposes holzapfeli might be regarded 
as little else than a nornen nudum. Jaekel considered Hall's figure of 
Cyathocrinus ornatissiums which was the only means he 
had of studying the species as schematic and incorrect. Poterio- 
crinus dilatatus has been splendidly figured and described 
(Schultze 1867, p. 161, pi. 5, fig. 5). Only the dorsal cup of this species 
is known. Of the last two species dilatatus alone agrees with the 
generic diagnosis of Cosmocrinus. 

Bather (1906, p. 104) in discussing the genus says: 

C. holzapfeli Jaekel, Poteriocrinus dilatatus 
Schultze and Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Hall were referred 
to this genus by Dr. Jaekel, and of these the first should be made genolecto- 
type. A good figure of the cup has been given only for C. dilatatus, 
and this, though marked with exceptionally strong folds, appears to have 
the characteristic Botryocrinus structure. Redescription of C . 
ornatissimus is much needed. 

Haarmann in a recent paper (1920, pp. 31-33) on the Botryocrinidae 
discusses the genus Cosmocrinus. He agrees with Bather in select- 
ing C. holzapfeli as the type of the genus, but doubts the validity 
of the genus. He, too, finds Poteriocrinus dilatatus show- 
ing characteristic Botryocrinus structure, and shows that neither 
this species nor Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Hall can be 
placed in the genus Cosmocrinus ; nor are they congeneric. A 
study of squeezes of the original material has shown that C . holzap- 
feli was based upon fragmentary material, and only part of the calyx 
is known; hence Haarmann believes that, even if this species does not 
belong to another genus, more material is needed to establish the genus 
Cosmocrinus for it. 



384 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

For the species Cyathocrinus ornatissimus a new genus 
Hallocrinus is here proposed. 

Genus MARAGNICRINUS Whitfield 1905 

The genus Maragnicrinus as defined by Whitfield contained 
but a single species, portlandicus, two specimens of which were 
found associated with 'Cyathocrinus' ornatissimus Hall . 
Whitfield did not include ornatissimus in his new genus, but 
referred it to Cyathocrinus or possibly Cosmocrinus. 

It seems that Hall in his examination of the original material did not 
differentiate between the two genera, but referred both types to Cyatho- 
crinus ornatissimus. This is shown by the fact that there is 
now a specimen of Maragnicrinus portlandicus in the 
museum of Williams College bearing Hall's manuscript label "Cya - 
thocrinus ornatissimus." 

Dorsal cup of the genus obconical, infrabasals large. Posterior inter- 
radius contains a large radianal and anal in the cup, supporting two or 
three tube plates, one of the type specimens having two and the smaller 
specimen three. It is possible that two is the usual number for the adult 
individuals. These plates support a large plicated ventral sac. Radial 
facet occupies nearly three-fourths the upper face of the radial. Arms 
sharply distinct from the theca, and divide into two rami which have 
extraordinary long pinnules. Column round, and as far as observed com- 
posed of short columnals. 

Genotype. Maragnicrinus portlandicus. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage) of New York. 

Maragnicrinus portlandicus Whitfield 

Plate 48; plate 49, figures 1-3 

1843 Incl. in Cyathocrinus ornatissimus Hall. Nat. History N. Y., pt. 

4, Geol., p. 247 
1903 Scytalocrinus ornatissimus (in err.) Clarke. N. Y. State Mus. 

Mem., 6, p. 348, pi. F 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 385 

1905 Maragnicrinus portlandicus Whitfield. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 21, art. 2, pp. 17-20, pis. 1-4 
1905 Scytalocrinus ornatissimus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State 

Mus. Bui. 80, p. 44 

The original description of the type and only species of the genus was 
based upon two specimens in the American Museum of Natural History. 
A third specimen is in the museum of Williams College. Both type 
specimens somewhat distorted and broken. Otherwise the preservation 
is good, and all essential structural details may be seen without difficulty. 
Unfortunately both specimens have been treated with acid which to some 
extent has injured them. Description of species taken from type specimens. 
Such measurements as are given are taken from the larger of the two 
specimens as this is in a more favorable state of preservation for such work. 

Dorsal cup of the species subcorneal, with a maximum breadth across 
the arm bases of 17 mm. Height of cup to arm bases 12 mm. 

Infrabasals pentagonal with a breadth greater than the height. Height 
of one plate 4 mm; greatest breadth 5 mm. 

Basals hexagonal in shape, with exceptions as noted hereafter. Height 
7 mm and breadth approximately the same. Left posterior basal hep- 
tagonal, slightly larger than the other basals; supports the left posterior 
radial, anal x and radianal on its upper faces. Right posterior basal 
heptagonal; supports the radianal on its left upper shoulder. 

Radials with a breadth considerably in excess of the height. Left 
posterior radial gives a maximum breadth of 6.5 mm and a height to the 
facet of 4 mm. Facet in this plate with a width of approximately 4.5 
mm. In the other specimens the facet seems proportionally to occupy 
an even wider space. Facets inclined somewhat at an angle giving the 
arms a slightly outward inclination. 

Radianal pentagonal with its greatest breadth below the middle of the 
plate. Height of this plate 6 mm; greatest breadth 6.5 mm. It extends 
upward to approximately the base of the radial facets. In the larger 

specimen it supports the anal x and the right tube plate. In the smaller 

25 



386 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

specimen another tube plate comes to rest upon the radianal to the right 
of the right tube plate. Anal x somewhat smaller than the radianal and 
hexagonal, supporting upon its upper shoulders the left and right tube 
plates. In the smaller specimen where three tube plates immediately 
succeed the radianal and anal x they may perhaps best be designated as 
left, middle (equivalent to the right tube plate in the foregoing description) 
and right tube plate. 

Tegmen. Ventral sac in this species only poorly known, as nothing 
but the base is preserved. So far as may be ascertained it seems to be 
composed of regular rows of plates somewhat smaller than the proximal 
tube plates. Plates marked by high sharp ridges passing from plate to 
plate at right angles to the sutures. 

Arms. Primibrachs three, relatively short and approximately equal 
in height. They stand out distinctly from the cup and are given a some- 
what outward direction by the angle of the facet. 

Arms bifurcate but once, each ray giving rise to two remarkably long 
rami; comparatively slender and composed of slightly wedge-shaped ossicles. 
The extreme length of one of these rami would not fall short of 90 mm. 
Pinnules, likewise, remarkably long and slender. In the upper portion 
of one arm several pinnules were found sufficiently well preserved so that 
their length could be ascertained with comparative accuracy. A measure- 
ment of these pinnules gave a length of 33 mm. Pinnule ossicles longer 
than wide; each ossicle grooved on either side of the long axis, producing 
a sharp median keel, a structure strikingly similar to that found in 
"Cyathocrinus" o r n a t i s s i m u s . 

Column apparently round throughout its length, although the larger 
specimen gives evidence in its proximal portion of being slightly pentagonal . 
About 60 mm of stem preserved in the larger specimen, measuring 6 mm 
in diameter at the base of the calyx. From this point the stem tapers 
rather rapidly distad to a point about 12 mm from the cup where it 
measures 4.4 mm in diameter. In the distal portion of the column as 
preserved one has a diameter of 3.4 mm. In the other type specimen por- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 387 

tions of the stem may be represented for a distance of about 20 cm. Seg- 
ments of the stem are missing but from impressions left on the surface of 
the rock and from the general direction of the column as it lies it would 
appear that the fragments were at one time continuous. Diameter of the 
column of this specimen in its proximal portion 4.5 mm; in its distal portion 
only 3 mm. Column of this species composed of alternating wide and 
narrow columnals which have crenulated margins. In the larger specimen 
the proximal columnals have a height which gives a rate of 20 columnals 
for 10 mm. In the. more distal portion, about 40 mm from the cup, the 
height gives a rate of 26 columnals for 10 mm. In the smaller specimen 
relative height compared with the breadth considerably greater in the 
distal portion of the stem than in the proximal portion. As noted above, 
periphery of columnals sharply crenulated; faces deeply concave. In the 
larger specimen about 12 mm from the calyx and extending for a distance 
of about 10 mm distad is a curiously tesselated area which does not appear 
in the other specimen. 

Axial canal of medium, size and apparently round, although satisfactory 
sections could not be made. 

Ornamentation. Calyx plates covered with irregular anastomosing 
vermicular ridges and points; apparently varies considerably within the 
species as the two specimens differ to a marked degree. These vermicular 
ridges extend up onto the arms and the base of the ventral sac in a modified 
form. On the basals and infrabasals markings have a roughly radial 
arrangement running from the centers of the plates. In the case of the 
radials ornamentation somewhat more reticulate, although this varies in 
the two specimens. Columnals irregularly beaded. Whether any of the 
curiously marked columnals associated with this species belong to it or 
pertain to "Cyathocrinus" ornatissimus it is not possible 
to state. As will be noted in the description of the latter species, there 
is the greatest diversity of ornamentation in the fragmentary columns 
which largely make up the limestone. As far as may be judged from actual 
observation of the attached columnals of Maragnicrinus port- 



388 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

landicus, however, the evidence seems to point to columnals of 
different character, at least for individuals of this size. 

Horizon and locality. Maragnicrinus portlandicus 
occurs on slabs of Portage limestone associated with specimens of "Cya- 
thocrinus' ornatissimus. Found on the shores of Lake Erie, 
near the town of Portland, N. Y. 

Types in the American Museum of Natural History, number - . 

i 

They occur on two separate slabs of limestone. The only other fossil 
associated with these crinoids besides " C ." ornatissimus is a 
small pelecypod, for which a new genus and species was erected by Whit- 
field, Onychocardium portlandicum. Specimen described 
as the type of Scytalocrinus ornatissimus (Clarke, 1903, 
p. 348, pi. F) in the collection of Williams College; plastotype of this 

specimen in the collection of the New York State Museum, number t^3__ 

Remarks. Clarke (1903, p. 348, pi. F) referred a specimen belonging 
to this species to "Scytalocrinus" ornatissimus (Hall) . 
The generic designation was given by Springer after having examined the 
drawings reproduced by Clarke. The specimen was found in the museum 
of Williams College with a label in Professor Hall's handwriting " C y a - 
thocrinus ornatissimus." Having been told by Professor Hall 
that his original figure of "Cyathocrinus" ornatissimus 
was in large part a reconstruction and that the material from which the 
figure was made belonged to a collector whose specimens had gone to 
Williams College, Clarke considered this specimen when found to be the 
type of the species. Whitfield (1905) showed that the original of Hall's 
figure was in the American Museum of Natural History. This is the 
specimen here figured on plate 50, figure 1. Clarke (1905) acknowledged 
the probable truth of Whitfield's statement and explained the circum- 
stances under which the mistake had been made. It is evident that Hall 
in examining the original material from Portland had not differentiated 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 389 

between the two genera represented. There can be no doubt however that 
his specific description applied to 'Cyathocrinus' ornatis- 
simus as here defined. 

For purposes of clearness, unessential details of the mass of stems and 
crinoid fragments surrounding the specimens have been omitted in the 
drawings. 

Family glossocrinidae nov. 

This family has been created to contain the new genera Glosso- 
crinus, Liparocrinus, Catactocrinus and Chariento- 
c r i n u s . It agrees more closely with the Poteriocrinidae than 
with any of the other families. Structure of the cup is that charac- 
teristic of Poteriocrinus, Decadocrinus, etc., among the 
Poteriocrinidae ; and, as in Poteriocrinus, the radial facet 
does not occupy the entire width of the radial. Tegmen visible in one 
species, Liparocrinus halli. It does not agree with the tegmen 
characteristic of the Poteriocrinidae, Botryocrinidae or 
Cyathocrinidae, though it bears closer resemblance to that of the 
Cyathocrinidae. The radial facets are not narrow enough or 
curved sufficiently for the Cyathocrinidae or Botryocrin- 
idae. Arms pinnulate as in the Poteriocrinidae. Taking all 
these characteristics into consideration, together with the primitive character 
of the anal tube, the creation of a new family seems warranted. 

Genus GLOSSOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. yXoaffdq, tongue; xpcvov, lily] 

Genus created with Glossocrinus naplesensis as geno- 
type. Crown in this genus long and slender. Dorsal cup has a structure 
like that of Poteriocrinus. Both right posterolateral and posterior 
basals heptagonal. Five infrabasals. Radial facet not as wide as the 
upper face of the radials and slightly curved. Anal plate extends to, or 
slightly above, the upper edge of the radials. 

Anal tube long and slender, almost as long as the arms; supported on 



390 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

the dorsal (posterior) side by a median line of quadrangular plates, the 
first of which rests upon the radianal and touches on the anal x on the left, 
the right posterior radial on the right. Median row of plates flanked on 
each side by a row of plates provided with comparatively high thin folds, 
four or five to a plate, which gives the tube a plicated appearance. Ventral 
(anterior) side the same, except that the median row of quadrangular 
ossicles is replaced by a median row of small interlocking plates. 

Arms branch twice and are dichotomous; composed for the most part 
of quadrangular to wedge-shaped brachials which bear long pinnules alter- 
nately on each side. 

Column strongly pentangular. Cirriferous in one of the species of the 
genus, and better material may show that the other is also. 

Genotype. Glossocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage and Chemung) of New York. 

Glossocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Plate 52, figures 1-5; text figure 59 

O) — I This new species is repre- 

<^\—T~~^) (^~~^) <T \ sented by material from the 

^r—^J^—. ^ N ^/\^^^ Portage (Grimes sandstone and 

yj) \J) (^J West Hill flags) and from the 

IB c^^ ^ ^—^ ^ ^ ^~^ > Chemung. The description is 

Figure 59 Analysis of calyx of Glossociinus naples- 
ensis, the genotype; t, first plate of the median, dorsal, mainly based Upon three SpeCl- 
armlike series of plates of the ventral tube. menS; twQ of wh ^ ch (plate 52, 

figures 1, 2) are from the Portage beds (West Hill flags). In one of the 
Portage specimens the mold only is preserved; in the second specimen, the 
rock has been split through the specimen so that the mold of both sides is 
seen. One side shows part of the anal tube and the lower part of one arm 
of the specimen itself. Gutta-percha squeezes have been made from the 
molds and the specimens have been studied from these squeezes. Only the 
gutta-percha squeezes of the third specimen are in our possession. The 
squeezes were with the squeezes of material from Chemung Narrows, but 





DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 39 1 

the original can not be found. This specimen is only used because it shows 
the anterior side of the ventral tube; otherwise, it is very poorly preserved. 
I do not hesitate to place this specimen in the Chemung of Chemung 
Narrows, for like all the other squeezes of this material it has bits of the 
weathered specimen all through the squeeze. In addition there has been 
found in this material a fragment of this species showing a small piece of 
column, the dorsal cup, about a quarter of an inch of ventral tube and 
portions of the arms. The Chemung specimen is somewhat larger than 
the Portage forms, but there is no reason for separating it from that 
species. 

This is a beautiful, graceful little species. In the Portage specimens 
the crown is not preserved to its full length, but it must have measured 
in the neighborhood of 45 mm to 50 mm. The Chemung specimen illus- 
trated has a crown measuring about 55 mm. The measurements given 
hereafter, unless otherwise stated, will be taken from the Portage forms 
figured on plate 52, figures 1, 2. 

Dorsal cup with a height of 3.5 mm and a width at the top of the 
radials of about 6 mm. 

Infrabasals five, an average one having a height of .8 mm and a 
width of 2.2 mm. 

B asals pentagonal with the exception of the posterior and right postero- 
lateral. An average one has a height of 2 mm and a width of about 2.2 
mm. Posterior basal heptagonal, supporting the anal and radianal upon 
its upper faces; right posterolateral basal heptagonal, supporting upon 
its three upper faces the radianal, right posterior and right anterolateral 
radials. 

Radials shield-shaped, heptagonal. Right posterior hexagonal, bor- 
dering the right posterior basal, the radianal, first tube plate and right 
anterolateral radial (see text figure 59). Radial facet does not occupy 
the entire width of the upper face of the radial and is slightly curved. An 
average radial has a height to the radial facet of 2 mm and a width of 
2.6 mm. 



392 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Radianal pentangular, situated obliquely; resting upon the posterior 
and right posterior basals and bordered above by the anal x, right tube 
plate and right posterior radial. Anal x pentagonal, small, of about the 
size of the radianal and extending somewhat above the radials. On its 
upper right hand face it supports the first tube plate. 

Tegmen. Anal tube very striking and characteristic; long and slender, 
and probably measured between 40 mm and 45 mm. Greatest width 
about 5.5 mm. Tube similar to that of Iocrinus and AI e r o - 
crinus (Bather, 1900, pp. 120, 178). A median line of quadrangular, 
supporting ossicles extends up the dorsal (posterior) side of the anal tube, 
giving the appearance of a simple uniserial arm. This supports the view 
that the dorsal median line of ossicles represents the proximal left ramus 
of the right posterior arm (Bather, 1900, p. 119). On each side of the 
median line of plates is a row of wide plates, each of the height of the 
neighboring plate of the axial row, each provided with folds, usually four 
or five, which give a plicated, accordion plaited appearance to the tube. 
Along the margin of the tube on each side these plates are thickened and 
strengthened. Ventral (anterior) side of the tube shown only in the 
Chemung specimen of which we have the squeeze alone. Corresponding 
to the dorsal median line of plates is a ventral median line of interlocking 
plates, similar to the ambulacrals of an arm. Otherwise the ventral side 
of the tube resembles the dorsal side. 

Arms probably had a length of at least 50 mm. They show two 
dichotomous bifurcations. Second bifurcation so near the tips of the arms 
that, though it can not be definitely ascertained, it does not seem probable 
that a later branching occurs. Primibrachs at least five or six. Brachials 
quadrangular and bear pinnules alternately on each side. Pinnules below 
the first bifurcation particularly strong. All the pinnules long and made 
up of ossicles somewhat longer than wide. 

Column. One of the Portage specimens has preserved 7.5 cm of stem. 
The stem is decidedly pentangular and composed of nodes and internodes. 
In the most proximal internodes are seen three different sizes of columnals; 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 393 

in the distal portions of the stem the columnals become more nearly of the 
same thickness. Columnals thickened at the angles into little nodes which 
serve to heighten the pentangular effect of the stem. Nodals thicker than 
any of the other columnals and projecting out beyond the rest of the 
column in a very conspicuous manner. Nodals cirriferous, each bearing 
two (or three ?) long cirri, which alternate with those of the nodal 
immediately above and below. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup conspicuously ornamented 
with ridges or folds which extend from basal to radial and from radial 
to radial across the suture lines. Also present on the anal x, radianal and, 
slightly developed, upon the first median tube plate. Ridges of the column 
continued up on the infrabasals. Columnals, as noted above, have the 
thickenings or nodes at the five angles, and the anal tube has the thin 
parallel ridges or folds which give the plicated appearance to the tube. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, 
Naples, and from the Portage (Grimes sandstone) of Deyo basin, two miles 
south of Naples, N. Y. In both these localities the specimens were collected 
by D. Dana Luther. Also found in the lower Chemung beds at Chemung 
Narrows. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Williams (1882, p. 19) under "Poteriocrinus" 
cornellianus describes the plates bordering the median dorsal row 
in the anal tube as extensions of these plates. Williams' material was not 
as well preserved as the specimens of this species in which these lateral 
plates appear plainly to be separate. 

One of the Portage specimens shows an abnormal condition in the left 
posterolateral interradius where there are two small plates instead of the 
one large basal. This is shown on plate 52, figure 5. 

At first I was inclined to consider the specimens here described 
as belonging to "Poteriocrinus" cornellianus Williams. 
Williams' specimens show only a little of the column, so we do not know 
how the two species compare in this respect. The radiating folds on the 



394 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

plates of the dorsal cup, so characteristic and prominent in G. naples- 
ensis are lacking in "Poteriocrinus" cornellianus (plate 
52, figures 6, 7). Even the most weathered material of G. naples- 
e n s i s shows these ridges, and Williams' specimens of Poterio- 
crinus clarkei from the Chemung show the radiating folds on the 
plates of the calyx; so that it does not seem that their absence in 
"P." cornellianus could be due to weathering. The arm ossicles 
in 'P." cornellianus show a decided wedge-shaped character 
even in some of the brachials below the first bifurcation. For comparison 
with Liparocrinus batheri see Remarks under that species. 
Named from the locality near which the majority of the specimens 
were collected. 

Glossocrinus cornellianus (Williams) n. comb. 

Plate 52, figures 6, 7 

1882 Poteriocrinus cornellianus Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. , 

v. 34, pt. 1, pp. 18-20, pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, 3 
1886 Poteriocrinus cornellianus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. , 

pt. 3, p. 234 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:158 
1889 Poteriocrinus cornellianus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal. 

P- 273 
1896 Poteriocrinus cornellianus Kindle. Bui. Amer. Pal., no. 6, p. 34 

The type material of this species was not available. One figure has 
been taken from a gutta-percha squeeze of one of the types in the collection 
of Doctor Springer, the other has been copied from the original figure. The 
description, therefore, has in part been based upon the original description. 

G. cornellianus has a cup-shaped calyx, very long arms which 
give a slender, graceful effect to the crown, and a pentagonal column which 
expands beneath the calyx. 

Dorsal cup. Infrabasals five, small, pentagonal. 

Basals large, hexagonal, with very nearly equal height and breadth. 
Posterior basal, in contact with the anal plates, heptagon al. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 395 

Radials the largest plates in the cup; roughly pentagonal and slightly 
broader than high. Williams describes them as longitudinally convex and 
incurving toward the tegmen, the edges of two adjacent radials forming 
a deep groove which terminates upon the upper part of the basals. He 
also notes a broad, convex ridge beginning on the radials and continuing 
on the arms to the first bifurcation. Radial facet straight, occupying 
a little more than two- thirds the breadth of the radial. 

Three anals within the cup. Radianal the largest and pentagonal; 
in contact with the right posterior radial, the posterior and right postero- 
lateral basals, and the anal x and supporting on its upper face a large tube 
plate. Anal x comparatively small, pentagonal ; it rests upon the truncated 
posterior basal, is bordered at the left by the left posterior radial and at 
the right by the radianal and the large tube plate. This tube plate rests 
almost directly above the radianal, touches the radial at the right and is 
succeeded by a series of plates which in dorsal view very much resemble 
the lower arm plates. 

Tegmen. Ventral tube only part of the tegmen that has been pre- 
served; long, apparently as long as the arms. Williams gives a detailed 
description (1882, pp. 19, 20) of the structure, as follows: 

In the typical specimen, what is preserved of this tube is one-third 
the length of the arms; laterally it is beset on both sides by a fringe, about 
the width of the plates themselves, of narrow ridges and furrows perpen- 
dicular to the axis of the tube. There are four to six of these furrows in 
the length of each plate, and they continue uninterruptedly the whole 
length of the tube. In another specimen the tube has been preserved 
lying mainly outside the arms, and thirty-one plates can be distinctly 
seen, making a tube whose length is six times the diameter of the calyx; 
final plate about half the size of the first one. A study of the specimens 
at command, although all but one are in the condition of molds in fine 
sandstone from which the original material is entirely removed, has enabled 
us to make out the general details of structure of this " tube." 

The dorsal aspect is that of a cylinder, from a little below the center 
of which extend outward and downward lamellae which on each side are 
continuous; the junction at each joint of the plates is not visible, and 
transversely they are marked by narrow furrows. A section shows these 
fringelike lamellae to be lateral expansions of the axial plates, thickened 



39 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

at the outer margins and on the ventral side terminating at a narrow, 
median, longitudinal keel, which appears to be composed of two series 
of minute plates alternately arranged. The transverse striae do not con- 
tinue over the outer margins to the ventral side, but reappear in the furrow 
at the base of the ventral keel. 

From the study of specimens of Glossocrinus naplesensis 
and Liparocrinus batheri and h a 1 1 i , which show the same 
type of ventral tube, I have come to a different interpretation of the 
structure of the ventral tube. The dorsal median, longitudinal line of 
plates is flanked on each side by a row of plates (not lateral extensions 
of the axial plates) with several transverse thin folds to each plate and 
thickened at the outer margin. The median, longitudinal keel apparently 
composed of two series of small alternating plates I have also found in 
a specimen of G. naplesensis shown on plate 52, figure 4, where 
there is a striking resemblance to the ambulacrals of the ventral side of 
the arm. In this specimen the transverse folds on the ventral side continue 
to the outer margin, just as on the dorsal side, and I believe this probably 
would be found to be true in well-preserved specimens of G. cornel- 
1 i a n u s , though Williams only noted them in the furrow at the base 
of the ventral keel. 

Arms very long; bifurcating for the first time on the eighth or ninth 
brachial, thus giving eight or nine primibrachs, which bear pinnules alter- 
nately on each side beginning with the second or third plate. Primibrachs 
wider than high; the lower ones quadrangular, the upper ones with a slight 
tendency to wedge-shape. Arms bifurcate a second time higher up. Above 
the primaxil brachials wedge-shaped and shorter, and like the primibrachs 
bear the pinnules alternately on each side. Pinnules slender and composed 
of long ossicles. 

Column, as noted above, pentagonal, so far as preserved. It expands 
at the top, just beneath the calyx, and here is composed of very thin 
columnals. Williams' figures show only this portion of the column, and 
in his description he does not touch upon the character of the lower portion. 
There may have been no specimens to show this. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 397 

Horizon and locality. Cited by Williams from the lower Chemung, 
200 feet above the base, Ithaca, N. Y. There is in the New York State 
Museum a specimen very much weathered, which to all appearances is a 
Glossocrinus cornellianus. It was collected from the Portage 
(Ithaca) beds, Glenwood ravine, west side of Cayuga lake, four miles 
north of Ithaca. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the late Doctor H. S. Williams, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Remarks. A new genus Glossocrinus has been created to 
contain this species and the new species Glossocrinus naples- 
e n s i s . For comparison of this species with Glossocrinus 
naplesensis and Liparocrinus batheri see Remarks under 
each of those species. 

•Genus LIPAROCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. Xiizapoq, beautiful; xpcvov, lily] 

Genus similar to Glossocrinus, but much larger. Character 
of dorsal cup and anal tube the same as in Glossocrinus, though 
dorsal cup lower in proportion to size of the specimen. In proportion 
to its size, anal tube more slender and tapering; brachials shorter with 
a tendency toward wedge-form even in the proximal part of the arms. 
Each brachial bears a pair of long pinnules, one on each side. 

Genotype. Liparocrinus batheri sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Chemung) of New York. 

Liparocrinus batheri sp. nov. 

Plate 52, figure 8 

There is just one specimen of this splendid species in the New York 
State Museum, and it is preserved as a mold in the sandstone. A gutta- 
percha squeeze has been made from the mold and the details of the 
description taken from this squeeze. If the arms were complete to the 
tips the crown probably would have measured between 85 mm and 90 mm. 



39§ NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dorsal cup rather low for the size of the specimen; height 5 mm., 
width at the top of the radials 10 mm. 

Infrabasals five, small, having a height less than 1 mm. 

Basals pentagonal except the posterior and right posterior which 
border the anal plates. An average basal shows a height of 2.2 mm and 
a width of 3 mm. 

All the radials shield- shaped, roughly pentagonal; of about the same 
size as the basals, an average one having a height to the radial facet of 
2.4 mm and a width of 3.2 mm. Radial facet almost straight; occupies 
nearly the entire width of the upper face of the radial. 

Anal x of about the size of the radials, pentagonal, bordering the first 
large tube plate and the radianal in addition to the posterior basal and 
the left posterior radial. Radianal pentagonal, situated obliquely. First 
plate of the median dorsal line of ossicles in the tube rests upon the anal, 
radianal, and right posterior radial and is of about the same size. 

Tegmen. Anal tube long, slender and coiled at the tip. If uncoiled, 
tube would have a length of about 82 mm. In its widest part it measures 
approximately 9 mm. Anal tube of this species tapers more than that of 
Glossocrinus naplesensis. 

Only the dorsal (posterior) aspect of tube preserved. It shows the 
median line of large, quadrangular ossicles flanked on either side by the 
plates provided with sharp, thin folds or ridges which give a plicated appear- 
ance to the tube. Folds or ridges not as prominent as in Glossocrinus 
naplesensis. These narrow plates are thickened and strengthened at 
the margin on each side. 

Arms, when complete, probably had a length of between 80 mm and 
85 mm. They bifurcate on the sixth brachial in two of the rays, but 
whether this is true of all the rays can not be ascertained. Some of these 
first brachials show a tendency to wedge-shape and the upper ones at least 
are pinnule-bearing. The arms branch once more, usually about half way 
between the first bifurcation and the tips of the arms. 

Arms composed of short brachials; usually quadrangular, but a few, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 399 

even low down in the arms, show a tendency toward wedge-shape. Each 
brachial bears a pair of long pinnules, one on each side. 

Column. About 15 mm preserved here; and, so far as can be judged 
from the small portion preserved, similar to that of Glossocrinus 
naplesensis. Strongly pentangular; columnals thickened, almost 
nodose, at the angles, thus giving five longitudinal ridges between which 
the stem is concave. Composed of nodes and internodes. First internode 
and part of the second visible. Internodes made up of alternately thick 
and thin plates. Nodal columnal thicker than the others; extends out 
beyond the rest of the stem and bears long cirri. No cirri exposed, except 
in fragments. Molds of cirri are preserved, and some idea of the length 
was obtained by running a wire up through these molds. The most 
proximal ones have a length of at least 75 mm; more distal ones apparently 
were longer and heavier, one showing a diameter of 1.2 mm. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup ornamented with prominent 
ridges or folds which pass from plate to plate, crossing the suture lines. 
Only other ornamentation consists in the thin folds ornamenting the plates 
of the anal tube, and the nodes on the columnals at the angles of the stems. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds at Brown hill, 
Cohocton, N. Y. 

Type. Genoholotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species may be readily distinguished from Glosso- 
crinus naplesensis and Glossocrinus cornellianus. 
It is of very much greater size. The anal tube is more tapering and the sharp 
folds on the lateral plates are not so prominent. The brachials are shorter 
with a tendency in some to wedge-shape, even in the lower part, and each 
bears a pair of pinnules, one on each side, instead of alternately as is the 
case with G. naplesensis and G. cornellianus. G. cor- 
nellianus lacks the radiating ridges on the plates of the dorsal cup. 
For comparison with Liparocrinus halli see Remarks under that 
species. 

Named in honor of Dr F. A. Bather of the British Museum. 



400 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Liparocrinus halli sp. no v. 

Plate 52, figures 9-1 1 

I was at first inclined to place this species as a variety of the new 
Chemung species, Liparocrinus batheri, and further material 
may still prove it to be only of varietal rank; but the detailed study of the 
two specimens in our possession brings out characters which seem to be 
sufficient to permit the making of a new species. Both specimens of the 
species are molds in the sandstone, one showing the dorsal cup and 
portions of three arms, the other showing the tegmen, part of the ventral 
tube and the ventral aspect of parts of three arms. 

Dorsal cup shaped like a broad-based, inverted cone; narrow at the base, 
widening rapidly with slightly concave, flaring sides. Width at the base 
3 mm, at the top of the radials 8.6 mm or slightly over; height 5.2 mm. 

Infrabasals five, low, pentagonal, with a height of 1.4 mm and a width 
of 2.5 mm. 

Three of the basals, right and left anterior and left posterolateral 
hexagonal; posterior basal and right posterolateral heptagonal, coming in 
contact with the anal plates of the posterior side. Slope of the upper faces 
of the infrabasals so slight that these basal plates appear hexagonal; larger 
than the other basals. An average basal, the right anterior, has a height 
of 2.2 mm and a width of 2.4 mm. 

Radials roughly pentagonal ; radial facet straight and occupying almost 
the entire width of the radial. Radials broader than high, an average 
one having a height of 2.5 mm and a width at the top of 4.2 mm. 

Anal x and radianal slightly smaller than posterior basals. Radianal 
pentagonal; rests between the posterior and right posterolateral basals; 
bordered at the left by the anal x, at the right by the right posterior radial, 
and above by the first plate of the median dorsal line of plates of the 
ventral tube. Anal x pentagonal, bordering at the left the left posterior 
radial, at the right the first median tube plate and radianal, and below 
resting upon the truncated posterior basal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 4OI 

Tegmen. One specimen (plate 52, figure n) shows the mold of the 
tegmen and the ventral (anterior) aspect of the ventral tube. Tegmen 
composed of many small interambulacrals ; covering plates of the ambulacral 
areas small and interlocking. Ambulacral areas appear to be raised as ridges 
above the concave interambulacral areas; but this may be due to the mode 
of preservation. The lines of ambulacrals meet in the middle of the tegmen. 
No orals visible and no enlarged ambulacrals in the region of the mouth, 
so far as can be ascertained from the specimen, except at the posterior 
side where there is a comparatively large plate which to all appearances 
is a madreporite. 

About 10 mm of the ventral tube preserved in this specimen; in the 
other specimen, showing the dorsal (posterior) side, about 8 mm preserved. 
Tube appears to have been slender, for it shows a width at the base of 4 mm. 
In the dorsal view, only the armlike median dorsal line of plates visible, 
the first of these resting upon the anal x, radianal, and left shoulder of the 
right posterior radial. The ventral view shows the characteristic plates 
with the ridges and furrows. Of the median line of small interlocking 
plates on the ventral side only one or two remain or can be distinguished. 

Arms. Eight comparatively short, more or less wedge-shaped brachials 
before the first bifurcation. Very little of the arms preserved, so it is 
not possible to tell how many bifurcations there are above this. No brachials 
above the first bifurcation are shown in the dorsal view; from the ventral 
view, the brachials appear to be quadrangular. Small interlocking covering 
plates of the ambulacral groove shown as far up as the bifurcation. 
Brachials from the second or third up each provided with a pair of pinnules. 
No pinnules preserved. 

Column. Only a couple of columnals preserved; very thin. Column 
decidedly pentalobate, appearing star-shaped in cross-section. Axial canal 
small, round. Whether or not the stem was provided with cirri cannot 
be ascertained; no evidence of cirri in the rock. 

Ornamentation. Only ornamentation consists in the faint depressions 

between the basal plates of the dorsal cup and the incipient ridges at the 
26 



402 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

very borders of the radials and, particularly, the anal x and radianal, unless 
the ridges and furrows on the plates of the ventral tube be regarded as part 
of the ornamentation. 

Horizon and locality. From the Chemung beds, near Tracy Creek, 
Broome county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The other species of this genus, L. batheri sp. nov. 
does not show the tegmen. The differences between that species and 
L . h a 1 1 i are readily seen. Dorsal cup in L. batheri broader and 
lower with decidedly smaller infrabasals and more strongly developed 
radial ridges on the plates. Number of primibrachs in L . h a 1 1 i greater 
and anal tube much more slender. 

Named in honor of E. B. Hall by whom the specimens were collected 
and donated to the Museum. 

Genus CHARIENTOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. -/actstg, graceful; y.ptvov, lily] 

Charientocrinus may be readily distinguished from the other 
genera of the family. Character of the dorsal cup and anal tube (so far 
as can be judged) the same as in Glossocrinus. There may be 
two dichotomous bifurcations of the arms which bear long pinnules on 
every second brachial, alternately on each side. Brachials quadrangular in 
the proximal part to slightly wedge-shaped in the more distal portion. 
Column pentagonal. For details see the description of the genotype. 

Genotype. Charientocrinus ithacensis sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage) of New York. 

Charientocrinus ithacensis sp. nov. 

Plate 53, figures 1-4 

The specimens upon which this species is based occur on two slabs 
of rock from the Ithaca beds. Six specimens and a number of detached 
stems or molds of stems are shown; but in only one (plate 53, figure 2) 
is the calyx at all well preserved, though the plates can be identified in 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 4O3 

another (plate 53, figure 1). In two specimens the crown is so badly broken 
and weathered that they are of no use either for figures or description. 
In the other two specimens the calyces are almost entirely lost, but the 
character of the arms is shown. An arm. of one of these specimens (plate 53, 
figure 3) has been drawn, since the branching and pinnules are best shown 
here. Except for stem characters, then, the description that follows is 
based upon three specimens. 

Crown long and slender, measuring in the two specimens where the 
arms are shown almost to their tips about 80 mm.. 

Dorsal cup low and broad; height 3.5 mm; breadth at the base 2.5 mm, 
at the top of the radials 7.4 mm.. This specimen is somewhat crushed. 
Another specimen has a height of 4 mm, a width at the base of 3.1 mm 
and a width at the top of the radials of 7.2 mm. 

Infrabasals are very small and pentagonal, with a height of about .5 mm. 

Basals hexagonal except the posterior and right posterolateral, which 
are in contact with the anal plates of the posterior side and heptagonal. 
Broader than high, an average basal having a height of 1.6 mm and a 
breadth of 2.4 mm.. 

Radials pentagonal, broader than or as broad as high. Two average 
radials give the following measurements: height 1.8 mm, width 2 mm; 
height 2 mm, width 2 mm. Radial facet slightly curved; occupies about 
three-quarters the width of the radial 

Posterior side showing the anal plates somewhat crushed, but the 
arrangement is that characteristic of the genus Glossocrinus (see text 
figure 59). Radianal smaller than the basals and pentagonal. Anal x 
pentagonal, of about the size of the radianal. First plate of the median 
dorsal line of plates almost as large as the radials. 

Tegmen not preserved. Only a few plates of the armlike, dorsal 
median line of plates are seen — ■ the first and four a short distance above. 

Arms very long, about 20 tim.es as long as the dorsal cup. First 
bifurcation takes place some distance above the cup. When it can be 
determined, it has been found on the seventeenth, eighteenth and twentieth 



404 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

brachial; variable in a single individual. Arms may bifurcate again above 
this point as shown in figure 3, plate 53, but that does not seem to be the 
rule. Brachials quadrangular in the more proximal portions of the arms 
with increasing tendency to wedge-shape proceeding distad. Third brachial 
above the radial bears a pinnule; above this point pinnules borne by the 
second of every pair of brachials alternately on each side of the arm. This 
gives a pinnule every fourth brachial on each side. Each pinnule-bearing 
brachial projects at the point where the pinnule is borne; and the pairs 
of brachials extend to the right and left alternately, thus giving a con- 
spicuous zigzag appearance to the arms. Pinnules long and slender; 
composed of long, quadrangular ossicles. 

Column. Various parts in lengths of 60 mm, 70 mm, 80 mm. and 
less preserved, though not in good condition throughout. Mold of one 
stem preserved for a distance of about 140 mm. Column pentagonal, 
the pentagonal effect being increased by thickenings or nodes at the angles 
of the columnals. In the proximal portion pentagonal character very 
pronounced, the stem being almost sharply pentalobate. Column com- 
posed of nodals and internodals. Nodals thicker and more projecting; 
angles very conspicuously thickened. Nodals closer together in the most 
proximal part. Usual number of internodals seven; the middle one, though 
smaller than the nodals. is more pronounced than the other internodals. 
In the more distal portion pentagonal character less pronounced, becoming 
even subpentangular ; nodals less conspicuous, and both nodals and inter- 
nodals longer (plate 53, figure 4). Some of the nodals bear long stout 
cirri. As far as can be ascertained, the cirri borne at every second, some- 
times every fourth node. On none of the stems is there any evidence of more 
than two cirri to the node, and they are not always from the same two 
faces. Each pair of cirri apparently borne by different faces than the pair 
immediately above and below. 

Horizon and locality. Portage (Ithaca) beds, Ithaca. N. Y. ; from 
the first quarry on South hill above the south end of the Stewart 
avenue bridge. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 405 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Charientocrinus ithacensis can be readily 
distinguished from other similar species. The size, the long slender crown 
and the alternate arrangement of the pinnules from every pair of brachials 
will distinguish it from either Liparocrinus batheri or L. 
h a 1 1 i . There is more resemblance shown to Glossocrinus 
naplesensis and G. cornellianus. However, the arms are 
shorter in proportion to the size of the calyx in these two species, and the 
pinnules are borne alternately by every brachial. The dorsal cup in G . 
naplesensis is ornamented with conspicuous ridges and furrows, and 
the column bears cirri at every node. 

Genus CATACTOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. xctTaxTO?, fragile; xptvov, lily] 

This new genus has been created to contain a species represented 
by a large number of specimens from the Chemung sandstone. Rather 
delicate specimens, with long and slender crown. Character of dorsal cup 
and anal tube like that of Glossocrinus. Radial facet slightly 
curved and less than the width of the radial. Arms simple, uniserial, with 
long, strong pinnules, borne by each brachial above the primibrachs 
alternately on each side of the arm. Ventral tube slender, considerably 
shorter than the arms. Stem pentagonal in the upper part, becoming 
subpentagonal to rounded below. Cirri borne on the more distal portion 
of the column. 

Genotype. Catactocrinus leptodactylus sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (lower Chemung) of New York. 

Catactocrinus leptodactylus sp. nov. 

Plate 53, figures 5-9 

This rather delicate species is represented by molds in the Chemung 
sandstone. Gutta-percha squeezes have been made, and the description 
is based upon these. Crown long and slender. In some of the specimens 



4-06 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

it has a length of from 30 mm to about 40 mm. Some of the larger speci- 
mens show a length of at least 50 mm. 

Dorsal cup obconic, broader than high. In one specimen (plate 53, 
figure 6) the cup has a height of 2.7 mm, breadth at the base of 1.3 mm 
and a breadth at the top of the radials of 3.4 mm; in a second (plate 53, 
figure 6) the cup has a height of 2.8 mm, breadth at the base of 1.4 mm 
and breadth at the top of the radials of 3.6 mm; in a third (plate 53, figure 7) 
the cup has a height of 3.1 mm, a breadth at the base of 2 mm and a 
breadth at the top of the radials of 5 mm. In this last specimen the 
measurements for breadth are exaggerated due to slight crushing. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, low, and of practically the same width at 
top and bottom. Average ones have, one, a height of .5 mm and width 
of .75 mm; another, a height of .65 mm and width of .95 mm. 

Basals, except the posterior and right posterolateral which are 
heptagonal, hexagonal; longer than wide, a characteristic slightly more 
pronounced in one of the specimens. A characteristic basal gives the 
measurements: height 1.5 mm., width .95 mm. Posterior basal somewhat 
larger than the others. Basals slightly wider at the top than at the 
bottom; in some specimens only a slight difference between the height 
and width. 

Radials pentagonal; of about equal height and width, two average 
ones giving the measurements' of 1.2 mm and 1.3 mm respectively. Radial 
facet slightly curved and less than the width of the radials. 

Radianal pentagonal, usually a little larger than the infrabasals. 
Anal .v not well shown ; of the same size or smaller than the radianal, resting 
upon the truncated posterior basal. 

Tegmen. Only the ventral tube visible; slender, not so long as the 
arms; in one specimen (plate 53, figure 6) only about half as long. The 
width varies slightly in the three specimens, being respectively 2.8 mm, 
2.8 mm. and 3.5 mm in the widest part. As in the other genera belonging 
to this family, radianal followed by an armlike median dorsal (posterior) 
series of ossicles (plate 53, figures 8, 9). Vertical rows of plates bordering 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 407 

this median line of plates likewise ornamented with several transverse, 
thin folds which give a plicated effect to the tube. One specimen (plate 53, 
figure 7) shows rather poorly the ventral (anterior) line of small interlocking 
plates. Sides of the tube strengthened by a thickening of the edges of the 
plates. Ventral tube appears to end rather bluntly. 

Arms five, long and slender, from 10 to 15 times the length of the 
calyx. Two appears to be the regular number of primibrachs. Both 
long; first primibrach the longer, and usually about twice as long as wide. 
The third, sometimes the second, brachial bears a long, rather stout pinnule, 
and from this point strong pinnules are borne by all the brachials alter- 
nately on each side. Pinnules noticeably long and strong, reaching well up 
toward the arm tips; some of the lower ones at least 15 mm long. Brachials 
above the primibrachs quadrangular and longer than wide. Pinnule 
ossicles are long and quadrangular. 

Column decidedly pentagonal in the proximal portion, becoming 
subpentagonal to rounded in the more distal portion. Columnals in the 
proximal part short and distinctly divided into nodes and internodes; 
in the most distal part preserved, columnals longer and there is only a 
slight distinction between the nodals and internodals. Seven internodals 
between the nodals, the middle one projecting more than the others, thus 
giving three sizes of columnals. Pentagonal aspect in the proximal part 
heightened by the slight extension of the columnals and thickening at the 
five angles. In one specimen 4.5 cm of column are preserved, in another 
9 cm. A third specimen shows 19 cm of column bearing long, delicate 
cirri on the nodals in the distal portion. There appear to be two cirri 
to a nodal in some places, but whether this is true of all the nodals can not 
be ascertained. 

Ornamentation of this species very slight. Shallow depressions or pita 
at the angles between the plates of the dorsal cup and incipient ridges on 
the basals and radials, shown only at the edges. Specimens vary in 
the extent to which they show this ornamentation ; it may be so faint as to 
be practically lacking. 



408 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Cotton hill, 
one mile north of Avoca, Steuben county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. A new genus has been created for this species. The five 
simple, uniserial arms, with the very long pinnules make this genus quite 
distinct from the others of the family. 

Family poteriocrinidae Roemer (em. W. & Sp.) 
Subfamily POTERIOCRININAE Springer 

Genus POTERIOCRINUS Miller 1821 (em. W. & Sp. 1881) 
Springer (1913, p. 222) states that the Devonian species referred 
to this genus are probably Parisocrinus. I have placed, pro- 
visionally, a number of species under this genus, either because their generic 
designation can not exactly be determined through lack of sufficient arm 
characters, or because the arm characters definitely do not agree with 
those of Parisocrinus. 

Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus Hall 

Plate 54, figure i 

1862 Poteriocrinus diffusus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 121 
1868 Poteriocrinus diffusus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:391 
1872 Poteriocrinus diffusus Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, figs. 

1, 2. (Photographic plates distributed privately.) 

1877 Poteriocrinus diffusus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 88 

1878 Poteriocrinus diffusus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 19 

1879 Pot. (Decadocrinus) diffusus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Pal- 

aeocr., pt. r, p. 119 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:342 
1889 Poteriocrinus diffusus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 274 

1903 Poteriocrinus diffusus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 77 

1904 Poteriocrinus diffusus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63 , 

P- 52 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 409 

Dorsal cup small, turbinate, comparatively broad at the base. Width 
at the base 2.2 mm, at the top of the radials 5 mm. Cup only slightly 
higher than the greatest width. 

Infrabasals all pentagonal, of about the same width and with the 
lower lateral faces the longer. 

Basals about equal in height and width or slightly longer than wide. 
Posterior and right posterolateral basals heptagonal, being in contact 
with the anal plates; the others hexagonal. Right posterolateral longer 
than the others and divided transversely, the upper portion being the 
smaller. 

Radials smaller than the basals, wider than high, the upper margins 
thickened and projecting in the region of the radial facet which is less than 
the width of the radial. 

Three plates visible in the anal area. Radianal large and pentagonal. 
Anal x hexagonal, smaller than the radials and extending above them. It 
rests upon the truncated posterior basal, and is bordered at the left by the 
left posterior radial, at the right by the radianal and right tube plate which 
also borders the radianal and right posterior radial. 

Tegmen unknown. 

Arms. Three primibrachs, all of them generally wider than long; 
the third axillary, giving rise to ten rami which are long and slender and 
composed of rather long, quadrangular brachials. Brachials tend to curve 
alternately on opposite sides which gives a zigzag effect to the arms. Strong 
armlets given off at every second or third brachial, usually the third; slender 
and made up of proportionately longer brachials. Brachials giving off 
armlets longer than the others. No pinnules observed. 

Column round, and appears to be slightly expanded just below the 
base of the calyx. Three of the most proximal columnals preserved; the 
first slightly larger than the others. All have rounded edges. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup granulose. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, Ontario 
county, N. Y. Holotype collected at Vincent, N. Y. 



410 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Types. Hall's cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum 
numbers --^—, 44/_ Number zzZ_ is not a diffusus (see Remarks). 

12 2 

Remarks. The left posterior radial in the specimen illustrated (plate 
54, figure i), is compound. Hall does not mention this characteristic, and 
it is very probable that it is only individual. The other specimen, number 

44/ - ; figured bv Hall as Poteriocrinus diffusus (1872, plate 
2 

1, figure 2) does not belong to that species. In his plate description Hall 

designates the figure of this specimen as ' ' View of three of the rays of another 

individual showing the tentacula, the calyx having been broken away." 

The calyx is small but, with the exception of the infrabasals, is all there. 

The specimen is apparently a small Decado crinus nereus, to 

which it is here referred. 

This species has been placed by authors in Poteriocrinus and, 

Decadocrinus. The shape of the cup, the narrow radial facets 

the quadrangular brachials and the presence of armlets make it quite 

evident that this species does not belong under Decadocrinus. 

It has been placed here in the genus Po teriocrinus with a query. 

So far as the cup characters are concerned it might be a Parisocrinus , 

but the radial facet and the arm characters do not agree. 

Poteriocrinus nassa Hall 

Plate 54, figures 2, 3 

1862 Poteriocrinus nassa Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 120 

1868 Poteriocrinus nassa Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:392 

1872 Poteriocrinus nassa Hall. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 1, pi. 1, fig. 5. 

(Photographic plates distributed privately.) 

1877 Poteriocrinus nassa S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 89 

1878 Poteriocrinus nassa Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 20 

1879 Poteriocrinus nassa Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 1, 

p. 120 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:343 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 4 1 I 

1889 Poteriocrinus nassa S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 274 
1900 Poteriocrinus nassa Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
v. ii, pt. 3, p. 198 

Only the dorsal cup of the specimen representing this species is pre- 
served, but judging from that it must have been of fairly large size. Dorsal 
cup turbinate with a comparatively broad pentagonal base; height 12.9 
mm; width at the base 4.7 mm, at the top of the radials 17 mm. 

Dorsal cup. Infrabasals large, pentagonal, height and greatest width 
about equal, gradually widening from the base upward. Anterior infra- 
basal has a height of 3.9 mm, and a width at the top of 3.6 mm. Posterior 
infrabasals larger than the others. 

Three of the basals hexagonal — ■ the right and left anterior and the 
left posterolateral; longer than wide. Right anterior has a width of 4.7 
mm and a height of 7 mm. Posterior and right posterolateral basals 
heptagonal, coming in contact with the anal plates; larger than the 
other basals and as broad or broader than high. Basals prominent 
and sub angular along the middle and somewhat abruptly depressed at 
the sides. 

Radials short, heptagonal except the right posterior which is hexagonal, 
resting upon the truncated right posterolateral basal; wider than high, 
an average one having a height of 4.9 mm and a width of 5.9 mm. Two 
posterior radials smaller than the others. Upper margin of the radials 
thickened for the attachment of the strong arm plates. Radial facet 
occupies about two-thirds the width of the radial. 

Anal x and radianal the smallest plates in the cup, being about two- 
thirds the size of the infrabasals. Radianal pentagonal; anal x smaller 
than the radianal, pentagonal, resting upon the truncated posterior basal 
and bordered at the sides by the left posterior radial and the radianal. 
No tube plates shown. 
Tegmen unknown. 

Arms. First primibrach preserved in one ray; short, heavy, quad- 
rangular, wider than high. Suggests strong arm plates. 



412 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Column missing. Cicatrix strongly marked, pentagonal. 
Ornamentation. Surface of dorsal cup smooth or finely granulose. 
Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, near 
Canandaigua, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the American Museum of Natural 

History, number — — . 

i 

Poteriocrinus clarkei Williams 

Plate 54, figures 4, 5 

1882 Poteriocrinus clarkei Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 34 

pt. 1, pp. 21, 22, pi. 1, fig. 4 
1886 Poteriocrinus clarkei Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3 , 

p. 234 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:158 
1889 Poteriocrinus clarkei S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 273 
1903 Poteriocrinus clarkei Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65. P- 77 

Calyx of this species small and obconical, expanding gradually from 
the top of the stem. 

Dorsal cup. Infrabasals five, pentagonal, of medium size and as high 
as wide. 

Basals large, hexagonal, higher than wide; about twice the height of 
the infrabasals. 

Radials of medium size, somewhat broader than high, and roughly 
pentagonal. Radial facet slightly curved, and occupies about two-thirds (or 
less) of the upper face of the radial. 

The specimens studied by Williams did not show the anal area, and it 
was so noted in the original description. One of the specimens, recently 
acquired, from the Chemung of Erie, Pa., shows the anal x, radianal and 
right tube plate, in the arrangement typical of Poteriocrinus. 

Tegmen. No part preserved. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, the second axillary. First quadrangular, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 413 

wider at the bottom than at the top, height equal to or greater than the 
greatest width. Primaxil pentagonal. At the base it has the width of 
the first primibrach, and joins it by an almost straight face; near the top 
it flares out and becomes one-half or more wider. The two primibrachs 
together have a slightly hour-glass appearance. The joints gap between 
the first primibrach and radial and between the first primibrach and 
primaxil. 

Arms comparatively long and composed of quadrangular brachials 
which have a length twice (or more) the width, and in some specimens gap 
at the joints. Williams, in the original description, states that the arms 
do not branch, so far as determined from the specimens, but I have found 

in one of the types (number lzZ_) what appears to be a bifurcation above 

the primaxil. Only fragments of pinnules preserved; their place of attach- 
ment to the brachials not conspicuously prominent. 

Column pentagonal just beneath the calyx, slightly expanding and 
composed of thin columnals of different sizes. Below gradually becomes 
subpentagonal and rounded, and the columnals lengthen. I have seen no 
specimen of column with cirri, but Williams notes that the cirri are frequent 
in the rounded portion of the column and stand at right angles to it. 

Ornamentation. Plates of the dorsal cup ornamented with radiating 
folds or ridges with deep depressions between; only slightly developed on 
the infrabasals, but quite pronounced on the basals and quite strong upon 
the anal plates. 

Horizon and locality. Types from the Chemung, Haskinsville, Steuben 
county, N. Y. ; collected by and named for Dr John M. Clarke. A small 
slab from the upper Chemung, Erie, Pa., shows two much weathered speci- 
mens of this species. 

Types. Three of the cotypes in the New York State Museum, num- 

bers «21. Mil. Mil. 



414 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Williams 

Plate 54, figures 6, 7 

1882 Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Williams. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila., v. 34, pt. 1, p. 22, pi. 1, fig. 5 
1886 Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. 

Palaeocr., pt. 3, p. 234 (authors' ed.); Proc. "Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:158 
1896 Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha Kindle. Bui, Amer. Pal., no. 6, p. 34 

Variety based by Williams upon the impression of part of the dorsal 
cup (plate 54, figure 6) found in the lower part of the Chemung group at 
Ithaca, N. Y. About twice the size of P. clarkei; ridges and depres- 
sions more strongly marked. In shape and proportion of plates, differences 
so slight that Williams made it provisionally a variety of clarkei, 
and it seems well to keep it so. 

A slab of rock from the Chemung, Erie, Pa., shows three calyces and 
a number of stems. Specimens crushed and very much weathered, but 
there seems to be no doubt that they belong to variety alpha. One 
of the specimens, though so poorly preserved, is figured here on plate 54, 
figure 7, since it is more complete than the original material. 

Column similar to that of P. clarkei. In the proximal portion 
very strongly pentagonal, with three sizes of columnals; in the more distal 
portions subpentagonal to rounded. Cirri borne by the column in its 
distal portion. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower part of the Chemung beds, 
Ithaca, N. Y., and in the upper Chemung of Erie, Pa. 

Type in the collection of the late Doctor H. S. Williams of Cornell 
University. Drawing used here taken from a plastotype in the Springer 
collection. 

Poteriocrinus zethus Williams 

Plate 54, figure 8 

[882 Poteriocrinus (Decadocrinus) zethus Williams. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 34, pt. 1, p. 27, pi. 1, fig. 9 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 4I5 

1886 Decadocrinus zethus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, 

p. 239 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:163 
1889 Poteriocrinus zethus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 276 
1896 Poteriocrinus (Decadocrinus) zethus Kindle. Bui. Amer. 

Pal., no. 6, p. 34 

A very small species with turbinate calyx, which with the arms forms 
a narrow, elongate head with subparallel sides. Width of calyx 2.2 mm; 
height 1.5 mm. 

Dorsal cup. Infrabasals five, small, pentagonal and of about equal 
height and width. 

Basals hexagonal and of about equal height and width, giving a rounded 
hexagonal appearance. 

Radials pentagonal, larger than the basals, broader but of about the 
same height. Radial facet straight, and occupies practically the entire 
width of the radial. 

Anals not known. 

Tegmen not preserved. 

Arms. Two long primibrachs, subequal in length and together giving an 
hour-glass effect, since the first primibrach is broader at its lower face than its 
upper and the primaxil broadens out at the top just below the bifurcation. 

Arms rather short and slender; composed of long brachials, at least 
twice as long as wide. In the original description Williams states: " The 
arm bears a pinnule at the third joint (or bifurcates at this point, the 
specimen is too imperfect to determine which)." The original material 
was not available; and the species has been refigured from a squeeze in the 
Springer collection in which one of the arms bifurcates on the third plate 
above the primaxil. 

Column has a diameter of .8 mm; round and does not expand beneath 
the calyx. Two kinds of columnals which alternate regularly from above, 
first a thin, then a much longer, subglobular columnal. Just beneath the 
calyx both kinds thinner, but below they do not vary much in size or pro- 
portion for the length of the stem exposed. 



41 6 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Horizon and locality. In a loose slab near the top of the Portage, 
supposed to have fallen from the rocks just above where it was found, 
Ithaca, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype part of the S. G. Williams collection, Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Remarks. This species was compared by Williams with Poterio- 

crinus nycteus Hall to which he thought it bore a resemblance. 

'P.' nycteus has proved to be a Botryocrinus. It has 

three primibrachs which are shorter than in P. zethus, the radial 

facets are curved and narrower and the radials project slightly in this region. 

Poteriocrinus (?) dignatus sp. nov. 

Plate 54, figures g, io 

Only one specimen of this species. Most of the arms are broken away, 
but one arm is preserved practically to the tip. Calyx has been worked 
free so that all sides may be studied. Anal tube visible only from the 
anterior side. 

Dorsal cup with regularly sloping sides from the infrabasals to the 
tops of the radials. Height of 6.5 mm from the base to the top of the 
radials; width at the base about 2.8 mm, at the radials (the greatest width) 
7.2 mm. Faint, low ridges extend up the middle of the radial series giving 
a faintly pentagonal section to the cup, and a subpentagonal stem cicatrix. 

Infrabasals large, pentagonal, having a height of 2.3 mm to 2.5 mm 
and a width at the top of 2 mm to 2.2 mm. 

B a sals large, one of them having a height of approximately 3.5 mm and 
a width at the top of about 3 mm. Posterior basal, upon which the anal 
x and the radianal rest, heptagonal; all other basals hexagonal. 

Radials not as high as the basals, pentagonal. One gives the measure- 
ments: height to facet 2.2 mm, breadth 3 mm; another has a height to 
the facet of 2.3 mm and a breadth of 2.5 mm. Facets for the reception of 
the primibrachs curved, and occupy a little over two-thirds of the width 
of the radials. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 417 

Radianal fairly large, almost as large as the anal x. Pentagonal; 
three upper faces bordered by anal x, right tube plate, and right posterior 
radial, two lower faces resting upon the right and 'left posterior basals. 
Anal x extends above the upper line of the radials. Hexagonal; bordered 
at the left by the left posterior radial, at the right by the right tube plate 
and the radianal; below it rests upon the posterior basal, and above it 
bears the middle and left tube plates. Above this are shown three rows 
of tube plates of three plates each, the plates being roughly hexagonal. 

Tegmen. Only a few rows of the tube plates seen from the posterior 
side, but almost the full extent of the tube seen from the anterior side. 
Anal tube or sac approximately 15 mm long; at its broadest part about 3.5 
mm wide. It does not taper very much and has a blunt termination. Com- 
posed of short, broad, hexagonal plates, arranged in vertical rows. Edges 
of plates rather difficult to make out, but where they can be distinguished 
the plates are hexagonal. Toothed or serrated appearance seen at the left 
in figure 10, plate 54, due to crushing in this part of the tube which has 
made one row of plates lap over on the next row, causing a break which 
has brought into evidence the edges of the hexagonal plates. Tube 
apparently slightly longer than the arms. 

Arms. Not possible to make out the number of primibrachs in all 
the arms because they are too imperfect. One arm preserves two, the 
second axillary; in the only ray (left posterior) where an arm is preserved 
almost entire there are three, the third axillary. All except the primaxils 
short, the first ones being about twice as wide as high. In the ray with 
two primibrachs, primaxil comparatively long, having a height (2.1 mm) 
slightly exceeding the width (1.8 mm). Primaxil partially concealed in 
the ray with three primibrachs, so that no measurements can be taken; 
but from the portion exposed it seems to show little difference in width 
and height. 

Brachials rather squarish in appearance, and join by straight sutures. 

Third and eighth brachials above the primaxil, in the one arm preserved, 

bear a short slender armlet or pinnule on the outer side. From here the 
27 



41 8 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

arm tapers more rapidly, the fourth brachial up being axillary and giving 
rise to two slender divisions. Brachials giving rise to the armlets or pin- 
nules are more elongated. 

Column missing. Cicatrix subpentagonal due to the faint ridges on 
the radial series. 

Ornamentation. No ornamentation of any kind. Ridges on the radial 
series so faint as not to attract attention, and can hardly be considered as 
ornamentation. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Skaneateles shale) beds, 
east side of Owasco lake, Cayuga county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. There is some question as to the generic designation of this 
species. The narrow radial facets exclude it from the other genera of the 
Poteriocrinidae, and the character of the arms exclude it from 
the other families, Cyathocrinidae and Botryocrinidae, 
in which the character of the calyx might permit it to be placed. 

The species can be readily distinguished. There is no close resemblance 
to any other species unless it be to P . n a s s a . The latter is a much 
larger form and the dorsal cup is relatively broader and more flaring at the 
radials. 

Nomina Nuda 

Poteriocrinus verticillus Hall 

Poteriocrinus indentus Hall 

Hall (1862, p. 122) described two species of Poteriocrinus, 
P . verticillus and P. indentus without any figures. The 
types have not been located, and no specimens have been identified with 
the descriptions. The descriptions are not sufficient, without figures, for 
purposes of identification, so that, unless the types should be found, these 
two species must be relegated to the position of nomina nuda. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 419 

Genus DECADOCRINUS Wachsmuth & Springer 1879 
Decadocrinus nereus (Hall) n. comb. 

Plate 54, figures 11-15 

1862 Poteriocrinus nereus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 
Hist., p. 121 

1878 Poteriocrinus nereus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 20 

1879 Pot. (Parisocrinus) nereus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Pal- 

aeocr., pt. 1, p. 115 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 31:337 
1889 Poteriocrinus nereus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 274 

1903 Poteriocrinus nereus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 

65, p. 78 

1904 Poteriocrinus nereus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 52 

Dorsal cup small, subpentagonally turbinate. Height in the type 
specimen 2.6 mm; width at the base 1.2 mm, at the top of the radials 
3.8 mm. 

Infrabasals short, minute, forming a narrow rim around the base of 
the body. Height in the type .5 mm or less, in an older specimen about 
.35 mm. Shorter, thickened and project slightly in the older form. 

Basals hexagonal, longer than wide, an average one in the type giving 
the following measurements: height 1.4 mm, greatest width 1 mm. 
Slightly wider at the bottom and the lower lateral faces the longer, thus 
bringing the greatest width near the top of the basal. 

Radials short, pentagonal; wider than high and thickened at their 
upper margins. An average one in the type has a height of about 1 mm 
and a breadth of 1.5 mm. Radial facet occupies practically the entire 
width of the upper face of the radial. 

Posterior side not visible in the type specimen; shown in the older 
specimen (plate 54, figures 13-15). Radianal large, pentagonal and 
obliquely situated. Anal x pentagonal, only a little larger than the radianal ; 
rests between the left posterior radial and the radianal. Probably an indi- 
vidual variation as the anal x usually rests upon the truncated posterior 



420 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

basal. Left posterior radial, for this reason, larger than the others. Anal 
x and radianal followed by a few rows of large hexagonal tube plates. 

Tegmen. Most proximal part of the anal tube the only part preserved. 

Arms. Two primibrachs. First short and quadrangular, as wide or 
wider than high; second, the primaxil, much longer and thickened at the 
extremities. No bifurcations above the primaxil, giving ten arms to the 
crown. Brachials long, usually nearly twice as long as wide, quad- 
rangular or with a tendency to wedge-shape; thickened at the extremities 
and giving rise alternately on each side of the arm to slender, long- jointed 
pinnules. 

Column missing in all the specimens figured; apparently obtusely 
subpentagonal near the base of the calyx. A fragmentary specimen shows 
a portion of the column a few millimeters from the base of the calyx. It is 
round and composed of joints of unequal thickness. 

Ornamentation. Surface of dorsal cup and arms granulose or granulose- 
striate, though sometimes it appears to be smooth. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales. Holotype 
collected at Vincent, Ontario county; other specimens from Vincent and 
North Bristol, Ontario county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum, 



number 



4473 



i 
Remarks. One of Hall's types of Poteriocrinus diffusus, 

number zlL_ ) does not belong to that species. It shows the characteris- 

2 

tics of Decadocrinus nereus, and has been placed with this 
species (plate 54, figure 12). D. nereus shows characteristics which 
suggest the genus Decadocrinus rather than either Poteriocri- 
nus or Parisocrinus, genera to which it has previously been 
assigned. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK \2\ 

Decadocrinus gregarius Williams 

Plate 54, figures 16, 17 

1882 Poteriocrinus (Decadocrinus) gregarius Williams. Proc. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., v. 34, pt. 1, pp. 22-27, pi- I > n g s - 6-8 
1889 Poteriocrinus gregarius S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 274 
1896 Poteriocrinus (Decadocrinus) gregarius Kindle. Bui. Amer. 

Pal., no. 6, p. 34 

The material from which this species was described has not 
been available. Williams' original figures have been reproduced here, 
and the following description is based upon these figures and Williams' 
description. 

Dorsal cup low and expanded due to the rapid enlargement of the 
consecutive series of plates. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, minute. 

Basals hexagonal, twice the size of the infrabasals, of about equal 
height and width and with the angles not sharply defined. 

Radials pentagonal, broader than the basals but of about the same 
height. Radial facet almost straight, occupying the entire upper face of 
the radial. 

Anals, and succeeding plates of the ventral tube not seen in all the speci- 
mens; but Williams concluded that the arrangement of the proximal plates 
is that characteristic of the genus Poteriocrinus, except that the 
origin is frequently higher up in the calyx. One well-preserved specimen, 
without distortion, shows the normal arrangement of anals, three plates in 
contact with the plates of the cup; above the anals are shown distinctly 
three or four plates in each of the two series of the ventral tube. In several 
specimens the anals do not reach the basals. Various irregularities of the 
anals were noted by Williams but he thinks it may be accounted for by 
distortion of the specimens in preservation. 

Tegmen not preserved. 

Arms. Two primibrachs. First quadrangular, almost as broad as 



422 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

long and expanding slightly toward the top. Primaxil pentagonal; expands 
noticeably at the top so that the width here is about equal to the height. 
The two upper edges stand almost at right angles to each other and are 
subconcave. 

Arms unbranched, long and spreading; an occasional specimen being 
found by Williams spread out radiately upon the surface of the slab. 
Brachials longer than wide, and bear pinnules alternately on each side. 
Occasionally a plate appears without a pinnule, but alternate order of 
pinnules not broken. After the first five or six plates the side of the brachial 
which bears the pinnule is slightly higher and extends laterally more than 
the other, showing a tendency toward wedge-shape. At the tenth or twelfth 
brachial, which Williams places as the center of the length of the arms, 
brachials a third longer than the average width; pinnules strong, gradually 
tapering to a point and composed of ten or twelve plates, the first about 
half the size of the base of the arm plate from which it starts. Shorter 
pinnules have six to eight ossicles. 

Column expands a little just beneath the calyx; and here appears 
slightly pentagonal, but the angles are rounded and within an inch of the 
base of the calyx all trace of them is lost. Columnals convex externally 
and serrate at their union; just beneath the calyx, where they are thinnest, 
arranged in two sets, one thinner than the other in alternating order. 
According to Williams' description this, alternation of columnals extends 
farther down the stem, but his figures do not show it. With distance from 
the calyx, size of the stem slightly diminishes; length of columnals increases 
until the difference between the two sets becomes obliterated and they 
reach a length equal to their diameter and are subglobular. Subglobular 
columnals of uniform size characteristic of the central part of the stems; 
serrate union inconspicuous here. Slender cirri present all along the stem; 
observed by Williams within an inch of the calyx; generally found rather 
closely coiled at their ends. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, 30 feet above 
the base, Ithaca, N. Y. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 423 

Types in the collection of the late Doctor H. S. Williams of Cornell 
University, Ithaca, N. Y. 

Remarks. Williams distinguishes three varieties of this species, taken 
from the same stratum as the type specimen. His descriptions of them 
follow : 

1 Var. alpha is distinguished by its smaller size, and the arms 
shorter and composed or" fewer, more slender plates. 

Those characters of the stem, peculiar to the terminal portion just 
under the calyx, are seen for only a very short distance. 

The calyx and its plates do not differ, to any appreciable degree, 
from those of the specific type, in number, arrangement, relative size or 
shape. 

2 Var. beta. The calyx is large, the plates well developed, the 
stem as large as in the typical form, and up to the base of the arms this 
variety appears identical with the type of the species, but the arms are 
exceedingly short — not more than six plates appearing in the longest arm 
preserved. 

One of the arms begins with two full-size plates, starting out, and in 
shape like the typical form, but these plates are followed by three very 
slender plates the base of the first not filling completely the facet at the top 
of the preceding one. The arm adjoining it has one normal-sized plate, 
followed by four slender plates. The other arms, as far as they can be 
examined, show a like arrangement, and the explanation is unavoidable 
that the original arms were broken off and were being replaced by new 
arms not fully developed when growth and life were stopped and the hard 
parts buried and thus preserved to tell the story. 

3 Var. gamma. A third variety is worth mentioning. In general 
characters it corresponds with var. alpha, but differs conspicuously in 
the plates of the ventral tube. At the base the anals are arranged as in 
the normal specimen, while the upper part appears to have special 
development. 

There appears on the right side of the normal series of anal plates, 
beginning about half way up, a third series of plates about the same size 
as those at the corresponding height in the other series. The series, begin- 
ning lowest down, thus becom.es the central one at the top, and eight plates 
can be counted in it. The lateral series have fewer plates, and the upper 
part loses itself in minute granulations at the base of the arms. (1882, 
pp. 24, 25.) 

This species, represented by many specimens taken from a small 

locality, was found by Williams to show " considerable variation in length 



424 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

of arms, in the number, relative size and shape of the arm joints, in the 
character of the stem joints at the base of the calyx and a short distance 
below until the normal characters of the stem are reached, and in the 
number and arrangement of the more distal part of the plates following 
the anals. In these several respects the specimens under examination 
present hardly two which are uniform, and single specimens show more 
or less variation in the several rays." With this wide variation it hardly 
would be possible to recognize only three varieties ; it seems as though many 
must be recognized, which is out of the question, or none. 

Williams noted a strong resemblance of this species to Poterio- 
crinus diffusus Hall and P. ("Scaphiocrinus") aegina 
Hall from the stud}' of the figures and descriptions, since he had not had 
access to the types ; and suggests that specimens may eventually be found 
uniting all three species into one. This species with the ten pinnuliferous, 
unbranched arms belongs to the genus Decadocrinus and is quite 
distinct from the Hamilton Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus both 
in the character of the calyx and the arms. The species is likewise readily 
distinguished from the Waverly species, Decadocrinus aegina. 

Decadocrinus decemnodosus sp. nov. 

Plate 55, figure 6 

This description is based upon a gutta-percha squeeze made from the 
mold of a single specimen from the Ithaca beds. The specimen as it 
stands shows a length for the crown of about 29 mm. The tips of the arms, 
however, are missing probably for a distance of about 12 mm, which gives 
a total length to the crown of approximately 40 mm or 41 mm. 

Dorsal cup low and spreading with a height of 4 mm and a greatest 
width (at the radials) of 7 mm. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, small, not more than .5 mm high, and almost 
concealed by the prominent basals. 

Basals hexagonal, an average one having a height of 1.8 mm and a 
width of 2.3 mm; rendered very prominent by the presence of a strong node 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 425 

on each. Nodes project downward and outward ; confined more to the lower 
portion of the basals. 

Radials pentagonal, so far as observed; posterior radials not visible. 
An average radial has a height of 2 mm and a width of 3 mm. Radial 
facets slightly curved and do not occupy the entire upper face of the radials. 

Tegmen. No part of tegmen or anal tube visible. 

Arms. Two primibrachs of about equal height. First quadrangular; 
second, the primaxil, gives rise to two equal, pinnulate rami which do not 
branch. Arms when complete probably measured about 25 mm or 26 mm. 
First few brachials above the primaxil quadrangular; other brachials wedge- 
shaped. Pinnules borne on the longer alternating sides of the brachials; 
long and composed of many short ossicles. An average one measures 
about 8 mm. 

Column. About 6.5 mm preserved; pentagonal with a diameter of 
2.3 mm, and composed of thin columnals. 

Ornamentation of this species consists in nodes and broad ridges. As 
mentioned above, there is a conspicuous, blunt node on each basal. From 
each basal a short broad ridge runs to the radial on each side where it joins 
a central broad low ridge on the radial. Each primaxil bears at the upper 
margin a rather sharp tubercle or node, central in position. 

Horizon and locality. From the Portage (Ithaca) beds, in an outcrop 
in the highway three miles west of Morris, N. Y., on the road to New Berlin. 
D. D. Luther, collector, 1900. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The very characteristic ornamentation of this species makes 
it readily distinguishable. It has been referred to Decadocrinus 
though the radial facet is slightly curved and does not occupy the whole 
upper face of the radial, as in Poteriocrinus. This variation may 
be quite possible. All the other characters fulfil the requirements of this 
genus; and, since there is only one specimen to judge from, it seems better 
to place the species in the genus with which it shows the most agreements. 

D. decemnodosus is readily distinguished from multino- 



426 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

dosus, which it most resembles, by the absence of nodes on the arms, 
the absence of the short, wrinkled lines or striae on the plates of the cup 
and the arms and the presence of ridges or folds on the dorsal cup. Arms 
of multinodosus have a more zigzag, irregular appearance. 

Decadocrinus insolens sp. nov. 

Plate 56, figures 3-5 

As far as I am aware this is the only species of this genus from the 
Genesee beds; and there are in the New York State Museum just three 
representatives. One is in the form of a mold and shows the crown and 
about 10 mm of column; another shows the dorsal cup and 1.3 mm of 
column; in the third, the column is missing but the dorsal cup is free and 
though crushed shows the character of both sides and the proximal portion 
of the arms in the two rays. In all cases the dorsal cup is more or less 

crushed. 

Dorsal cup in all the specimens so crushed that no accurate measure- 
ments can be taken. Various heights of the dorsal cups in the three speci- 
mens 3.7 mm, 4 mm and 4.1 mm; widths in the case of the last two respec- 
tively 6.2 mm and 7 mm. First specimen too crushed to consider its meas- 
urement in width; width in the other two specimens exaggerated. How- 
ever, allowing for the crushed condition, dorsal cup undoubtedly noticeably 
wider than high. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, small, average ones giving heights of .9 mm 
and 1 mm. 

Basals hexagonal, except the posterior and right posterolateral which 
are heptagonal. Posterior truncated above for the support of the anal 
x, and bears the radianal on the right shoulder; right posterolateral 
truncated for the support of the right posterior radial, and bears the radianal 
on its left shoulder. Average basals give the measurements: height 2.1 
mm, width 2.4 mm; height 2 mm, width 2.2 mm; height 1.8 mm, width 
2 mm. Posterior and right posterolateral basals tend to be the largest. 

Radials pentagonal, broader than high. Average radials give the 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 427 

measurements: height 1.4 mm, width 2.1 mm; height 1.3 mm, width 
2.2 mm; height 1.4 mm, width 2.2 mm. Radial facet practically straight 
and occupies almost the entire width of the radial. 

Radianal large and pentagonal. In the best preserved specimen 
height and greatest width 2 mm. Anal x hexagonal and of about the 
same size as the radianal. First tube plates large; right tube plate almost 
as large as the radianal and anal x. 

Tegmen not preserved beyond the first few large plates of the anal 
tube. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, both short and broader than high. First 
quadrangular; second, the primaxil, pentagonal, broadening out at the top 
and giving rise to two equal arms. Ten arms to the crown. Arms have 
a length of about 22 mm; composed of short, wedge-shaped brachials bear- 
ing pinnules alternately on each side of the arm. 

Column rather large for the size of the specimen. Expands slightly 
just beneath the dorsal cup; subpentagonal in the most proximal portion, 
becoming rounded below. Throughout its length, so far as preserved, 
composed of thin columnals all of the same size. 

Horizon and locality. From the Genesee (West River shale) beds 
(Melocrinus clarkei layer) , at Blacksmith gully, Bristol, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum.. 

Remarks. Species quite characteristic and may be readily recognized. 
It differs from D.nereusin a number of respects. In n e r e u s , 
infrabasals smaller and basals relatively longer and narrower. In 
insolens, primibrachs shorter, brachials comparatively much shorter 
and pronouncedly wedge-shaped. Column in insolens large for the 
size of the specimen and entirely composed of thin columnals all of the 
same size. No surface ornamentation present in the species. 

D. insolens differs from D. rugistriatus in its larger 
size, comparatively larger infrabasals, broader basals and shorter primi- 
brachs. Brachials in the former much shorter and more strongly wedge- 
shaped. Colum.n larger for the size of the specimen; columnals thin and 



428 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

all of the same size, whereas in rugistriatus they vary in size and 

the column has a beaded appearance. No striking surface ornamentation 

as in the case of D. rugistriatus. 

The name insolens is given to this form because of its unusual, 
rare occurrence. 

Decadocrinus killawogensis sp. nov. 

Plate 54, figures 18, 19 

Description based upon two specimens from the Portage beds, which 
occur in the form of molds. Details of description taken from gutta- 
percha squeezes, and based mainly on the more perfect specimen. Arms 
not spreading, giving a narrow, elongated appearance to the crown. Crown, 
when the missing arm tips were present, probably measured about 40 mm. 

Dorsal cup low, having a height of 2.6 mm and a width at the radials 
of 4.4 mm. 

Infrabasals small, measuring about .5 mm in height. 

Only one basal, the right posterior, entirely visible; heptagonal, with 
a height of 1.1 mm and a width of 1.3 mm. Posterior basal which borders 
the anal and radianal heptagonal also. Other basals probably hexagonal, 
as usual. 

Radials pentagonal, an average one giving the measurements: height 
1.1 mm, width 1.4 mm. Radial facet occupies the entire upper face of 
the radial. 

Anal area only partially exposed, but it shows the pentagonal radianal 
and the anal x. 

Tegmen. Only a small portion of base of the anal tube exposed. 
Plates comparatively large and hexagonal. 

Arms. Two primibrachs. First quadrangular, with a width and 
height of about 1.2 mm. Primaxil broadens out in its distal portion, 
having a height of 1.8 mm and a width at the top of 2.1 mm; gives rise to 
equal, pinnulate rami which remain unbranched throughout. The appear- 
ance of the brachials is rather difficult to get in a figure. Brachials short, 
varying little in height, wedge-shaped. Pinnules borne alternately on 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 429 

each side; each brachial extended in this part into a slight protuberance 
for the support of the pinnule, which in the specimen gives a more irregular, 
slightly zigzag, effect to the arms than appears in the figure. An average 
pinnule measures about 2.8 mm in length. Pinnules composed of com- 
paratively long ossicles. 

Column. In the more complete specimen only 5 mm preserved; 
character not well shown. The less perfect specimen shows a little over 
20 mm well preserved; strongly pentagonal and composed of three sizes of 
columnals. Every eighth columnal is a nodal, enlarged and projecting. 
Midway between these two nodals is a middle-sized, slightly projecting 
columnal; and between this and the nodal immediately above and below 
are three internodals. Nodals, and to a slight extent the internodals, 
thickened at the angles of the column, increasing the pentagonal effect. 

Horizon and locality. One specimen comes from the Portage (Ithaca) 
beds, Killawog creek, west of Killawog; the other from the Grimes sand- 
stone (Portage), Parrish gully, near Naples, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype and paratype in the collection of the New York 
State Museum. 

Remarks. Specific name taken from the locality in which the most 
perfect specimen of the species was found. 

The species is quite distinctive. The general long, slender character 
of the calyx, the low cup and the slightly wedge-shaped brachials with rather 
stout pinnules make it readily distinguishable. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus sp. nov. 

Plate 55, figures 7-1 1 

Description based upon five specimens from the Hamilton shales 
of Cashong creek, Yates county, N. Y. Two specimens are free calyces; 
two, incomplete crowns imbedded in the rock. In these last specimens the 
distal portions of the arms are missing; but when they were present the 
crown probably had a length of approximately 40 mm. The fifth speci- 
men shows a portion of the arms of an older specimen. 



430 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Dorsal cup low and broad; height 4 mm or 5 mm., greatest width (at 
the radials) 9.5 mm. 

Infrabasals very small and hidden by the projecting nodes on the basals. 

Basals pentagonal and very conspicuous owing to the presence of very 
strong nodes. Height of average basal 2.6 mm, breadth 3 mm. 

Radials shield-shaped, roughly pentagonal, an average one having a 
height of 2.3 mm and a breadth of 3.2 mm. Radial facet almost straight, 
occupying nearly the entire width of the radial. 

Radianal pentagonal, as large as the basals. Anal x hexagonal, smaller 
than the radianal and projecting above the radials. 

Tegmen. Only a few plates of the anal tube present. Right tube 
plate hexagonal, as large as the anal x. Succeeding plates become smaller ; 
hexagonal. 

Arms. Two primibrachs. First quadrangular and of about equal 
width and height; primaxil longer and pentagonal. No bifurcations above 
this point. Brachials more or less wedge-shaped, the wedge-shaped char- 
acter more conspicuous in more mature forms. Pinnules borne on alternat- 
ing sides; composed of long ossicles, and with a dorsal keel running the entire 
length of each. 

Column. No part present, Judging from the cicatrix pentagonal. 

Ornamentation. Each basal provided with a very prominent blunt- 
pointed node which extends outward and slightly downward. A strong, 
rather sharp node also borne by each of the primaxils, just below the point 
of bifurcation. A faint, blunt node, not always very distinct, occurs on 
each first primibrach, on the anal x, radianal, and on the lower tube plates. 
Each brachial provided with a small, sharp node near its upper border; 
from this a keel slopes down to the next lower brachial. Nodes and keels 
arranged in a zigzag line which gives an irregular, serrated appearance to 
the arms. On the arms of older specimens (plate 55, figures 10, 11) char- 
acter of ornamentation somewhat changed. Keel on brachials less promi- 
nent; nodes blunter and broader in some cases, giving the effect of a thick- 
ened, projecting rim at the upper (distal) edge of the brachials. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 43 1 

In addition to the nodes, plates of dorsal cup further ornamented 
with short wrinkled lines or striae. On the basals they radiate in from the 
edges even up on the basal node; on the radials and primibrachs they are 
more or less longitudinal ; and on the brachials they break up into a granu- 
lose state. In one specimen (plate 55, figures 8, 9) the calyx plates in 
general show a tendency to granulose surface markings. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, Cashong 
creek, near Bellona, N. Y. One specimen (plate 55, figure 7) on slab 
with types of Botryocrinus sentosus and Logocrinus 
geniculatus. 

Types. Cotypes in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The species which most nearly resembles D . multi- 
nodosus is the Portage species D. decemnodosus. The latter 
only has the nodes on the basals and prim axils. It lacks the wrinkled lines 
or striae characteristic of multinodosus, while the latter does not 
possess the ridges of decemnodosus. The arms of multi- 
nodosus have a more irregular, zigzag appearance due to the presence 
of the keeled nodes on the brachials. 

Decadocrinus multinodosus var. serratobrachiatus nov. 

Plate 56, figures i, 2 

Variety based upon a single well-preserved and very characteristic 
specimen. Specimen of average size, the crown measuring, with the arms 
extended, about 50 mm. 

Dorsal cup somewhat lower than in D. multinodosus; some- 
what crushed, but appears to have a height to the top of the radials of about 
3 mm and a width at the radials of between 8 mm and 9 mm. Primibrachs 
shorter and broader and in contact in all the rays, giving an appearance 
of greater depth to the cup. 

Ornamentation of this variety very striking. The most noticeable 
ornamentation is that of the basals (if present) , primaxils and arms. There 
is every reason to believe that the basals of this specimen were each pro- 



432 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

vided with a spinelike node. The specimen is imperfect in this respect, 
but the basals show the cleavage surfaces where the nodes or spines have 
been broken off. One of the specimens of Decadocrinus multi- 
no d o s u s shows just such a cleavage surface where one basal has lost 
its node. Each primaxil, just below the point of bifurcation bears a tooth- 
like spine about 1.5 mm long. Each brachial, also, provided with a short 
tooth-like spine, the spines pointing alternately to one side and then to the 
other, giving a very pronounced saw-toothed appearance to the arms. In 
addition to spines, the specimen is further ornamented with strong granu- 
lose-striate markings on the plates of the cup and arms. These markings 
have a longitudinal arrangement on the plates of the dorsal cup and the 
primibrachs; on the primaxil the striae extend up onto the spine, converg- 
ing toward the tip. On the brachials above this point these markings 
have a transverse arrangement, becoming more granulose in the distal 
portions of the arms. Some of the proximal ossicles of the pinnules slightly 
granulose. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds, 
Cashong creek, near Bellona, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. I was at first inclined to regard this specimen as an old 
form of D. multinodosus and a fuller series of specimens may 
yet prove it so. At present, however, I feel justified in maintaining it as a 
variety, particularly on account of the striking character of the arms. In 
D. multinodosus, so far as can be ascertained from the few speci- 
mens at hand, the tendency in the older forms is for the keels on the brachials 
to disappear and the nodes or spines to become blunter and broader. 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus sp. nov. 

Plate 55, figures 1-5 

This graceful little species is represented in the New York State Museum 
by a number of specimens from the Portage rocks of the western part of 
the State. The crown probably had a length, with the arms extended, of 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 433 

from 17 mm to 18 mm in the smaller specimens to about 25 mm in the 
larger specimen. 

Dorsal cup low and spreading, with an average height of 2 mm and a 
width at the radials of 4 mm. Measurements of the dorsal cup vary slightly, 
but in general the cup has a width nearly twice the height. 

Infrabasals small, scarcely visible in some specimens. 

Basals hexagonal, except the posterior and right posterolateral which 
are heptagonal, being in contact with the plates of the anal area. Narrow 
at the base and widen upward; subequal, an average one having a height 
and greatest width of about 1 mm. 

Radials pentagonal, larger than the basals, slightly thickened at the 
radial facet. An average radial, in the same specimen from which the 
measurements of the basal were taken, has a height of about 1 mm and a 
greatest width of about 1.6 mm. Posterior radials slightly smaller than the 
others. Radial facet occupies about three-quarters of the upper face of 
the radial. 

Anal x hexagonal, smaller than the radials and extending above them. 
Radianal pentagonal. 

Tegmen. Lower part of anal tube cylindrical, of narrow diameter, 
composed of rather large-sized hexagonal plates; distal part expanded. 
Tube not visible to any extent except in one specimen in which it is incom- 
plete ; so it is impossible to determine the length. 

Arms. Two primibrachs. In most of the specimens, first primibrach 
short and primaxil elongated. In one specimen (plate 55, figure 4) there is 
no very noticeable difference. Arms do not bifurcate above the primaxil. 
Brachials in general have a tendency to wedge-shape. In a few of the speci- 
mens (plate 55, figures 1, 2, 5) the brachials seem to be longer and more 
slender with less tendency toward wedge-shaped. The figures for these 
specimens were made from gutta-percha squeezes taken from the molds of 
the specimens. Pinnules borne by the brachials alternately on each side of 
the arm; brachials project slightly on the side on which the pinnule is borne, 

thus giving a slightly zigzag appearance to the arms. 

28 



434 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Column just below the calyx subpentagonal, but it soon becomes 
round. Composed of two kinds of columnals, thin ones with rounded 
edges and thick subglobular ones. The first few proximal columnals ar 
thin, then the thin and thick ones alternate, or sometimes there will be 
two or three thin columnals between two thick ones. This gives the stem 
a beaded appearance. Distal portion of the stem cirriferous, and here the 
columnals are all more nearly of the same thickness. Margins of all 
columnals crenulate. 

Ornamentation shown particularly well on two of the specimens (plate 
55, figures 3, 4). Primibrachs and the higher brachials to the tips of the 
arms give the appearance of a shriveled, young twig. Striae weaker or 
lacking on the cup plates, or the effect may be granulose-striate. 

Horizon and locality. Majority of specimens collected by D. Dana 
Luther from the Portage (West Hill flags) beds, Italy hollow, near Naples, 
N. Y. Several smaller specimens of the species found on slabs from the 
Ithaca beds, near Ithaca. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. The only species which these specimens resemble at all 
closely is Decadocrinus nereus. There are enough differences, 
however, to keep them distinct as a species. Basals and infrabasals in 
nereus longer and more slender. Radials in nereus smaller than 
the basals ; in rugistriatus larger. The result of all this is that 
rugistriatus has a lower more spreading cup. Arms of rugis- 
triatus strongly striate to the tips, and have more of a zigzag effect 
due to the wedge-shaped tendency of the brachials. In very much weathered 
specimens the striations on the arms are scarcely visible, but there are 
enough distinctive characters without this. 

Genus COREMATOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. y.6pY][J.a, brush; xptvov, lily] 

This genus has been created to contain a new species which shows 
some of the characteristics of Decadocrinus, but which will not 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 435 

fit into that genus. Calyx rather low and broad. Anal plates {see 
analysis of cup, text figure 60) somewhat similar in arrangement to those 
of the genus Zeacrinus (Bather, 1900, p. 180), but the radianal is 
hexagonal, coming in contact with the radial on each side as well as with 
the posterior and right posterior basals below and the anal x and right 
tube plate above. Arms strictly isotomous, branching but once and giving 
ten arms to the ray. Brachials quadrangular in the lower part, becoming 
wedge-shaped above ; they bear pinnules alternately on each side. Column 
strongly pentagonal. 

Genotype. Corematocrinus plumosus sp. nov. 

Distribution. Upper Devonian (Portage and lower Chemung) of 

New York. 

Corematocrinus plumosus sp. nov. 

Plate 56, figures 6-9; text figure 60 

Species based upon specimens from fel5\ 

the Portage (Gardeau) and Chemung beds. R Q (~^) iRAyJ (^) Q^) 
Three of the figures (plate 56, figures 6, 7, b O O O ^J O 
8) were made from the Chemung speci- Figure 6o Analysis of the calyx of Core- 
mens. The specimens from the Gardeau ma tocrinus plumosus, the genotype. 

beds are not in very good condition, though most of the crown is preserved. 
One specimen, though only a poor squeeze was obtained from it, is figured 
on plate 56, figure 9, to show the character of the distal parts of the arms 
and the pinnules, which are not shown in the Chemung forms. The crown 
probably had a length of about 50 mm in an average specimen. 

Dorsal cup low and spreading, having a width about twice its height. 
Height in one specimen 4 mm, width 7.5 mm; in a second specimen, 
height 3.1 mm and width 6.3 mm; in a third, height 3 mm. and width 
6 mm. 

Infrabasals very small,, pentagonal; vary from. .5 mm to 1 mm in 
height in different specimens. 

Four of the basals hexagonal, the fifth, the right posterolateral, hepta- 
gonal {see analysis of cup, text figure 60). Subequal in height and width, 



436 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

and almost as large as the radials. Posterior basal and right postero- 
lateral a little larger than the others. 

Three radials roughly pentagonal; two, the right and left posterior, 
hexagonal. Right posterior radial borders the radianal, the right tube 
plate, the right anterolateral radial, and right posterolateral basal; left 
posterior radial borders the left anterolateral radial, the posterior and 
left posterolateral basals, the radianal and anal x. Radials average about 
2 mm in height and 2.5 mm in width. 

Radianal large, hexagonal, having in the largest specimen (plate 56, 
figure 6) a height of 2.4 mm and a width of 2 mm. It rests between the 
posterior and right posterolateral basals, is bordered at the left by the 
left posterior radial, at the right by the right posterior radial, and above 
by the anal x at the left and the right tube plate at the right. Anal x 
smaller than the radianal, pentagonal; rests upon the left posterior radial 
and the radianal below, bordered above by the tube plates. 

Tegmen. Lower tube plates large and hexagonal; tube of narrow 
diameter. After a short distance, the tube broadens out; the plates 
become smaller and are arranged in rows. This is shown in one of the 
Portage specimens, though it is in a very poorly preserved condition. 
Lower plates of the tube shown in a drawing (figure 9) of one side of this 
specimen which was introduced to show the characteristics of the arms not 
shown by the others. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, each of about equal height and breadth. 
First quadrangular; the second pentagonal. Arms, so far as known, do 
not branch above the primaxil. First two or three brachials above the 
primaxil quadrangular; then they become wedge-shaped, a character more 
pronounced in the upper parts of the arms. Pinnules long and fairly 
stout, composed of long ossicles; borne alternately on each side of the 
arm. 

Column strongly pentagonal, composed of columnals of alternating 
thicknesses, with rounded edges and somewhat thickened at the angles. 
At variable distances, occurs a conspicuously thicker columnal, the nodal. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 437 

Nodals closer together proximally, but the usual number of internodals 
is seven, making every eighth columnal a nodal. As far as preserved, stem 
bears no cirri. 

Ornamentation of this species very slight. Plates of the dorsal cup 
show incipient ridges and furrows at their borders, but never strongly 
developed. Lower plates of the anal tube show the same characteristic. 
A few disconnected plates of the higher portion of the tube, shown 
in one specimen, would indicate that ridges are more strongly developed 
there. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Chemung 
Narrows, Chemung county, N. Y. ; and from the Portage (Gardeau sand- 
stone) beds, Deyo basin, two miles south of Naples, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the possession of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. This species can readily be distinguished from other species. 
Without the posterior side it can be distinguished from P. clarkei, 
to which it bears a resemblance, by the shorter basals and infrabasals, 
giving a lower dorsal cup, and by the fainter ridges and furrows on the 
plates of the cup; the second primibrach, the primaxil, is longer and more 
expanded at the top in P. clarkei, and the brachials are quadrangular. 

Genus LOGOCRINUS nov. 

[Ety. Xoyoq, a relation; xptvov, lily] 

Genus created to contain the two species Logocrinus genicu- 
1 a t u s and Logocrinus infundibuliformis. They would 
fit into the genus Scytalocrinus except for the character of the 
pinnulation. Calyx of the Scytalocrinus type ; elongate as in that 
genus. Arms cylindrical, strictly isotomous, branching but once; pinnules 
given off from every pair of brachials alternately on each side. Brachials 
quadrangular to wedge-shaped. Column round. 

Genotype. Logocrinus geniculatus sp. nov. 

Distribution. Devonian (Hamilton-Chemung) of New York. 



438 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

■ 

Logocrinus geniculatus sp. nov. 

Plate 57, figures 1-6 

Species based upon ten specimens, nine from Cashong creek, near 
Bellona, N. Y., and one from Canandaigua lake, in various stages of 
preservation. One specimen shows a crushed calyx, but the arms are very 
well preserved; four specimens, one partly imbedded in matrix, three free, 
are calyces; and five specimens partially imbedded in the rock show the 
calyx and varying portions of the arms; two of them show the anal region 
very well. One of these last (plate 57, figure 1) shows about 35 mm of 
stem. The cup appears to have a different shape from that of the other 
specimens partly because of the view, partly because it is slightly crushed. 
Crown with the arms extended probably measured about 35 mm. 

Dorsal cup of average size and bell-shaped; shown very well in figure 2. 

Infrabasals pentagonal, wider at the top than at the base; large, over 
half as long as the basals. 

Three of the basals hexagonal; two, the posterior and right postero- 
lateral, heptagonal, since they border the plates of the anal area. Posterior 
basals larger than the others. Basals about as wide as long, as large or 
slightly larger than the radials. 

Radials pentagonal, the two posterior ones smaller than the other. 
They flare out slightly near the tops which, with the bulging at the base 
of the cup, gives the characteristic bell-shape. Radial facet straight, 
occupying practically the entire upper face of the radial. 

Radianal pentagonal, fairly large, of about the size of the infrabasals. 
It rests upon the posterior and right posterior basals and is bordered above 
by the anal x, the right tube plate and the right posterior radial. Anal 
x hexagonal, smaller than the posterior radials, not much larger than the 
radianal; its upper edge on a level with, or slightly above, the upper edge 
of the radials. 

Tegmen. Only the lower plates of the anal tube exposed; large, 
hexagonal and arranged in vertical rows. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 439 

Arms. In two specimens showing the arms on the anterior side there 
are three primibrachs in the anterior and right and left anterolateral rays. 
The arm of the right posterior ray, in the only specimen where this arm 
is preserved, shows three primibrachs. Another specimen (plate 57, figure 
3) shows the arms of the left posterior and right anterolateral rays with 
two primibrachs each. Where there are two primibrachs to the ray they 
are longer. First primibrach wide at the base, approximately as wide as 
the radial; narrows down to half that width at its upper edge. Second 
primibrach narrow; primaxil (third or second primibrach) widens slightly 
just below the bifurcation. Arms apparently do not branch above the 
primaxils; very characteristic. 

Arms composed of more or less wedge-shaped brachials which in pairs 
have a somewhat hourglass shape. The lower member of each pair has 
a broad lower face from which the sides of the brachial slope to a narrow 
upper face in contact with the narrow lower face of the second and upper 
member of the pair. From this latter face the second brachial of the pair 
broadens out to a broad upper face similar to the broad lower face of the 
first member of the pair. The lower face of the first brachial of the pair 
and the upper face of the second have a decided slope in opposite directions. 
Pairs of brachials joined together so that they make very decided and 
conspicuous knee- or elbow-like bends, first in one direction and then in 
the other, thus giving to the arms an exaggerated angular, zigzag appear- 
ance. Pinnules borne by every pair of brachials, at the large joints only, 
alternately on each side of the arms; long and slender and made up of long 
ossicles. One pinnule, fairly complete, measures about 10 mm in length. 

Column slightly subpentagonal just at the base of the calyx, but 
quickly becomes round. Columnals all thin with rounded edges. Two 
sizes of columnals; one or two very thin ones sometimes occur between 
the heavier ones. 

Horizon and locality. From the Hamilton (Moscow shale) beds; 
Cashong creek, near Bellona, and at Menteth's point, Canandaigua lake^ 
N. Y. Two of the Cashong creek specimens occur on the slab with 



440 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Botryocrinus sentosus sp. nov. and Decadocrinus 
multinodosus sp. nov. 

Types. Cotypes, and the rest of the Cashong creek specimens, in 
the collection of the New York State Museum. Canandaigua lake specimen 
in the collection of Rochester University. 

Remarks. This species may, in general, be distinguished from all the 
other similar species by the shape of the cup and the very characteristic 
arms. In case the arms were missing the shape of the cup and broad 
arm facets would distinguish it from Poteriocrinus diffusus, 
dignatus, and nassa. Poteriocrinus nassa is a larger 
form, and the basals are narrower in proportion to their height. 

Logocrinus infundibuliformis sp. nov. 

Plate 57, figures 7— II 

Species represented by molds in the Chemung sandstone; description 
based on gutta-percha squeezes made from the molds. 

Dorsal cup funnel-shaped when seen from the anterior side; bulges in 
the anal region, so that a posterolateral view gives a more bowl-shaped 
appearance. Height in one specimen 4.2 mm, width at the base 1.3 mm 
and at the radials 4.2 mm; in another specimen, height 4.6 mm, width at 
the base 1.8 mm and at the radials 4.7 mm. 

Infrabasals large, pentagonal, lateral faces the longest. An average 
one has a height of 1.6 mm and a width at the top of 1.3 mm. 

Three of the basals hexagonal. Posterior and right posterolateral 
larger and heptagonal, being bordered by the anal plates in addition to 
the others. An average basal has a height of 2 mm and a width of 1 .4 mm. 

Radials pentagonal, the two lateral faces the longest. An average 
plate has a height and greatest width of about 2 mm. Posterior radials 
smaller than the others. Radial facet as wide as the radial. 

Anal area visible in two specimens. Radianal pentagonal, large; anal 
x pentagonal, sometimes smaller than the radianal. 

Tegmen. Anal x and the radianal followed by several large, hexagonal 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 44I 

plates. Anal tube long and slender, probably reaching almost to the arm 
tips; after the first few large plates, apparently composed of vertical rows 
of short, broad plates. A median dorsal ridge seems to extend the full 
length of the tube. Specimens poorly preserved in this region, and squeezes 
consequently do not show the features clearly. 

Arms. Two primibrachs, which together have an hourglass appear- 
ance. First primibrach has the appearance of a truncated triangle, 
the upper face being about one-half as wide as the lower face. Primaxil 
pentagonal; gradually broadens out from the base until at its broadest 
part, just below the point of bifurcation, it has a width one-third greater 
than at the base. In one specimen (plate 57, figure 7) the arms on the 
ventral side show only a couple of brachials above the primaxil and these 
are quadrangular. In other specimens (figures 8, 9, 10) arms better pre- 
served, though still very imperfect. Brachials quadrangular to slightly 
wedge-shaped; every second one bears a pinnule alternately on each side 
of the arm, giving a slightly zigzag effect to the arms. Pinnules composed 
of long ossicles. 

Column round and slender; 30 mm preserved in one specimen. 
Diameter at base of calyx 1.6 mm; slightly angled; columnals very short. 
Gradually tapers until at a distance of 4 mm from the calyx it has a diameter 
of .7 mm which it maintains, practically, for the rest of its extent. This 
gives a very characteristic appearance to the stem. Columnals in the 
more distal part of the stem longer than the proximal ones; fairly constant 
in length throughout. 

Horizon and locality. From the lower Chemung beds, Chemung 
Narrows, Chemung county, N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. Logocrinus inf undibulif ormis bears a 
resemblance to Scytalocrinus vanhornei. It may be dis- 
tinguished by the character of the column, the shape of the primibrachs 
and the pinnulation. The brachials in S. vanhornei are wedge- 
shaped and each is pinnule -bearing. 



442 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

INCERTAE SEDIS 

Family (?) 

Genus ASPIDOCRINUS Hall 1859 
Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Hall 

Plate 59, figures 6, 7 

1859 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:122, pi. 5, figs. 

15-18 
1868 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 

2:35s 

1877 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 71 

1889 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal. , 

p. 226 

1899 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Whitfield & Hovey Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 88 

1900 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer. , 

11 :28o 
1905 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:31 
1910 Aspidocrinus scutelliformis Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index 

Foss., 2:569 

This species and the two following represent basal expansions of 

crinoid columns. Base scutelliform, concavo-convex, depressed hemispheric, 

with a smooth or finely granulated surface. Column unknown; point of 

attachment small and circular. In describing this form Hall says: 

These bases of this species of Aspidocrinus are extremely 
abundant in the upper part of the shaly limestone of the Lower Helderberg 
group, and sometimes form by themselves mainly, and with other frag- 
ments of crinoids, a stratum which, from the abundance of these forms, 
was originally designated in the Annual Geological Reports of New York 
as the " Scutella limestone." This rock is so filled with these remains that 
many thousands may be counted in the space of a few yards ; and the other 
portions of the rock are made up in great measure of these broken cups 
and other crinoidal remains. In some parts of the rock they become rare, 
and in its western and northwestern extension are at present unknown. 
Although fragments of undetermined columns are abundant in the for- 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 443 

mation, I have not thus far been able to identify any of them as belonging 
to this species. 

Horizon and locality. From the upper part of the New^ Scotland 
limestone and the Becraft limestone in the Helderberg mountains and 
Schoharie; from the Becraft limestone, Becraft mountain, near Hudson, 
N. Y. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History, num- 
ber 2291. 

Remarks. This species was originally described by Hall as the basal 
disk of a crinoid of which the radial plates and arms were unknown, and 
in a paper Miss Talbot (1905, p. 31) inclines to the same view. All the 
species of Aspidocrinus are generally regarded as roots or basal 
expansions of crinoidal columns. They were doubtfully listed as such by 
Wachsmuth and Springer (1882, p. 402). Bather (1900, p. 201) lists them 
as crinoidal roots; Grabau and Shimer (1910, v. 2, p. 569) cite them as 
roots or bases; and Kirk (191 1, p. 63) refers to them as " basal expansions 
of some apparently adult crinoid column." 

Aspidocrinus digitatus Hall 

Plate 59, figures 8, 9 



1859 Aspidocr 
1868 Aspidocri 
1877 Aspidocr 
1889 Aspidocr 
1899 Aspidocr 
Hist., v. 11 



nus digitatus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:123, pi. 5, figs. 19, 20 
nus digitatus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:355 
inus digitatus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 71 
inus digitatus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 226 
nus digitatus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
pt. 2, p. 88 

1900 Aspidocrinus digitatus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 1 1 : 280 
1903 Aspidocrinus digitatus Clarke & Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. Bui" 

65, P- 65 
1905 Aspidocrinus digitatus Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:31 

This basal expansion smaller than scutelliformis, concavo- 
convex, and depressed conical in side view. From about the middle 
made up of a number of finger-like radiating divisions which terminate 



444 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

abruptly. Point of attachment of column small, circular and sunk in a 
small depression. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone, Schoharie, 
N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. See Remarks under Aspidocrinus scutelli- 
formis. 

Aspidocrinus callosus Hall 

Plate 59, figures 10-12 

1859 Aspidocrinus callosus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3:123, pi. 5, figs. 13, 14 

1 868 Aspidocrinus callosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2:355 

1877 Aspidocrinus callosus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 71 

1889 Aspidocrinus callosus S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 226 

1899 Aspidocrinus callosus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 88 

1900 Aspidocrinus callosus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11 : 280 
1905 Aspidocrinus callosus Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:31 

A very small base, rounded or somewhat quadrangular in outline, 
slightly convex, with a shallow central depression at the base of which is 
the small circular place of attachment of the column. Margin with 
prominent round points or nodes which are thickened. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone, Helderberg 
mountains and Schoharie, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the American Museum of Natural History, 
number 2289. 

Remarks. See Remarks under Aspidocrinus scutelli- 
f o r m i s . 

Aspidocrinus onondagensis sp. nov. 

Plate 59, figure 13 

A single specimen of Aspidocrinus has been found in the 
Onondaga limestone. While recognizing it as the root or base of a crinoid, 
a name has been given to it here as a means of separation from the other 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 445 

forms placed in this genus. Species quite similar to A. scutelli- 
f ormis, but more flattened, less concavo-convex and the point of 
attachment for the column large and circular and deeply sunk into the 
base. Margin of base very irregular, and may be best described as extended 
into irregular lobes or processes. 

Horizon and locality. From the Onondaga limestone, Limerock, 
Genesee county, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum. 

Remarks. See Remarks under Aspidocrinus scutelli- 
f or mi s . 

Family edriocrinidae S. A. Miller (Talbot) 

Genus EDRIOCRINUS Hall 1859 (em. Springer 1920) 
The genus Edriocrinus has recently been revised by Springer (1920, 
pp. 443-448) in connection with the Crinoidea Flexibilia. Through his 
courtesy I have had, for reference, the proof sheets covering this genus and 
a photographic reproduction, natural size, of his Plate 76, some of the 
figures from which are reproduced here in text figures 61-63. 

Springer describes nine species (pocilliformis, occiden- 
talis, explicatus, dispansus, 
sacculus, b e c r a f t e n s i s , adhae- 
rans, pyriformis, holopoides), 

four new ones in addition to the five previously a B 

described; and shows by unquestionable evi- Fi s ure 6l Bases of Edriocrinus 

showing the four basals. A, E . o c - 
dence in four of them (oCCidentalis, c i den talis Springer, ventral view, 

explicatUS, dispanSUS, holo- * 2; ^' E " ex P licatu s Springer, 

x r dorsal view, x 3/2. (After Springer 

p o i d e s) that Edriocrinus is a mono- 1920; see text figures 62 and 63). 

cyclic crinoid with four basals, as in Melocrinus and associated 

genera (see text figures 61-63). His generic description is as follows: 

Crinoids without stem; either permanently attached directly by the 
base, or free in the adult stage. Monocyclic; basals four, fused into a 
more or less hollow mass (hereinafter simply called the base) with sutures 
usually obliterated by secondary growth. Radials in contact all around 
except at the anal side. Anal plate in line with radials, usually projecting 





446 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

above their level. Radial facets filling distal face of radials. Arms 
dichotomous. Pinnules probably wanting. 

Three of the new species described by Springer are from the Helder- 
bergian, Linden formation, of Tennessee — occidentalis (also in equiva- 
lent New Scotland formation of Virginia) ,explicatus, adhaerans 
(associated with dispansus, smaller, similar, but sessile). The fourth 
species, E. holopoides, occurs in the Oriskany sandstone, Cumber- 
berland, Md., associated with E. sacculus, but, unlike that form, sessile 
in the adult stage. All of these Oriskany specimens were previously 
regarded as belonging to E. sacculus. 

The genus Edriocrinus is divided by Springer into two groups : 
(1) species free in the adult stage with fused basals rounded below; (2) 
species attached through life by encrusting base adapted to the form of 
the objects to which attached. In the first group are found pocilli- 
formis, occidentalis, explicatus, dispansus, 
sacculus, becraftensis; in the second group, adhaerans, 
pyriformis, holopoides. From this it is seen that the majority 
of the species are free in the adult stage. Of the species occurring in New 
York State, pyriformis is the only one attached throughout life, and 
Springer points out that this species is not quite constant in the sessile 
base {see description of species). 

The discovery of the structure of the base of Edriocrinus by 

Springer definitely removes the genus from connection with the Flexibilia 

as now limited. He notes the remarkable superficial resemblance to the 

recent H o 1 o p u s , pointing out that Austin Clark does not think it 

possible that Edriocrinus can be closely related to this genus. In 

the course of his discussion he states (ref. cit., p. 447) : 

The two doubtless represent parallel modifications of independent 
stocks, resulting from their encounter with similar physical conditions. 
There is no evident connection between Edriocrinus and any other 
Devonian or pre- Devonian form, unless the newly discovered fact of the four 
basals may suggest some remote relation to the Melocrinoidea. 

The diagnosis of the family Edriocrinidae, established by 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 447 

Miss Talbot (1905, p. 20), as well as her emended generic description, was 
based chiefly upon specimens of E. pocilliformis to whichTshe 
gave an erroneous interpretation. 

Edriocrinus pocilliformis Hall 

Plate 58, figures 9—15 

1859 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Hall. Pal. N. Y.,v. 3, pi. 5, figs. 8-10 
1868 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis,, 

2:368 
1868 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Meek & Worthen. Rep't Geol. Surv. 111. , 

3:370, pi. 7, figs. 5a, 56 
1877 Edriocrinus pocilliformis S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 
1886 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr. 

pt. 3, p. 266 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:190 
■ 1889 Edriocrinus pocilliformis S. A. Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal. , 

p. 242 
1894 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Keyes. Geol. Surv. Mo., 4:221, pi. 30, 

fig- 7 

1899 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. 

Nat. Hist., v. 11, pt. 2, p. 90 

1900 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:279 
1903 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Schuchert. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mu?., 26 : 422 
1905 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Talbot. Amer. Jour. Sci., 20:23, pi- 4» 

figs. 1-6 
1913 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Ohern. Md. Geol. Surv., Lower Dev., 

p. 257, pi. 40, figs. 13-15 
1920 Edriocrinus pocilliformis Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 448. 

Springer's description. Type of the genus. 

A small species, known only by the calyx. Base small, low hemispheric, 
broadly convex, expanding upward; height to width about as i to 1.3; 
specimens ranging in size from 4 to 15 mm high and 7 to 20 mm wide at 
basi-radial suture. Radial circlet cylindrical, longer than wide, and slightly 
longer than the base; anal plate narrower than radials. Traces of a narrow 
indented scar are occasionally seen on the rounded base, and radiating 
ridges on the ventral surface. 

Horizon and locality. From the New Scotland limestone, Helderberg 



448 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

mountains, near Clarksville and Schoharie, N. Y. ; from the same formation 
at Bailey's landing, Perry county, Mo. 

Types. Cotypes in the collection of the American Museum of Natural 
History, number 2300. 

Remarks. Talbot (1905, p. 23) gave an emended description of this 
species based upon specimens which she believed showed basals and 
infrabasals, — the basals five in number. Two very beautifully preserved 
specimens figured by Miss Talbot are refigured here on plate 58, figures 
9-12. As pointed out by Springer (1920, p. 445) they do not show any 
indication of two rings of plates or any means of determining the num- 
ber of plates below the radials, which he (ref. cit.) has shown in other 
species to be four. The raised collar noted on some specimens and taken 
by Talbot to represent the basal ring is shown in the specimen figured on 
plate 58, figures 9, 10. This Springer interprets as a " mere irregular 
phase of secondary growth without definite structure, seen occasionally 
on specimens of different species. Also the lines seen at the inner surface 
of some of the fused bases are not interbasal sutures, as the author thought, 
but are lines or ridges marking the superimposed radials and anal plate; 
they are always six in number, instead of five as they would be if dividing 
five basals." 

The base in some specimens (plate 58, figures 13, 14) appears to be 
rather elongated, resembling somewhat in appearance Edriocrinus 
occidentalis (Springer, 1920, p. 449, pi. 76, figs. 6-12). 

Edriocrinus sacculus Hall 

Plate 58, figures 1-8 



1859 Edr 



ocrinus sacculus Hall. Pal. N. Y., 3: 143, pi. 87, figs. 1-22 



1868 Edriocrinus sacculus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 368 

1877 Edriocrinus sacculus S. A. Miller. Amer. Pal. Poss., p. 77 

1878 Edriocrinus sacculus Bigsby. Thesauras Dev.-Carb., p. 17 

1886 Edriocrinus sacculus Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, 

p. 266 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:190 
1889 Edriocrinus sacculus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 242 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 449 

1892 Edriocrinus sacculus Beecher & Clarke. Amer. Jour. Sci., v. 44, ser. 

3, P- 4io 

1899 Edriocrinus sacculus Weller. Ann. Rep't Geol. Surv. N. J., p. 43 

1900 Edriocrinus sacculus Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 

v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 
1900 Edriocrinus sacculus Schuchert. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer., 11:292,313 
1903 Edriocrinus sacculus Weller. Ann. Rep't Geol. Surv. N. J., Pal. ? 

3:342, pi. 45, figs. 3, 4, s 

1910 Edriocrinus sacculus Grabau & Shinier. N. Amer. Index Foss., 2:515 

191 1 Edriocrinus sacculus Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 1846, p. 112, 

pi. 11, figs. 14, 15 
1913 Edriocrinus sacculus (in part) Ohern. Md. Geol. Surv., Lower Dev.j 

p. 256, pi. 40, figs. 10-12, only. 
1920 Edriocrinus sacculus Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 450 

Springer s description. The largest species; represented by the com- 
plete crown. Base inverted conical, usually asymmetric with the upper 
edge oblique, broadly spreading from a narrow rounded apex, enclosing a 
large cavity of similar form; walls thick, double, with space for fibrous 
structures between. Radial circlet cylindrical ; radials rectangular, enclosing 
wide anal plate projecting above them between arm bases. Arms broad 
and flat, with well defined food-groove; dichotomous, branching two or 
three times, curving outward and distal ends closely inrolled, forming a 
rounded cluster exceeding the calyx in diameter. Primibrachs ten to 
twelve, occasionally more; short, transversely linear, with beveled sutures. 
Height to width of base in average of forty large and small specimens, 
about 1 to 1. Maximum crown from rounded base to top of recurved 
arms 65 mm high and 40 mm wide at greatest width of arm cluster; calyx 
at arm bases 44 mm high by 28 mm wide; base 27 by 26; maximum free 
base, 42 mm high by 35 mm wide; minimum free base 10 mm high by 12 
mm wide. Still smaller specimens occur attached to other objects singly 
or in clusters having about ten primibrachs as in this species. 

Horizon and locality. From the Oriskany (Glenerie) limestone, Glenerie, 
Ulster county, N. Y., and from the Oriskany of Cumberland, Md. 

Types. Cotypes in the American Museum of Natural History. The 

New York specimens figured here in the collection of the New York 

State Museum. 

Remarks. This is the most common crinoid of the Oriskany. The 
29 



450 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

arms are usually broken off and the radials frequently missing. We have 
no New York specimens showing the arms, and therefore some of the 
Maryland specimens are figured here on plate 58, figures 1, 2. Hall's 
description and account of the habits of the genus were based upon 
collections from Cumberland. 

The character of the wall of the base is well shown in two of our 
Xew York specimens (figures 3 and 4). Figure 3 shows the double wall; 
the median wall and transverse septa give a cellular, honey-combed appear- 
ance to it. In figure 4 are shown the thickened character of the wall and 
the inner surface of the base. 

Many small specimens have been found attached to some hard object, 

either singly or in clusters. Such forms have been figured by Hall (1859, 

plate 87) and by Kirk (191 1, plate 11), and are shown here on plate 58. 

figures 6-8. Kirk in discussing this form (ref. cit., p. 112) states: 

This species likewise combines an eleutherozoic and statozoic habit. 
The species is constantly attached in the young forms, as may be noted 
in plate 11, figure 14 (see plate 58, figure 8). The young apparently were 
often associated in groups or clusters as here indicated. A number of 
these clusters have been noted where the young are cemented to brachiopod 
or gastropod shells. In certain individuals it appears that attachment 
was maintained throughout life. In the majority of cases, however, detach- 
ment from the bottom took place. Detachment became effective through 
the resorption of the stalk near the base. This resulted in the freedom 
of the organism. Detachment in the case of these crinoids apparently 
occurred at widely different periods in the development of the animals, 
for attached forms of widely different sizes may be observed. Figure 14, 
plate 11 (see plate 58, figure 8) probably represents the approximate size 
at which detachment normally occurs, for the majority of attached indi- 
viduals seem to be of about this size or smaller. 

This view of Kirk's has also been shared by previous writers: that 

all these Oriskany specimens belonged to one species, the young sessile 

and the adult free or attached. Springer (1920) has shown that this 

Oriskany material comprises two species, one free in the adult stage, 

E. sacculus; the other sessile, E. holopoides (text figure 

63). The sessile form is somewhat smaller and has uniformly much 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 45 1 

shorter rays. The free form has, constantly, ten or more primibrachs, 

the sessile, five (or at the most six or seven). Excluding very young forms, 

out of sixty-three specimens of varying sizes, entirely complete or with 

one or more rays preserved, Springer found forty- two free specimens showing 

the characters of E. sacculus and twenty-one with attached bases. 

The manner of locomotion of E. sacculus after detachment is 

a matter of much interest and some question. Kirk states (ref . cit., p. 113): 

Subsequent to detachment Edriocrinus moved from place to 
place by crawling on its stout arms. The position assumed by the specimen 
of E. sacculus as given on Plate 11, figure 15 (see plate 58, figure 
2) is probably the natural one. As here shown Edriocrinus is 
crawling over the surface of a large gastropod. It does not seem possible 
with the comparatively feeble musculature of this genus and the stout 
arms that are borne that the animal could have been capable of very 
effective swimming movements. 

Edriocrinus pyriformis Hall 

Plate 58, figures 16, 17 

1862 Edriocrinus pyriformis Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 115, %s. 1, 2; p. 116, pi. 1, figs. 23, 24 
1868 Edriocrinus pyriformis Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 .-368 

1877 Edriocrinus pyriformis S.A.Miller. Amer. Pal. Foss., p. 77 

1878 Edriocrinus pyriformis Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 17 

1886 Edriocrinus pyriformis Wachsmuth & Springer. Rev. Palaeocr., pt. 3, 

p. 266 (authors' ed.); Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 38:190 
1889 Edriocrinus pyriformis S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 242 
1900 Edriocrinus pyriformis Whitfield & Hovey. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist., v. 11, pt. 3, p. 196 
1904 Edriocrinus pyriformis Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 63, 

P- 43 
1911 Edriocrinus pyriformis Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 41, no. 1846, 

p. 112, pi. 10 (after Hall) 
1920 Edriocrinus pyriformis Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 451, pi. 76, figs. 
19-21 

Springer's description. A medium-sized species, known only by the 
calyx. Base elongate, cylindrical, with concave scar for attachment. 



45 2 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Radials long, expanding upward, giving a turbinate aspect to the radial 
circlet ; contracting toward the upper margin which is more or less abruptly 
bent in, so that the diameter at the radial facets is considerably less than 
that of the expanded portion below. Anal plate narrow, projecting above 
radials. 

Hall's figures I and 2, on page 115 (87) of the 15th Report were drawn 
from three specimens — ■ figure 1 being a composite based upon a flattened 
calyx and two perfectly rotund sets of radials, and figure 2. a distal view 
of one of the latter. They show the form and proportions of the species 
with entire accuracy. Measurements of six specimens give the following 
average dimensions: Height of calyx, 33 mm, of radials, 18 mm, of base, 
15 mm; width at zone of greatest expansion, 18 mm, contracting to 13 mm 
at radial facets; at basi-radial suture 10 mm; base at surface of attachment, 
10 mm. The extremes depart but little from this mean. This species 
is not quite constant in the sessile base, as, among six specimens with base 
preserved, five have a broad concave scar, one has the scar almost com- 
pletely overgrown; while a seventh, detached base only, associated with 
the others, is rounded. 

Horizon and locality. From the Lower Helderberg, Coeymans lime- 
stone, Eastman's quarry, southeast of Utica, Oneida county; also at Babcock 
hill, Bridgewater, Onondaga county, N. Y. 

Type in the American Museum of Natural History, number — — . 

Remarks. The rather slender base or peduncle (Kirk, 1911, p. 11 1) 
of this species has somewhat the appearance of a short, stout column. 
This form represents one extreme in the genus in which E. dispansus 
and the associated E . adhaerans represent the other. The other 
species are structurally intermediate between these extreme forms. 

This species was described by Hall from the Upper Helderberg (Onon- 
daga limestone) and specimens are so listed in the old locality catalogue 
of the New York State Museum and in the type catalog of the American 
Museum of Natural History. Springer's specimens, originally in the 
Lyon collection, were obtained by exchange from Hall and were similarly 
labeled. In his discussion of the horizon and locality of this species he 
points out the error of this citation; 

Eastman's quarry, as known at the time when these specimens were 
collected, was located ten or twelve miles southeast of Utica, in the region 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 453 

of Litchfield, where the Coeymans limestone of the Helderbergian is we 
developed and has yielded important collections of fossils lithologically 
similar to these. 

Edriocrinus becraftensis Clarke 

Plate 58, figure 18 

1900 Edriocrinus becraftensis Clarke. N. Y. State Mus. Mem. 3, p. 62, 

pi. 9, figs. 12, 13 
1903 Edriocrinus becraftensis Clarke and Ruedemann. N. Y. State Mus. 

Bui. 65, p. 68 
1920 Edriocrinus becraftensis Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 451 

Springer's description. A rather large species, known by the base 
only. Base very elongate, narrowly conical, slightly widening upward. 
Height to width about i to .75; type specimen 30 mm high, 15 mm wide 
at upper end, and 8 mm near the lower rounded extremity. 

Horizon and locality. From the Oriskany limestone, Becraft mountain, 

Hudson, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype is in the New York, State Museum, number ^ . 

Remarks. E . sacculus also comes from the Oriskany beds 

(Glenerie limestone) of New York, but no difficulty could be encountered 

in distinguishing the two forms. As pointed out in the original description 

(Clarke, 1900, p. 62): 

The calyces of this species may be distinguished from those of 
Edriocrinus sacculus Hall from the Oriskany sandstone of 
Cumberland, Md., in their elongate, much more slender and very gradually 
enlarging form, and generally quite small size. They are blunt, but not 
broad at the base, and enlarge upward with gently incurving sides. In 
one instance only has the upper edge of the calyx been observed, and except 
for this edge no specimen shows traces of the component plates. The 
casts of the calyx are not infrequent. 

Edriocrinus dispansus Kirk 

Plate 58, figures 19-21; text figure 62 

1911 Edriocrinus dispansus Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 41, no. 1846, 

p. 112, pi. 11, figs. 1, 2 
1920 Edriocrinus dispansus Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 449, pi. 76, figs. 1-5 




454 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

Springer's description. A medium-sized species, known only by the 
calyx. Base low, discoid, usually with remnant of indented scar of attach- 
ment at younger stage. Calyx with radials in position in form of an 
obscurely hexagonal, truncated pyramid, contracted at the top of the radials 
to less than half its diameter at the base. Radials narrowing upward to 
short distal faces. Anal plate long, narrow, projecting in an angular apex 

above the line of radials. Height of base about one- 
tenth its width; height to width of calyx about I to 1.8, 
varying in eight specimens from. 6 to 15 mm high and 
12 to 30 mm wide at the base; width of calyx at base 
two and a half times its diameter at the radial facets, 
where it ranges from 7 to 10 mm. Parts above radials 
not known. 

r igure 62 Edriocrinus 

dispansus. Ventral Horizon and locality. From, the Lower Helderberg, 

Sowing the'suture lines Linden formation, Benton county, Tennessee. 

of the basak and the Types. Holotype in the U. S. National Museum, 

ridges marking the for- 
mer position of the number 27757. Other specimens in the collection of 

superimposed radials Doctor g ^ 
and anal plate. (After r ° 

Springer, 1920). Remarks. E . dispansus is introduced here 

for comparison with the other species of Edriocrinus. It is free in 
the adult stage. This form, as well as the .similar, smaller, attached form 
associated with it, described by Springer as E. adhaerans, repre- 
sents one extreme structurally of which E. pyriformis represents 
the other. In the specimen here figured the individual is attached to the 
shell of Leptaena rh ojm b o*i d a 1 e s , which it entirely covers and 
extends beyond. In his study of these forms Springer found that " the 
disk is usually marked by a shallow concavity or an indented scar of much 
less than its own width, in which a sm.all shell or other foreign object is 
sometimes still attached — showing that the base before becoming free often 
outgrew its surface of attachment" (1920, p. 446). 

Springer has figured (plate 76, figure 3) a detached basal disk showing 
at the ventral side four perfectly distinct basal plates. This figure is 
reproduced here in text figure 62. The interbasal sutures in the specimen 
are marked by lines of infiltrated matter of different color from that of the 
plates. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



455 



Edriocrinus holopoides Springer 

Text figure 63 

1913 Edriocrinus sacculus (in part) Ohern. Geol. Surv. Md., Lower Dev., 

pi. 40, figs. 7, 8, 9 only 
1920 Edriocrinus holopoides Springer. Crin. Flex., p. 452, pi. 76, figs. 22 

a, b; 23 a, b 

I have added this species here for comparison with Edriocrinus 
sacculus under which species this associated form was originally 
figured (Ohern, 1913). The species was separated by Springer (1920) 
after studying a large series of specimens in which he found that the free 







Figure 63 Edriocrinus holopoides. A, lateral view, x 3/2, of the type specimen; B, dorsal 
view, x 3/2,. of the same specimen showing the four basals; C, posterior view of another specimen show- 
ing the anal plate; D, dorsal view of the same specimen showing the four basals. (After Springer 1920). 

adults (E. sacculus) constantly showed ten or more primibrachs, 

the sessile adults five (or at the most six or seven). The species so far 

has been found only in the Oriskany sandstone, Cumberland, Maryland. 

Springer's description of the species follows: 

Springer's description. A large species, but smaller than E . sac- 
culus, and with a shorter base ; represented by the complete crown. 
Base low and broad, usually standing oblique to the surface of attachment; 



456 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

wall thin, enclosing a broad, bowl-shaped cavity not contracting down- 
wards; expanding slightly towards the radials. Calyx and arms otherwise 
similar to these of E. sacculus, except that the arms are shorter 
and their inrolled cluster relatively not so wide. Primibrachs five or six, 
exceptionally seven or eight. Height to width of base in average of twenty- 
one large and small specimens, about i to 1.25. Dimensions of maximum 
crown: 45 mm high and 35 mm wide at greatest expansion of arm cluster; 
calyx, 28 mm high by 25 mm wide at the arm bases; base, 17 mm high 
by 19 mm wide; minimum crown, 8 mm high by 7 mm wide; minimum 
base, 4 mm high by 6 mm wide. Thus up to their maximum the specimens 
of this species range in size about like those of E. sacculus, but 
the latter becomes considerably larger. 

Horizon and locality. From the Oriskany sandstone, Cumberland, Md. 

Types in the collection of Doctor Springer. The specimen chosen as 
chief type by Doctor Springer, text figure 63 A, B, is the one figured by 
Ohern (191 3, plate 40, figures 7-9). 

Family (?) 

Genus ANCYROCRINUS Hall 1862 
Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall 

Plate 59, figure 14 

1862 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Hall. 15th Ann. Rep't N. Y. State Cab. Nat. 

Hist., p. 118, pi. 1, figs. 25, 26 

1868 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Shumard. Trans. Acad. Sci. St Louis, 2 : 3 54 

1878 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Bigsby. Thesaurus Dev.-Carb., p. 15 

1887 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 2 

(advance sheets), p. 103; 1889, pi. 13, fig. 5 

1889 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus S.A.Miller. N. Amer. Geol. & Pal., p. 246 

1898 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Whiteaves. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, pt. 5, 

P- 375. pl- 48, %s. 8, 9 

1899 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Grabau. Bui. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci., v. 6, nos. 

2, 3, 4, p. 147, fig. 28 
1901 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Shimer & Grabau. Bui. Geol. Soc. Amer. 

13:185 
1904 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Clarke & Luther. N. Y. State Mus. Bui. 3 9, 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 457 

1910 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Grabau & Shimer. N. Amer. Index Foss., 

2:569 

1911 Ancyrocrinus bulbosus Kirk. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., v. 41, no. 1846, 

p. 46 

Original description. Bulbiform below, with four, lateral, obliquely 
ascending processes of the character of jointed or solid spines, which are 
more or less thickened according to age. Column above the bulb often 
elongated, rounded in the lower part and obtusely quadrangular above in 
older specimens, which preserve but a small part of the column as a thickened 
process. Body and arms unknown. 

Horizon and locality. Holotype from the Hamilton (Moscow) shales, 

Lake Erie, New York. Other localities are Canandaigua lake; vicinity of 

Geneseo; Bellona; Norton's landing, Cayuga lake; south of Skaneateles 

lake ; Eighteen Mile creek, Erie county. Species also found in the Ludlow- 

ville shale at Ludlowville and Eighteen Mile creek, and in the Hamilton 

shales, Thedford, Ontario. 

Types. Holotype in the New York State Museum, number ^ . 

Remarks. The spurs of Ancyrocrinus are modified radicular 
cirri in which all traces of the original segmentation has been obliterated 
by secondary deposition (Kirk, 191 1, p. 46). This four fluked grapnel 
was regarded by Bather (1900, pp. 134, 177) as the distal end of the stem of 
Myrtillocrinus. Kirk (loc. cit.) , in his discussion of the genus 
Ancyrocrinus, differs from Bather's conclusion and says: 

This reference is quite unsupported by known facts. Myrtillo- 
crinus is found in America in the Onondaga limestone where no signs 
of Ancyrocrinus have been seen, while in the Hamilton, where 
Ancyrocrinus is fairly abundant, no trace of Myrtillocrinus 
has yet been found. Moreover, the stem of Ancyrocrinus is quad- 
rangular in cross-section, while that of Myrtillocrinus is round. 
Furthermore, the size of these grapnels and that of the column is out of 
all proportion to that of any known Myrtillocrinus theca. 

We may hold, I think, that this grapnel of Ancyrocrinus 
served rather as a drag and ballast than as a true anchor. In a quiet sea, 
the animal no doubt was steadied and maintained in a fairly stable state 
by the weight of the terminal organ. If affected by current or wave activity, 



458 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

however, the grapnel might be dragged along the bottom and aid appreciably 
in controlling the motion of the animal. As will be noted subsequently, 
it is quite conceivable that the Paleozoic stalked Crinoidea, as well as their 
modern representatives, often lived well within the zone of wave activity. 
Under such conditions the advantage of such a drag is immediately obvious. 

Springer (191 7, p. 10) agrees with Kirk in the statement that the 

reference of these grapnels or anchors to Myrtillocrinus is without 

the slightest authority. He believes that a more plausible supposition 

would-be that they belonged to Arachnocrinus. Here there is 

a similar quadripartite canal, and one species — very rare — occurs in the 

same horizon at Louisville, Ky. 

Ancyrocrinus quinquepartitus sp. no v. 

Plate 59, figures 15, 1 6 

The New York State Museum has recently acquired a single specimen 
of a new species of Ancyrocrinus, from the Oriskany beds, with 
five spurs or radicular cirri instead of four as in A. bulbosus. 
Radicular cirri stout at the bases; the ends are broken so as to show the 
axial canal which appears to be elliptical. Column above the spurs rounded. 

Horizon and locality. From the Oriskany (Glenerie) limestone, Glenerie, 
N. Y.; collected by Alfred Simmons of Saugerties, N. Y. 

Types. Holotype in the collection of the New York State Museum. 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 459 

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Meek, F. B., & Worthen, A. H. 

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464 NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 

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Shimer, H. W., & Grabau, A. W. 

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186 
Shumard, B. F. 

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Slocom, A. W. 

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Springer, F. 

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Ulrich, E. O. 

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Wachsmuth, C, and Springer, F. 

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1899 Preliminary Report on the Stratigraphic Paleontology of Walpack Ridge, in 

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Whidborne, G. F. 

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1889 Fossils from the Hamilton Formation of Ontario. Contr. Can. Pal., v. 1, 

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1 89 1 Contributions to Invertebrate Paleontology. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., v. 5, 

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1895 Republication of Descriptions of Fossils from the Hall Collection in the 

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v. 1, pt. 2, p. 48, pi. 5, fig. 14 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 467 

Whitfield, R. P. —Continued, 

1905 Notice of a New Crinoid and a New Mollusk from the Portage Rocks of New 
York. Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., v. 21, art. 2, pp. 17-20, pis. 1-4 
Whitfield, R. P., & Hovey, E. O. 

1899 Catalogue of the Types and Figured Specimens in the Paleontological Col- 

lection of the Geological Department American Museum of Natural History. 
Bui. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. v. 11, pt. 2, Crinoidea, pp. 88-96 

1900 Op. and v. cit., pt. 3, Crinoidea, pp. 196-198 
Williams, H. S. 

1882 New Crinoids from the Rocks of the Chemung Period of New York State. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 34:17-34, pi. 1 

1883 On a Remarkable Fauna at the Base of the Chemung Group in New York. 

Amer. Jour. Sci. & Arts, v. 25, ser. 3, pp. 97-104 

1884 On a Crinoid with Movable Spines. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soo, v. 21 (for 1883) : 

81-88, plate, p. 87 
1884 On the Fossil Faunas of the Upper Devonian. Bui. U. S. Geol. Surv., no. 3, 
pp. 12, 19, 24 
Wirtgen, Ph. 

1854 Petrefakten des devonischen Systems zu Bertrich. Verhandl. naturhist. 
Ver. preuss, Rheinl. und Westphalens, 11:372-374 
Wirtgen, Ph., & Zeiler, F. 

1855a Bemerkungen tiber die Petrefacten der altern devonischen Gebirge am Rheine, 
insbesondere uber die in der Umgegend von Coblenz vorkommenden Arten. 
ser. cit., 12:1-28, pis. i-ga 
18556 Ueber die Echinodermen in der Umgegend von Coblenz und in dem Eifeler. 
Kalke. v. cit. pp. 79-85, pis. 10-12 
Wood, E. 

1901 A New Crinoid from the Hamilton of Charlestown, Indiana. Amer. Jour. 

Sci., ser. 4, 12:297-300, pi. 5 
1904 On New and Old Middle Devonic Crinoids. Smith. Misc. Coll. v. 47, no. 
1471, pp 56-84, pis. 15, 16 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



469 



LIST OF SPECIES ACCORDING TO LOCALITIES 



Alden (Erie co.) 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Megistocrinus depressus 
Alfred (Allegany co.) 

Eutaxocrinus pulcher 
Angola (Erie co.) 

Melocrinus clarkei 
Athol Springs (Erie co.) 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus 
Avoca (Steuben co.) 

Arthracantha granosa 

Catactocrinus leptodactylus 

Cradeocrinus elongatus 

Eutaxocrinus alpha 

Eutaxocrinus curtus 

Iteacrinus flagellum 

Iteacrinus robustus 
Bailey's landing (Perry co.), Mo. 

Edriocrinus pocilliformis 
Bainbridge (Ross co.), Ohio 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis 
Bath (Steuben co.) 

Arthracantha splendens 
Beargrass creek, Ky. 

Dolatocrinus ornatus 
Becraft Mt., Hudson (Columbia co.) 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis 

Edriocrinus becraftensis 
Bellona (Yates co.) 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Dolatocrinus insignis 

Dolatocrinus liratus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Megistocrinus depressus 



Bellona (Yates co.) 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus 

Saccocrinus (?) hamiltonensis 

Synaptocrinus nuntius 
Belmont (Allegany co.) 

Eutaxocrinus pulcher 
Bethany (Genesee co.) 

Thylacocrinus clarkei 
Big Sandy river (Benton co.), Term. 

Edriocrinus dispansus 
Binghamton (Broome co.) 

Eutaxocrinus amplus 

Melocrinus splendens 
Bloomfield (Ontario co.) 

Cyttarocrinus (?) jewetti 
Bridgewater (Oneida co.) 

Edriocrinus pyriformis 
Bristol (Ontario co.) 

Clarkeocrinus troosti 

Decadocrinus insolens 

Melocrinus clarkei 

Taxocrinus lobatus 
Caledonia (Livingston co.) 

Myrtillocrinus americanus 
Canandaigua (Ontario co.) 

Arthracantha eboracea 

Megistocrinus Ontario 

Thylacocrinus clarkei 
Canandaigua lake (Ontario co.) 

Acanthocrinus spinosus 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Aorocrinus cauliculus 

Aorocrinus praecursor 

Botryocrinus obconicus 



470 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Canandaigua lake (Ontario co.) — Contd. 

Comanthocrinus indianensis 

Deltacrinus clarus 

Dolatocrinus glyptus 

Dolatocrinus insignis 

Dolatocrinus liratus 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. parvulus 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis 

Logocrinus geniculatus 

Megistocrinus depressus 

Megistocrinus Ontario 

Melocrinus clarkei 

Melocrinus gracilis 

Poteriocrinus nassa 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus var. pernodosus 

Stylocrinus (?) canandaigua 

Thylacocrinus clarkei 
Cascade Mills, Dundee (Ontario co.) 

Aorocrinus longidactylus 
Cashong creek, Bellona (Yates co.) 

Aorocrinus armatus 

Aorocrinus f ormosus 

Botryocrinus sentosus 

Comanthocrinus indianensis 

Decadocrinus multinodosus 

Decadocrinus multinodosus var. serrato- 
brachiatus 

Dolatocrinus liratus 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus var. crassi- 
costatus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Logocrinus geniculatus 

Megistocrinus depressus 



Cashong creek, Bellona (Yates co.) — Contd. 

Melocrinus sp. nov. 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus 

Symbathocrinus subtrigonalis 

Thamnocrinus springeri 
Cazenovia (Madison co.) 

Acanthocrinus spinosus 
Charlestown, Ind. 

Botryocrinus americanus 

Comanthocrinus indianensis 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus 

Megistocrinus depressus 
Chemung Narrows (Chemung co.) 

Corematocrinus plumosus 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis ( ?) 

Glossocrinus naplesensis 

Logocrinus infundibuliformis 

Pterinocrinus quinquenodus 
Cherry Valley (Otsego co.) 

Craterocrinus ruedemanni 

Dolatocrinus lobatus 

Dolatocrinus marshi var. glaber 

Dolatocrinus ornatus 

Dolatocrinus speciosus 
Cheshire (Ontario co.) 

Clarkeocrinus troosti 
Clarence (Erie co.) 

Mictocrinus robustus 
Clarke co., Ind. 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Comanthocrinus indianensis 

Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus 
Clarksville (Albany co.) 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius 

Clidochirus schucherti 

Edriocrinus pocilhformis 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



471 



Clarksville (Albany co.) — Continued. 

Mariacrinus stoloniferus 
Cohocton (Steuben co.) 

Liparocrinus batheri 
Columbus, Ohio 

Dolatocrinus ornatus 
Cortland (Cortland co.) 

Melocrinus williamsi 
Cumberland, Md. 

Edriocrinus sacculus 

Edriocrinus holopoides 
Darien (Genesee co.) 

Dolatocrinus liratus 
Days Corners, near Litchfield (Herkimer co.) 

Cordylocrinus plumosus 
De Ruyter (Madison co.) 

Eutaxocrinus dumosus 
Dresden (Yates co.) 

Megistocrinus Ontario 
East Bethany (Genesee co.) 

Hypsocrinus fieldi 
Eastman's quarry (southeast of Utica) 

Edriocrinus pyriformis 
East Pike, East Koy creek (Genesee co.) 

Anamesocrinus lutheri 
Eighteen Mile creek (Erie co.) 

Acacocrinus pentadactylus 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa 

Megistocrinus depressus 

Melocrinus breviradiatus 

Synaptocrinus nuntius 
Elmira (Chemung co.) Along road, Watkins 
to Elmira 

Anamesocrinus lutheri 



Erie, Pa. 

Poteriocrinus clarkei 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha 
Fall Brook, Geneseo (Livingston co.) 

Corocrinus ornatus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa 
Falls of Ohio, Louisville, Ky. 

Arachnocrinus extensus 

Comanthocrinus priscus 

Dolatocrinus lamellosus 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus 

Gennaeocrinus kentuckiensis 

Megistocrinus depressus 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus 
Fillmore (Allegany co.) 

Anamesocrinus lutheri 
Frankstown, Pa. 

Sphaerotocrinus ornatus 
Geneseo (Livingston co.) 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Dolatocrinus liratus 
Glenerie (Ulster co.) 

Ancyrocrinus quinquepartitus 

Edriocrinus sacculus 
Hamburg (Erie co.) 

Cyttarocrinus eriensis 

Synaptocrinus nuntius 
Hamilton (Madison co.) 

Arthracantha eboracea 
Haskinsville (Steuben co.) 

Poteriocrinus clarkei 
Helderberg Mountains 

Aspidocrinus callosus 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius 



472 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Helderberg Mountains — Continued. 

Clonocrinus (?) macropetalus 

Edriocrinus pocilliformis 
Highland Mills (Orange co.) 

Lasiocrinus (?) schohariensis 
Honeoye lake (Ontario co.) 

Melocrinus clarkei 
Hopewell (Ontario co.) 

Dolatocrinus glyptus 
Ithaca (Tompkins co.) 

Arthracantha ithacensis 

Charientocrinus ithacensis 

Decadocrinus gregarius 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus 

Eutaxocrinus alpha 

Eutaxocrinus curtus 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis 

Glossocrinus cornellianus 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) harrisi 

Melocrinus reticularis 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var. alpha 

Poteriocrinus zethus 
Jaycox's run (Livingston co.) 

Corocrinus (?) carypso 

Dimerocrinus whitfieldi 
Jerusalem hill (Herkimer co.) 

Cordylocrinus plumosus 

Cordylocrinus (?) ramulosus 

Lasiocrinus scoparius 

Melocrinus pachydactylus 

Melocrinus paucidactylus 
Killawog (Broome co.) 

Decadocrinus killawogensis 
Lake Erie (Erie co.) 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 
Laona (Chautauqua co.) 

Anamesocrinus lutheri 



Leicester (Livingston co.) 
Dolatocrinus liratus 

Le Roy (Genesee co.) 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus 
Arachnocrinus extensus 
Arachnocrinus ignotus 
Comanthocrinus priscus 
Myrtillocrinus americanus 
Myrtillocrinus (?) levis 
Schultzicrinus (?) elongatus 
Schultzicrinus typus 

Lima (Livingston co.) 

Halysiocrinus secundus 

Limerock (Genesee co.) 

Acanthocrinus onondaga 
Arachnocrinus bulbosus 
Arachnocrinus extensus 
Aspidocrinus onondagensis 
Schultzicrinus typus 
Symbathocrinus sulcatus 

Litchfield (Herkimer co.) 
Cordylocrinus plumosus 
Cordylocrinus ramulosus 
Lasiocrinus scoparius 
Mariacrinus plumosus 
Mariacrinus ramosus 
Melocrinus nobilissimus 
Melocrinus paucidactylus 

Livonia salt shaft (Livingston co.) 
Arthracantha eboracea 
Dolatocrinus insignis 
Dolatocrinus liratus 
Megistocrinus depressus 
Megistocrinus Ontario 

Ludlowville (Cayuga co.) 
Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



473 



Manlius (Onondaga co.) 

Haplocrinus clio 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Melocrinus nodosus 
Montour Falls (Schuyler co.) 

Eutaxociinus ithacensis 
Morris (Otsego co.) 

Decadocrinus decemnodosus 
Moscow (Livingston co.) 

Arthracantha eboracea 

Gennaeocrinus peculiaris 
Mount Morris (Livingston co.) 

Hallocrinus ornatissimus 
Naples (Ontario co.) 

Arthracantha granosa 

Corematocrinus plumosus 

Decadocrinus killawogensis 

Decadocrinus rugistriatus 

Glossocrinus naplesensis 

Melocrinus clarkei 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus ?) lutheri 

Melocrinus naplesensis 

Melocrinus sp. (?) 
North Bristol (Ontario co.) 

Decadocrinus nereus 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa 

Megistocrinus depressus 

Megistocrinus Ontario 

Thylacocrinus gracilis 
North Evans (Erie co.) 

Melocrinus clarkei 
North Litchfield (Herkimer co.) 

Cordylocrinus plumosus 

Dimerocrinus arborescens 

Lasiocrinus scoparius 

Mariacrinus beecheri 



North Litchfield (Herkimer co.) — Contd. 

Melocrinus nobilissimus 

Melocrinus pachydactylus 

Melocrinus paucidactylus 
Norton's landing, Cayuga lake 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 
Oneida co. 

Edriocrinus pyriformis 
Ontario, Canada 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus 

Arthracantha carpenteri 

Botryocrinus crassus 

Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus 
Ontario co. 

Botryocrinus nycteus 

Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus 
Owasco lake (Cayuga co.) 

Botryocrinus concinnus 

Poteriocrinus (?) dignatus 
Pavilion (Genesee co.) 

Dolatocrinus glyptus 
Port Dover, Ontario 

Arachnocrinus ignotus 
Portland (Erie co.) 

Hallocrinus ornatissimus 

Maragnicrinus portlandicus 
Schoharie (Schoharie co.) 

Aspidocrinus callosus 

Aspidocrinus digitatus 

Aspidocrinus scutelliformis 

Brachiocrinus nodosarius 

Clidochirus schucherti 

Clonocrinus (?) macropetalus 

Cordylocrinus plumosus 

Craterocrinus schoharie 



474 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



Schoharie (Schoharie co.) — Continued. 

Edriocrinus pocilhformis 

Himerocrinus (?) polydactylus 

Mariacrinus plumosus 

Mariacrinus stoloniferus 

Marsipocrinus tentaculatus 

Melocrinus pachydactylus 
Schoharie co. 

Arachnocrinus extensus 

Dolatocrinus speciosus 
Seneca lake 

Megistocrinus Ontario 
Skaneateles lake, Borodino (Onondaga co.) 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 
South Otselic (Chenango co.) 

Cradeocrinus pergracilis 

Eutaxocrinus ithacensis 
Stafford (Genesee co.) 

Arachnocrinus bulbosus 

Arachnocrinus ignotus 
Steuben co. 

Arthracantha depressa 
Thedford, Ontario 

Ancyrocrinus bulbosus 

Arthracantha carpenteri 

Botryocrinus crassus 

Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus 
Thompson's lake (Albany co.) 

Dolatocrinus speciosus 
Tracy Creek (Broome co.) 

Liparocrinus halli 



Tully (Onondaga co.) 

Dolatocrinus liratus 
Utica (Eastman's quarry, southeast of) 

Edriocrinus pyriformis 
Vincent (Ontario co.) 

Acanthocrinus spinosus 

Aorocrinus cauliculus 

Botryocrinus nycteus 

Clarkeocrinus troosti 

Decadocrinus nereus 

Gennaeocrinus eucharis 

Gennaeocrinus nyssa 

Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus 

Megistocrinus depressus 

Poteriocrinus (?) diffusus 

Thylacocrinus clarkei 
Wallace, Steuben co. 

Arthracantha granosa ? 

Arthracantha ithacensis ? 
Western New York 

Arthracantha punctobrachiata 

Dolatocrinus lamellosus 
Willet (Cortland co.) 

Melocrinus willetensis 

Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus 
Worcester (Otsego co.) 

Gennaeocrinus decorus 
York (Livingston co.) 

Arthracantha eboracea 

Dolatocrinus glyptus 

Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius 



INDEX OF GENERA 



In this index are also included orders, families, subfamilies and subgenera; and the 
species are alphabetically listed under the genera. Synonyms and nomina nuda are given 
in italics. 



Acacocrinus 200 

pentadactylus 200 

Acanthocrinus 92 

onondaga 94 

spinosus 92 

Anamesocrinidae 323 

Anamesocrinus : 323 

lutheri 324 

Ancyrocrinus 456 

bulbosus 456 

quinquepartitus 458 

Aorocr inus 248 

armatus % . 255 

cauliculus 249 

formosus 259 

longidactylus . 262 

( ?) pocillum 232 

praecursor 253 

Arachnocrinus 3 53 

bulbosus 353 

extensus 355 

ignotus 357 

Arthracantha 279 

carpenteri 288 

depressa 295 

eboracea 279 

granosa 298 

ithacensis 292 

punctobrachiata 285 

splendens 302 

475 



Aspiodocrinus 442 

callosus 444 

digitatus .* 443 

onondagensis 444 

scutelliformis 442 

Batocrinidae 200 

Batocrininae 248 

Botryocrinidae 363 

Botryocrinus 363 

americanus 367 

concinnus 369 

crassus 365 

nycteus 363 

obconicus 371 

sentosus 372 

Brachiocrinus 332 

nodosarius 332 

Camerata 83 

Carabocrininae 3 40 

Catactocrinus 405 

leptodactylus 405 

Charientocrinus 402 

ithacensis 402 

Clarkeocrinus 179 

troosti 181 

Clidochirus 305 

schucherti 305 

Clonocrinus 153 

( ?) macropetalus 1 53 



476 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



PAGE 



Comanthocrinus 190 

indianensis 192 

priscus 197 

Cordylocrinus 273 

parvus 275 

plumosus 273 

(?) ramulosus 276 

Corematocrinus 434 

plumosus 43 5 

Corocrinus 202 

( ?) calypso 205 

ornatus 203 

Cradeocrinus 347 

elongatus 348 

pergracilis 3 50 

Craterocrinus 185 

ruedemanni 186 

schoharie 189 

Cremacrinidae 334 

Ctenocrinus 116 

typus 116 

Cyathocrinidae 340 

Cyttarocrinus 265 

eriensis 268 

(?) jewetti 271 

Decadocrinus 419 

decemnodosus 424 

gregarius 421 

insolens 426 

killawogensis 428 

multinodosus 429 

multinodosus var. serratobrachia- 

tus 431 

nereus 419 

rugistriatus 432 



Deltacrinus 334 

clarus 334 

Dimerocrinidae 83 

Dimerocrinus 83 

arborescens 83 

whitfieldi 85 

Dolatocrinites 153 

Dolatocrinus . 155 

glyptus 155 

glyptus var. intermedius 157 

insignis 174 

lamellosus 164 

liratus 158 

liratus var. multilira 162 

liratus var. parvulus 164 

lobatus 176 

marshi var. glaber 173 

ornatus 170 

speciosus 168 

Edriocrinidae 445 

Edriocrinus 445 

becraftensis 453 

dispansus 453 

holop-iides 455 

pocilliformis 447 

pyriformis 451 

sacculus 448 

Encrinites 148 

triciclas 148 

Eutaxocrinus 309 

alpha 311 

amplus 316 

curtus 313 

dumosus 317 

ithacensis 309 

pulcher 314 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



477 



Fistulata 332 

Flexibilia 305 

Gasterocominae 351 

Gennaeocrinus 334 

carinatus 334 

carinatus var. crassicostatus 222 

decorus 223 

eucharis 212 

kentuckiensis 208 

nyssa 216 

peculiaris 225 

Gilbertsocrinus 96 

indianensis 98 

spinigerus 96 

Glossocrinidae 389 

Glossocrinus 389 

cornellianus 394 

naplesensis 390 

Hallocrinus 374 

ornatissimus 374 

Halysiocrinus 337 

secundus 337 

Haplocrinidae 326 

Haplocrinus 326 

clio 326 

Heterocrinidae 332 

Hexacrinidae 279 

Himerocrinus 198 

polydactylus 199 

Hypsocrinus 322 

fieldi 322 

Ichthyocrinidae 305 

Inadunata 332 

Incertae sedis. . .• 442 

Iteacrinus 344 

flagellum 345 

robustus 347 



Larviformia 322 

Lasiocrinus 340 

(?) schohariensis 343 

scoparius 340 

tenuis 342 

Liparocrinus 397 

batheri 397 

halli 400 

Logocrinus 43 7 

geniculatus 438 

infundibuliformis 440 

Maragnicrinus 384 

portlandicus 384 

Mariacrinus 109 

beecheri 114 

plumosus 109 

ramosus in 

stoloniferus 113 

Marsipocrinus 277 

tentaculatus 277 

Megistocrinus 226 

depressus 226 

Ontario 234 

ornatus 233 

Melocrinidae 108 

Melocrinites 108 

Melocrinus 115 

bainbridgensis 130 

breviradiatus 127 

clarkei 132 

gracilis 136 

naplesensis 140 

nobilissimus 117 

nodosus 125 

pachydactylus 119 

paucidactylus 122 

reticularis 137 



47S 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



sp. (?) 142 

sp. nov 142 

splendens 144 

willetensis 146 

willetensis var. perstriatus 147 

williamsi 138 

Melocrinus (Ctenocrinus) 116 

typus : 116 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) 148 

harrisi 148 

(?) lutheri 149 

Mictocrinus 361 

robustus 362 

Myrtillocrinus 358 

americanus 358 

(?) levis 360 

Periechocrininae 200 

Pisocrinidae 322 

Platycrinidae 265 

Poteriocrinidae 40S 

Poteriocrininae 408 

Poteriocrinus 40S 

clarkei 412 

clarkei var. alpha . 414 

(?) diffusus 408 

(?) dignatus 416 

indentiis 418 

nassa 410 

veriiciUus 418 

zethus 414 

Pterinocrinus 86 

quinquenodus 87 

Rhodocrinidae 89 



Rhodocrinus 89 

nodulosus 89 

nodulosus var. pernodosus 91 

Saccocrinus 206 

(?) hamiltonerisis 207 

Sagenocrinoidea 305 

Schultzicrinus 351 

(?) elongatus 352 

typus 351 

Sphaerotocrinus 99 

ornatus 99 

Stylocrinus 331 

( ?) canandaigua 331 

Symbathocrinidae 328 

Symbathocrinus 328 

matutinus 330 

subtrigonalis 328 

sulcatus 329 

Synaptocrinus 307 

nuntius 307 

Taxocrinidae 309 

Taxocrinoidea 309 

Taxocrinus 318 

communis 319 

lobatus 319 

Thamnccrinus 243 

springeri 243 

Thylacocrinus 102 

clarkei 105 

gracilis 102 

Trichotocrinus 148 

harrisi 148 

( ?) lutheri 149 



INDEX OF SPECIES 



In this index the names of the varieties are listed as species. The genera are listed 
under the specific names belonging to them. Where possible synonyms and nomina nuda 
are given in italics. 



alpha. 

Eutaxocrinus 311' 

Poteriocrinus clarkei var 414 

americanus . 

Botryocrinus 367 

Myrtillocrinus 358 

amplus . 

Eutaxocrinus 316 

arborescens . 

Dimerocrinus 83 

arm at us. 

Aorocrinus 255 

bainbridgensis . 

Melocrinus 130 

batheri . 

Liparocrinus 397 

becraf tensis . 

Edriocrinus 453 

beecheri . 

Mariacrinus 114 

breviradiatus . 

Melocrinus 127 

bulbosus . 

Ancyrocrinus 456 

Arachnocrinus 353 

callosus. 

Aspidocrinus 444 

calypso . 

( ?) Corocrinus 205 



canandaigua . 

( ?) Stylocrinus 331 

carinatus . 

Gennaeocrinus 334 

carpenteri. 

Arthracantha 288 

cauliculus . 

Aorocrinus 249 

clarkei . 

Melocrinus 132 

Poteriocrinus 412 

Thylacocrinus 105 

clarus . 

Deltacrinus 334 

clio. 

Haplocrinus 326 

communis . 

Taxocrinus 319 

concinnus . 

Botryocrinus 369 

cornellianus . 

Glossocrinus 394 

crassicostatus . 

Gennaeocrinus carinatus var 222 

crassus . 

Botryocrinus 365 

curtus . 

Eutaxocrinus 313 



479 



480 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



PAGE 



decemnodosus . 

Decadocrinus 424 

decorus . 

Gennaeocrinus 223 

depressa, us. 

Arthracantha 295 

Megistocrinus 226 

diffusus . 

( ?) Poteriocrinus 408 

digitatus . 

Aspidocrinus 443 

dignatus . 

(?) Poteriocrinus 416 

dispansus . 

Edriocrinus 453 

dumosus . 

Eutaxocrinus 317 

eboracea . 

Arthracantha 279 

eriensis . 

Cyttarocrinus 268 

elongatus . 

Cradeocrinus 348 

(?) Schultzicrinus 352 

eucharis . 

Gennaeocrinus 212 

extensus . 

Arachnocrinus 355 

fieldi. 

Hypsocrinus 322 

flagellum. 

Iteacrinus 345 

f ormosus . 

Aorocrinus 259 

geniculatus . 

Logocrinus 438 



glaber. 

Dolatocrinus marshi var 173 

glyptus. 

Dolatocrinus 155 

gracilis . 

Melocrinus 136 

Thylacocrinus 102 

granosa. 

Arthracantha 298 

gregarius. 

Decadocrinus 421 

halli. 

Liparocrinus 400 

hamiltonensis . 

(?) Saccocrinus 207 

harrisi. 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) 148 

holopoides . 

Edriocrinus 455 

ignotus. 

Arachnocrinus 357 

indentus. 

Poteriocrinus 418 

indianensis. 

Gilbertsocrinus 98 

Comanthocrinus 192 

inf undibulif ormis . 

Logocrinus 440 

insignis . 

Dolatocrinus 174 

insolens. 

Decadocrinus 426 

intermedins . 

Dolatocrinus glyptus var 157 

ithacensis. 

Arthracantha 292 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



481 



Charientocrinus 402 

Eutaxocrinus 309 

jewetti. 

( ?) Cyttarocrinus 271 

kentuckiensis. 

Gennaeocrinus 208 

killawogensis. 

Decadocrinus 428 

lamellosus. 

Dolatocrinus 164 

leptodactylus. 

Catactocrinus 405 

levis. 

( ?) Myrtillocrinus 360 

liratus. 

Dolatocrinus 158 

lobatus. 

Dolatocrinus 176 

Taxocrinus 319 

longidactylus. 

Aorocrinus 262 

lutheri. 

Anamesocrinus 324 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus ?).... 149 
macropetalus. 

(?) Clonocrinus 153 

matutinus. 

Symbathocrinus 330 

multilira. 

Dolatocrinus liratus var 162 

multinodosus. 

Decadocrinus 429 

naplesensis. 

Glossocrinus 390 

Melocrinus 140 

nassa. 

Poteriocrinus 410 

31 



nereus. 

Decadocrinus 419 

nobilissimus. 

Melocrinus 117 

nodosarius. 

Brachiocrinus 332 

nodosus. 

Melocrinus 125 

nodulosus. 

Rhodocrinus 89 

nuntius. 

Synaptocrinus 307 

nycteus. 

Botryocrinus 363 

nyssa. 

Gennaeocrinus 216 

obconicus. 

Botryocrinus 371 

onondaga. 

Acanthocrinus 94 

onondagensis. 

Aspidocrinus 444 

Ontario. 

Megistocrinus 234 

ornatissimus. 

Hallocrinus 374 

ornatus. 

Corocrinus 203 

Dolatocrinus 170 

Megistocrinus 233 

Sphaerotocrinus 99 

pachydactylus. 

Melocrinus 119 

parvulus. 

Dolatocrinus liratus var 164 

parvus. 

Cordylocrinus 275 



482 



NEW YORK STATE MUSEUM 



paucidactylus. 

Melocrinus 122 

peculiaris. 

Gennaeocrinus 225 

pentadactylus. 

Acacocrinus 200 

pergracilis. 

Cradeocrinus 350 

pernodosus. 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus var 91 

perstriatus. 

Melocrinus willetensis var 147 

plumosus. 

Cordylocrinus 273 

Corematocrinus 435 

Mariacrinus 109 

pocilliformis. 

Edriocrinus 447 

pocillum. 

(?) Aorocrinus 232 

polydactylus. 

(?) Himerocrinus 199 

portlandicus. 

Maragnicrinus 384 

praecursor. 

Aorocrinus 2^3 

priscus. 

Comanthocrinus 197 

pulcher. 

Eutaxocrinus 314 

punctobrachiata . 

Arthracantha 285 

pyriformis. 

Edriocrinus 45 1 

quinquenodus. 

Pterinocrinus 87 



quinquepartitus . 

Ancyrocrinus 458 

ramosus. 

Mariacrinus in 

ramulosus. 

(?) Cordylocrinus 276 

reticularis. 

Melocrinus 137 

robustus. 

Iteacrinus 347 

Mictocrinus 362 

ruedemanni . 

Craterocrinus 186 

rugistriatus. 

Decadocrinus 43 2 

sacculus. 

Edriocrinus 448 

schoharie. 

Craterocrinus 189 

schohariensis. 



( ?) Lasiocrinus 343 

schucherti. 

Clidochirus 305 

scoparius. 

Lasiocrinus 340 

scutelliformis. 

Aspidocrinus 442 

secundus. 

Halysiocrinus 337 

sentosus, 

Botryocrinus 372 

serratobrachiatus . 

Decadocrinus multinodosus var . . . 43 1 

sp. (?)• 

Melocrinus 142 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS OF NEW YORK 



483 



sp. nov. 

Melocrinus 142 

speciosus. 

Dolatocrinus 168 

spinigerus. 

Gilbertsocrinus 96 

spinosus. 

Acanthocrinus 92 

splendens. 

Arthracantha 302 

Melocrinus 144 

springeri. 

Thamnocrinus 243 

stoloniferus. 

Mariacrinus 113 

subtrigonalis. 

Symbathocrinus 328 

sulcatus. 

Symbathocrinus 329 

tentaculatus. 

Marsipocrinus 277 



PAGE 



•tenuis. 

Lasiocrinus 342 

triciclas. 

Encrinites 148 

troosti. 

Clarkeocrinus 181 

typus . 

Melocrinus (Ctenocrinus) 116 

Schultzicrinus 351 

verticillus. 

Poteriocrinus 418 

whitfieldi. 

Dimerocrinus 85 

willetensis . 

Melocrinus 146 

williamsi . 

Melocrinus 138 

zethus. 

Poteriocrinus 414 



EXPLANATIONS OF PLATES 

PLATE i 

485 



Genus DIMEROCRINUS Phillips 
Dimerocrinus arborescens (Talbot) n. comb. 

Page 83 

1 Posterolateral view of the type. Collection Yale University Museum 
Coeymans limestone, Litchfield 

Dimerocrinus whitfieldi sp. nov. 

Page 85 

2 Lateral view. Collection American Museum Natural History, number 

, marked as type of Actinocrinus (Gennaeocrinus) 

eucharis Hall 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Jaycox's run between Geneseo and Avon 

Genus PTERINOCRINUS nov. 
Pterinocrinus quinquenodus sp. nov. 

Page 87 

3 Lateral view of a specimen showing regular interradii and the character 

of the proximal portion of the amis 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

4 Similar view of a younger specimen. A few of the tegminal plates are 

shown 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

5 Specimen showing posterior side (x 2) 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

6 Fragment of a very large specimen, showing an abnormal condition in 

which the primary interbrachial comes down between the radials and 
rests upon the truncated basal 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

7 Lateral view of specimen showing the bifurcations of the right arm of a 

ray and the unbranched left arm 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

8 Fragment of a ray showing the less usual condition of an unbranched 

right arm and a bifurcating left arm 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 
9, 10 Fragments of arms showing the uniserial character and the long, 

slender pinnules 
Lower Chemung, Chemung Narrows 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 
Figures 3-10 were drawn from squeezes. Figure 1 was made from an 
enlarged photograph and wax impressions 

486 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 1 




G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 2 

487 



Genus RHODOCRINUS J. S. Miller 
Rhodocrinus nodulosus Hall 

Page 89 

1 Lateral view of a mature specimen showing nodose plates and obscure 

radiating ridges. Hall's type, number ^ — 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

2 Lateral view of another specimen showing nodes well only on higher 

plates. In the interradius at the right the primary interbrachial 
does not meet the basal Collection of Doctor Springer 
Hamilton shale, Falls of Ohio, Louisville, Ky. 

3 Posterior view of a specimen showing the ornamentation very well. 

Collection of Doctor Springer 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Cashong creek 

4 Posterior view of a very young specimen. The basal nodes are very 

prominent even at this stage 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

5 Lateral view of an old specimen showing the disappearance of the orna- 

mentation. Nodes more conspicuous on the basals, less so on the 
other plates; the radiating ridges have practically disappeared. 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

Rhodocrinus nodulosus var. pernodosus nov. 

Page 91 

6 Lateral view (right posterior ray), showing the dorsal cup less spread- 

ing than in R. nodulosus and the very prominent nodes 
which are almost spinose on the basals 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

Genus ACANTHOCRINUS Roemer 
Acanthocrinus spinosus (Hall) n. comb. 

Page 92 

7 Lateral view showing long spines and sharply recumbent arms. Hall's 

type, number ^ . " 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

8 Basal view of another specimen. Hall's type, number — — 

4 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

9 Lateral view of the same specimen 

488 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 2 



10 



12 



' 







% 







M 






r-^ 







G. S. Barkentin del. 



io Left anterolateral view of a very well preserved calyx, showing a 
Platyceras attached at the anal side. Collection of Ernest 
Brown, Rochester, N. Y. 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Menteth's point, Canandaigua lake 
ii Lateral view of a crushed and distorted specimen of which the calyx 
was difficult to figure. Introduced to show the sharply recumbent 
character of the arms and for this reason drawn reversed to bring out 
the effect better. 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

Acanthocrinus onondaga sp. nov. 

Page 94 

12 Lateral view of a crushed specimen showing the basal spines and erect 
ar,ms 
Onondaga limestone, Limerock 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

489 



PLATE 3 
491 



Genus GILBERTSOCRINUS Phillips 
Gilbertsocrinus spinigerus (Hall) 

Page 96 

1 Lateral view of a specimen (x 2) showing the tubular interradial append- 

ages. The spines on the primary interbrachials were evidently 
removed in cleaning. The base of one is shown on the opposite side. 

Hall's type, number x_x_ 

2 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

2 Lateral view of a crushed specimen which shows the spines on the primary 

interbrachials. Hall's type, number 4_1_ 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

3 Anterior side of a very well preserved calyx. Collection of Doctor Springer 
Hamilton beds, Clark county, Ind. 

4 Posterior view of the same specimen 

5 Tegmen (x 2) of the same specimen (oriented incorrectly) 

6 Lateral view of another specimen showing the length of the spines. Col- 

lection of Doctor Springer 
Hamilton beds, Clark county, Ind. 

Genus SPHAEROTOCRINUS nov. 
Sphaerotocrinus ornatus sp. nov. 

Page 99 

7 Anterior side (x 3) 

Lewistown limestone (Lower Helderberg) , Frankstown, Pa. 

8 Basal view of the same specimen (x 3) 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

492 



DEVONIAN GRINOIDS 

Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 3 




G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 4 
493 



Genus THYLACOCRINUS Oehlert 
Thylacocrinus clarkei W. & Sp. 

Page 105 

1 Dorsal view of a very perfect specimen. The column shown at the right 

is the proximal part of the column of the species, if not the individual 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Vincent 

2 Lateral view of a badly crushed specimen, the type of the species, number 

456o 
1 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

3 Basolateral view of a very large specimen showing the ornamentation 
Hamilton (Lower Moscow) shale, Bethany 

4 Distal portion of a column showing the pentagonal outline due to the 

filling up of the reentrant angles seen in the stellate proximal portion 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

Thylacocrinus gracilis (Hall) n. comb. 

Page 102 

5 Lateral view of the type specimen, an immature individual. The middle 

ray in the figure shows five arms instead of the usual four. Hall's 

type, number ^ — 

1 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, North Bristol 

All the originals in the State Museum 

494 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Rate 4 





' 



* 



1 








G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 5 
495 



Genus MARIACRINUS Hall 
Mariacrinus plumosus Hall 

Page 109 

1 Lateral view (x 2) of one of Hall's cotypes, number 43 — 

Coeymans limestone, Wheelock's hill, Litchfield 

2 Lateral view (x 2) of a larger specimen which has been so weathered 

that the ornamentation is scarcely visible 
Coeymans limestone, Schoharie 

Mariacrinus ramosus Hall 

Page in 

3 Posterolateral view (x 2) showing the proximal part of the anal tube. 

Hall's type, number 43 — 

1 

Coeymans limestone, Wheelock's hill, Litchfield 

4 Posterolateral view (x 2) of a smaller specimen with part of the dorsal 

cup broken away 
Coeymans limestone, Wheelock's hill, Litchfield 

Mariacrinus beecheri Talbot 

Page 114 

5 Posterolateral and lateral views (x 2) of the cotypes. Collection of 

Yale University Museum 
Coeymans limestone, North Litchfield 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

496 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 5 







■ 




G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 6 
497 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus nobilissimus (Hall) 

Page 117 

i Posterolateral view of Hall's type. Collection of American Museum 
Natural History, number — zL 

Coeymans limestone, Litchfield 

2 Dorsal cup of the same specimen showing more of the posterior interradius 

3 Portion of an arm of another specimen (x 2). Collection State Museum 
Coeymans limestone, Litchfield 

498 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 6 






■Ss. 





•G. S. Barkentin del 



PLATE 7 
499 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus nobilissimus (Hall) 

Page 117 

Photographic reproduction (natural size) of portion of slab contain- 
ing stems and crowns. Collection of Yale University Museum; type of 
Talbot, 1905 

Coeymans limestone, North Litchfield 

500 







I 



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PLATE 8 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus pachydactylus (Conrad) 



Paere 119 



1 Lateral view of one of the types of Hall's description showing a large 

part of the crown and several centimeters of column. Collection of 
Walker Museum, University of Chicago, number 10876 
Coeymaiis limestone, Schoharie 

2 Lateral view of another of Hall's types, showing the ornamentation 

of the cup very well and the proximal portion of the arms. Collection 
of Walker Museum, University of Chicago, number 10877 
Coeymans limestone, Schoharie 

3 The aims of a third type. Collection of American Museum Natural 

History, number 2304 
Coeymans limestone, Schoharie 

4 Portion of a dorsal cup showing the ornamentation well. Collection of 

State Museum 
Coeymans limestone, Schoharie 

Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 

Page 122 

5 Lateral view of a very beautifully preserved specimen, showing the 

greater part of the crown and several centimeters of stem. Collection 
of Yale University; type of Talbot, 1905 
Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill, Litchfield 

502 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



iMemoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 8 




G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 9 

503 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 



Page 122 



Figures i-io, and figure 5 on plate 8 constitute an ontogenetic series. 
Figures 1-8 occur on a slab of Coeymans limestone from Jerusalem hill, 
Litchfield, a photographic reproduction of which is shown on plate 10. 
Figures 9 and 10 are from the same locality. The slab on which figure 

9 occurs is shown on plate 11 in photographic reproduction. As shown 
by the series, the chief differences between the young and adult forms are 
in the character of the arms, strength of the ornamentation and relative 
size of the basals. (See page 123.) 

1 Posterior view of a very young specimen showing the simple arms 

and the short armlets given off by the secundaxils on the inner side. 
Basals comparatively large (x 3) 

2 Lateral view of a specimen showing the same characteristics (x 3) 

3 Lateral view of another, similar specimen in which the inner armlets 

are either not well preserved or not well developed (x 2) 

4 Lateral view of a specimen showing four arms to the ray; the inner 

branched, the outer unbranched (x 3) 

5 Posterolateral view of another specimen showing similar arm characters 

(x 2) 

6 Lateral view of a specimen in which the two inner arms of each ray 

are united in their proximal parts in some of the rays 
7, 8 Lateral views of two young specimens (x 2), showing the union 

of the two inner arms of each ray to form the typical, compound 

Melocrinus arm. The outer arms correspond to the auxiliary 

arms of the adult 
9 Lateral view of an older specimen, showing the adult characters 

10 Lateral view of the calyx of an adult specimen, of which another example 

is shown on plate 8, figure 5. Collection of Yale University Museum 
Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill, Litchfield 

11 Lateral view of Hall's type (After Hall 1859) 
Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill, Litchfield 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

504 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 9 




G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE io 

505 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 

Page 122 

Photographic reproduction, natural size, of a slab of rock containing 
ontogenetic stages, enlargements of some of which are shown on plate 9, 
figures 1-8. Collection of State Museum 

Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill, Litchfield 

506 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 10 



>•#'• 







m 



PLATE ii 

507 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus paucidactylus (Hall) 

Page 122 

Photographic reproduction, natural size, of a slab containing a group 
of adult forms, one of which is figured in the ontogenetic series on plate 
9, figure 9. The distal extremities of the columns are coiled, as is often 
seen in forms which have become detached during the life of the individual. 
Collection of State Museum 

Coeymans limestone, Jerusalem hill, Litchfield 

5(18 



-♦— • 

a. 



G 
2 



CO 



o 

s 

2 











PLATE 12 
509 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus (Ctenocrinus) typus (Bronn) 

Page 116 

1 Lateral view of the type specimen. Introduced here for comparison 

with the other species of Melocrinus with uniserial arms. 
Figured from a squeeze in the collection of Doctor Springer 
Lower Devonian, Grauwacke, Siegan, Germany 

Melocrinus nodosus (Hall) 

Page 12S 

2 View of anterior side of calyx of type. Collection of American Museum 

Natural History, number 5579 

Hamilton beds, Milwaukee, Wis. 

3 Posterior side of the same specimen 

4 View of anterior side of a very young specimen. Collection of American 

Museum Natural History, number MZz 

i 

Hamilton beds, Milwaukee, Wis. 

Melocrinus bainbridgensis Hall & Whitfield 

Page 130 

5 Basal view of the calyx of the type. Collection of Ohio University, 

number 3965 
Huron shale, Bainb ridge, Ross county, Ohio 

6 Left anterolateral view of the same specimen 

7 Fragment of an arm trunk showing the uniserial arms. Type. Collection 

of Ohio State University, number 3963 
Huron shale, Bainbridge, Ross county, Ohio 

8 Proximal portions of columns. Type. Collection of Ohio State Uni- 

versity, number 3964 
Huron shale, Bainbridge, Ross county, Ohio 

9 Distal portions of columns. Type. Collection of Ohio State University, 

number 3962 
Huron shale, Bainbridge, Ross county, Ohio 

510 



DEVONIAN GRINOIDS 

Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 12 




U. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 13 
511 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus breviradiatus Hall 

Page 127 

1 Basal view of the type. Jewett Collection, Cornell University, number 

7330 
Hamilton (Moscow ?) shale, Eighteen Mile creek 

2 Anterior view of the calyx of the same specimen 

Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

Page 132 

3 Part of a crushed crown from the original slab, showing two rays. 

Type, number i<2x_ ( see plate 14) 

Genesee (West River) shale, Bell's gully, Canandaigua lake 

4 Basal view of another specimen from the same slab, showing parts of 

four arms. Type, number i^A_ (see plate 14) 

5 Basolateral view of the dorsal cup of a specimen showing the delicate 

ornamentation. Drawn from a gutta-percha squeeze 
Portage (Cashaqua shale) beds, Eighteen Mile creek, North Evans 

Melocrinus gracilis Wachsmuth & Springer 

Page 136 

6 Lateral view of the type specimen, number iM_ ; showing the highly 

arched tegmen J 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

512 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 13 




G. S. Bar<eritin del. 



PLATE 14 
513 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus clarkei (Hall Ms) Williams 

Page 132 

Photographic reproduction, about one-half natural size, of the original 
slab from which the type material was described {see plate 13, figures 3, 4). 
Collection of State Museum 

Genesee (West River) shale, Bell's gully, Canandaigua lake 

514 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. Slate Museum. 



Plate 14 



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PLATE 15 

515 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus reticularis Olsson 

Page 137 

1 Lateral view of dorsal cup, exterior impression. After Olsson, 191 2, 

plate 7, figure 1 ; original not located 
Portage (Ithaca) beds, McGraw or University quarry, Ithaca 

Melocrinus williamsi Olsson 

Page 138 

2 Lateral view of calyx showing a portion of the anal tube. After Olsson, 

191 2, plate 6, figure 3; original not located 
Portage (Ithaca) beds, near Cortland 

Melocrinus naplesensis sp. nov. 

Page 140 

3 Lateral view of calyx and column of an adult specimen 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

4 Posterolateral view of a young specimen from the same locality. 

5 A very young Melocrinus which may be the young 'of M . 

naplesensis (x 2) 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

Melocrinus sp. (?) 

Page 142 

6 Another young specimen (x 3) on the same slab with figure 5. No 

possible relationships of this specimen have been determined. Note 
the parasitic gastropod 

Melocrinus sp. nov. 

Page 142 

7 Dorsolateral view of an arm trunk, showing the spines on the main 

trunk and the uniserial arms 
Hamilton (Moscdw) shale, Cashong creek, near Bellona 

8 Portion of a column from the same locality. This type of column is 

found associated with the arm figured and with other arm fragments of 
the same type, and probably belongs to this species 

9 An enlargement (x 2) of a section of the same specimen, showing the 

crenulate edges of the columnals 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 

516 



DEVONIAN GRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 15 






. 






- 









•A, ' > 









G. S. Barkentin del. 



PLATE 16 
517 



Genus MELOCRINUS Goldfuss 
Melocrinus splendens sp. nov. 

Page 144 

i -Lateral view of a specimen showing ornamentation and character of 
arms. Collection of University of Chicago, Walker Museum, num- 
ber 12926 
Chemung beds, Binghamton 

Melocrinus willetensis sp. nov. 

Page 146 

2 Lateral view of the calyx 
Lower Chemung beds, Willet 

Melocrinus willetensis var. perstriatus nov. 

Page 147 

3 Lateral view of a crushed calyx showing the bases of the arms. Collec- 

tion of University of Chicago, Walker Museum, number 14240 
Lower Chemung beds, Willet 

4 Fragment of posterior side, showing anal tube and bases of two arms 
Lower Chemung beds, Willet 

5 Fragment of a radius showing the ornamentation 
Lower Chemung beds, Willet 

Subgenus TRICHOTOCRINUS Olsson 
Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) harrisi Olsson 

Page 148 

6 Lateral view of the dorsal cup. After Olsson, 191 2, plate 6, figure 1; 

original not located 
Portage (Ithaca) beds, McGraw or University quarry, Ithaca 

Melocrinus (Trichotocrinus) lutheri sp. nov. 

Page 149 

7 Lateral view of the calyx of an adult specimen 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

8 Lateral view of calyx and column of a younger specimen 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

9 Basolateral view of a very young specimen showing the posterior side. 

The main arms are unbranched so far as preserved 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

518 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16 N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 16 




jmiiw 



io Dorsal side of an arm trunk showing irregular trichotomous branching, 
the spinose character and the uniserial arms 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 
II, 12 Portions of main arms showing the usual regular trichotomous 
branching, the dorsal spines and the uniserial arms 
Portage (West Hill flags), Italy hollow, near Naples 

Originals, except as otherwise indicated, in the State Museum 
.Figures 1-5, 8-10, were drawn from gutta-percha and plasticine 
squeezes 

519 



PLATE 17 
521 



Genus DOLATOCRINUS Lyon (W. & Sp.) 
Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 

Page 158 

1 Basal view of an adult showing the beautiful ornamentation of numerous 

carinae. Basal area flattened; basals prominent and project in a 
well-defined rim 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Leicester 

2 Basal view of a smaller specimen, one of the types, number ^l_4 — ? 

2 
in which the ornamentation is particularly well shown. Basal ring 
less prominent 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Cashong creek, near Bellona 

3 Basal view of a specimen in which the carinae are noticeably regular 

and uninterrupted. Radial keels prominent and strongly nodose at 
the centers of the plates; basal ring likewise well developed 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

4 View of the tegmen of another specimen showing the heavy nodose 

plates. Drawn from a wax impression taken from the mold 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

5 Proximal portion of an anal tube 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

6 Basal view of a very young specimen showing the deeply excavated 

basal region and the few heavy ridges and carinae 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, west shore of Canandaigua lake 

7 Basal view of a somewhat older form which still shows the deeply 

excavated basal region 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

8 Basal view of a specimen only a little older than the one shown in 

figure 7. Deeply excavated basal region well shown. The develop- 
ment up to this point has been in the strengthening of carinae 
already formed, the accentuation of the nodes on the plates of the 
radial series and the primary interbrachials. Somewhat irregular 
ridges have been added 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, west shore of Canandaigua lake 

9 Basal view of a specimen considerably older, in which the resemblance 

to the adult is very strong. Basal pit marked, but very shallow. 
Carinae much less prominent, and with the widening of the interradii 
have greatly increased in number. Radial keels strong; the nodes 
here and at the centers of the primary interbrachials comparatively 
less conspicuous. The base has been slightly crushed in, making the 
basal pit appear deeper than it really is 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

522 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



14 



Plate 17 








12 




10 








13 



11 






G. S, Barkentin del 



10 Lateral view of Hall's type of D. liratus var. multilira, 

number -L-L. This is a very mature form of liratus. The 

radial keels have become an insignificant part of the ornamentation, 
and the ornamentation in the interradii has become highly complex. 
Carinae very numerous and fine, giving the delicate multilira 
type of ornamentation 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Menteth's point, Canandaigua lake 

11 Basal view of a specimen showing the breaking up of the carinae seen 

in older forms 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

12 Basal view of a fragmentary specimen in which the breaking up of the 

carinae has progressed still farther. Basal ring thickened and 
prominent 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

13 Basal view of a portion of a very large, old specimen showing a complete 

breaking up of the carinae, which are now represented by scattered 
tubercles with more or less linear arrangement. Even the projecting 
basal rim is marked by a ring of tubercles 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Bellona 

Dolatocrinus liratus var. parvulus nov. 

Page 164 

14 Basal view showing the complexity and delicacy of the ornamentation 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

All the originals in the State Museum 

523 



PLATE 1 8 

525 



Genus DOLATOCRINUS Lyon (W. & Sp.) 
Dolatocrinus liratus (Hall) 

Page 158 

1 Basal view of an abnormal form with four rays. Two primary inter- 

brachials together with an extension of the basals in that area (at 
the right in the figure) occupy the space usually filled by two 
interradii and a radial series 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Canandaigua lake 

2 Lateral view of the same specimen showing the two interbrachials. 

The one at the left has a carina which sends a branch to the first 
secundibrach of the adjoining radial series 

3 Lateral view of the same specimen showing a ray with one primibrach, 

the primaxil. The interradius with two primary interbrachials is 
at the right. 

Dolatocrinus glyptus (Hall) 

Page 155 

4 Basal view of a young form. Here the ornamentation is somewhat 

of the type seen in liratus. Radial ridge represented by elongate 
nodes 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, York 

5 Basal view of an adult specimen. Radial ridge practically continuous. 

Ornamentation tends to be made up of rather irregularly arranged 
elongate nodes and granules 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, York 

6 Lateral view of an old specimen showing the breaking up of the elongate 

nodes. Type. Collection of American Museum Natural History, 

number ^ ^ . 
i 

Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Pavilion 

7 Basal view of an old specimen showing this process continued still 

farther. Basals very short and represented by a thickened ring 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, Hopewell 

Dolatocrinus glyptus var. intermedius (Hall) 

Page 157 

8 Lateral view of Hall's type, number - ^ 
Hamilton (Moscow) shale, York * 

Dolatocrinus speciosus (Hall) 

Page 168 

9 Basal view of the type specimen, number ^ ^ 
Onondaga limestone, Schoharie 

526 



DEVONIAN CRINOIDS 



Memoir 16. N. Y. State Museum. 



Plate 18 



12 




10 














''v.\ 





G. S. Barkentin del. 



io Lateral view of the same specimen